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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Luis Fernando Cobar ◽  
Alireza Kashef ◽  
Krishnashish Bose ◽  
Ayumu Tashiro

AbstractElectrical and optical monitoring of neural activity is major approaches for studying brain functions. Each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, such as the ability to determine cell types and temporal resolution. Although opto-electrical bimodal recording is beneficial by enabling us to exploit the strength of both approaches, it has not been widely used. In this study, we devised three methods of bimodal recording from a deep brain structure in awake head-fixed mice by chronically implanting a gradient-index (GRIN) lens and electrodes. First, we attached four stainless steel electrodes to the side of a GRIN lens and implanted them in a mouse expressing GCaMP6f in astrocytes. We simultaneously recorded local field potential (LFP) and GCaMP6f signal in astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 area. Second, implanting a silicon probe electrode mounted on a custom-made microdrive within the focal volume of a GRIN lens, we performed bimodal recording in the CA1 area. We monitored LFP and fluorescent changes of GCaMP6s-expressing neurons in the CA1. Third, we designed a 3D-printed scaffold to serve as a microdrive for a silicon probe and a holder for a GRIN lens. This scaffold simplifies the implantation process and makes it easier to place the lens and probe accurately. Using this method, we recorded single unit activity and LFP electrically and GCaMP6f signals of single neurons optically. Thus, we show that these opto-electrical bimodal recording methods using a GRIN lens and electrodes are viable approaches in awake head-fixed mice.

2022 ◽  
pp. 12-20
Dung Trung Tran ◽  
Thanh Duc Tran ◽  
Son Ba Nguyen ◽  
Sang Quang Tran Nguyen ◽  
Quang Minh Dang ◽  

Total humeral replacement is a complex surgery that requires many challenges to overcome such as the weight of the implant material and the shoulder function due to extensive resection of the rotator cuff. Improvements in implants material that is lighter than usual can lead to higher surgery success rates. We present a patient who was diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the right humerus. The patient received 2 cycles of MAP chemotherapy (included: doxorubicin, cisplatin, and methotrexate) before surgery. He underwent radical resection of osteosarcoma and total humerus replacement with a modified total humeral material. The purpose of this improvement was to reduce the implant’s weight and to improve postoperative recovery. Six months after the surgery, the weight-bearing ability of the patient’s shoulder within a wide range of movement has restored; the shoulder, elbow, and hand can move in a controlled way. Despite the short postoperative follow-up time, the improvement in the modified technique has brought many positive results. Total humerus replacement, which combines the reverse shoulder prosthesis, elbow prosthesis, and polyetheretherketone, is an appropriate solution for patients with osteosarcoma of the humerus instead of custom-made humerus megaprosthesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 666
Mattia Dimitri ◽  
Claudia Duranti ◽  
Sara Aquino ◽  
Lucrezia Mazzantini ◽  
Jessica Iorio ◽  

Current developments in medical technology have focused on therapeutic treatments that selectively and effectively address specific pathological areas, minimizing side effects on healthy tissues. In this regard, many procedures have been developed to provide non-invasive therapy, for example therapeutic ultrasound (US). In the medical field, in particular in cancer research, it has been observed how ultrasounds can cause cell death and inhibit cell proliferation of cancer cells, while preserving healthy ones with almost negligible side effects. Various studies have shown that low intensity pulse ultrasound (LIPUS) and low intensity continuous ultrasound (LICUS) regulate the proliferation, cell differentiation and cavitation phenomena. Nowadays, there are poorly known aspects of low intensity US treatment, in terms of biophysical and biomechanical effects on target cells. The aim of this study is to set up an innovative apparatus for US treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, monitoring parameters such as acoustic intensity, acoustic pressure, stimulation frequency and treatment protocol. To this purpose, we have developed a custom-made set up for the US stimulation at 1.2 and 3 MHz of tridimensional (3D) cultures of PDAC cells (PANC-1, Mia Paca-2 and BxPc3 cells). Images of the 3D cultures were acquired, and the Calcein/PI assay was applied to detect US-induced cell death. Overall, the setup we have presented paves the way to an innovative protocol for tumor treatment. The system can be used either alone or in combination with small molecules or recombinant antibodies in order to propose a novel combined therapeutic approach.

Data ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 9
Emilia Scalona ◽  
Doriana De Marco ◽  
Maria Chiara Bazzini ◽  
Arturo Nuara ◽  
Adolfo Zilli ◽  

There is a growing interest in action observation treatment (AOT), i.e., a rehabilitative procedure combining action observation, motor imagery, and action execution to promote the recovery, maintenance, and acquisition of motor abilities. AOT studies employed basic upper limb gestures as stimuli, but—in principle—the AOT approach can be effectively extended to more complex actions like occupational gestures. Here, we present a repertoire of virtual-reality (VR) stimuli depicting occupational therapy exercises intended for AOT, potentially suitable for occupational safety and injury prevention. We animated a humanoid avatar by fitting the kinematics recorded by a healthy subject performing the exercises. All the stimuli are available via a custom-made graphical user interface, which allows the user to adjust several visualization parameters like the viewpoint, the number of repetitions, and the observed movement’s speed. Beyond providing clinicians with a set of VR stimuli promoting via AOT the recovery of goal-oriented, occupational gestures, such a repertoire could extend the use of AOT to the field of occupational safety and injury prevention.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 507
Behnam S. Rikan ◽  
David Kim ◽  
Kyung-Duk Choi ◽  
Arash Hejazi ◽  
Joon-Mo Yoo ◽  

