skin lesions
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ihsanullah ◽  
M. J. Yousuf ◽  
N. Ahmad ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
S. Majeed ◽  
...  

Abstract. The study was undertaken from September 2018 to April 2019 to determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human beings living in six districts of Karachi. Suspected persons were screened for the disease and positive cases were identified on the basis of skin lesions and blood samples. Samples were observed by mounting their smear. A total of 207 subjects of