This paper presents a fast-switching Transmit/Receive (T/R) Single-Pole-Double-Throw (SPDT) Radio Frequency (RF) switch. Thorough analyses have been conducted to choose the optimum number of stacks, transistor sizes, gate and body voltages, to satisfy the required specifications. This switch applies six stacks of series and shunt transistors as big as 3.9 mm/160 nm and 0.75 mm/160 nm, respectively. A negative charge pump and a voltage booster generate the negative and boosted control voltages to improve the harmonics and to keep Inter-Modulation Distortion (IMD) performance of the switch over 100 dBc. A Low Drop-Out (LDO) regulator limits the boosted voltage in Absolute Maximum Rating (AMR) conditions and improves the switch performance for Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. To reduce the size, a dense custom-made capacitor consisting of different types of capacitors has been presented where they have been placed over each other in layout considering the Design Rule Checks (DRC) and applied in negative charge pump, voltage booster and LDO. This switch has been fabricated and tested in a 90 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) process. The second and third IMD for all specified blockers remain over 100 dBc and the switching time as fast as 150 ns has been achieved. The Insertion Loss (IL) and isolation at 2.7 GHz are −0.17 dB and −33 dB, respectively. This design consumes 145 uA from supply voltage range of 1.65 V to 1.95 V and occupies 440 × 472 µm2 of die area.

2022 ◽  
pp. 19-26

Purpose: To conduct experimental studies of embedded hygienic installed insoles with tableted plant inserts in footwearMethodology. The properties of embedded hygienic insoles have been studied for vapor permeability and moisture content according to the methods of GOST 22900-78. The solid inserts were ground and extracted with distilled water for a week to obtain aqueous extracts for microbiological studies. Determination of antimicrobial activity was performed using a culture of S.aureus ATCC 25923 in microtiter 96-well plates in liquid nutrient medium NB spectrophotometrically by optical density (Hipo MPP-96, Biosan, λ = 620 nm, control medium – by the location of a non-sterile sample with (30 × 30 mm) on the surface of sterile NA medium.Findings. To improve the hygienic characteristics of the inner space of the shoe, the research presents embedded hygienic products with solid inserts in the form of tablets from the plant raw materials of medicinal thyme and sage. The technological characteristics of tableted inserts from vegetable raw materials are given. The results of vapor permeability and moisture content in the studied samples are obtained, which correspond to the normative values according to GOST 940-81 and are safe for human feet.Originality. Determination of indicators of vapor permeability and moisture content of embedded hygienic installed insoles with tableted plant inserts and establishing their compliance with regulatory requirements. Determined the regularities of inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of thyme on the growth of biomass of gram-negative bacteria in planktonic culture.Practical value. Another advantage of custom-made shoes is the ability to consider the customer's preferences regarding shoe care products during the operation. At the same time, an important task is to ensure the hygiene of the inner space of the shoe through the use of insoles containing elements obtained from medicinal plant materials.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Amanda P. Carvalho ◽  
Leonardo M. Reis ◽  
Ravel P. R. P. Pinheiro ◽  
Pedro Henrique R. Pereira ◽  
Terence G. Langdon ◽  

There is a great interest in improving mechanical testing of small samples produced in the laboratory. Plane strain compression is an effective test in which the workpiece is a thin sheet. This provides great potential for testing samples produced by high-pressure torsion. Thus, a custom tool was designed with the aim to test 10 mm diameter discs processed by this technique. Finite element analysis is used to evaluate the deformation zone, stress and strain distribution, and the accuracy in the estimation of stress–strain curves. Pure magnesium and a magnesium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion are tested using this custom-made tool. The trends observed in strength and ductility agree with trends reported in the literature for these materials.

Pascal D Kroh ◽  
Beate C Braun ◽  
Fan Lui ◽  
Peter Müller ◽  
Karin Müller

Abstract As a major spermadhesin first found in the seminal plasma of boars, AWN is described to fulfil a variety of reproduction related tasks. Although being the best investigated boar spermadhesin, information about its interaction with membranes is inconsistent. In this regard, previous reports locate AWN either inside or on the surface of sperm cells and at different regions, depending on the method and antibody used. Here, we localize native AWN in/on epididymal, ejaculated, capacitated and acrosome-reacted boar sperm using epifluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as an analysis of potential lipid binding partners of native and recombinant AWN. By applying a custom-made anti-AWN antibody, localization of AWN in the equatorial segment of ejaculated, capacitated and acrosome-reacted boar sperm was discovered. Electron microscopy showed that AWN is localized both on the sperm surface and on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, and in close vicinity to the nuclear and both acrosomal membranes of sperm. Analysis of epididymal sperm indicated migration of AWN from the retral postacrosomal part to the equatorial segment during the epididymal passage. In contrast to hypotheses claiming a specific association of AWN to phosphatidylethanolamine and in line with our previous study describing an interaction with phosphatidic acid, the current results show a rather electrostatically-driven binding mechanism of AWN to negative lipids. In conclusion, this work provides new insights into the arrangement of AWN in the equatorial segment that suggest a possible role in sperm-oocyte fusion.

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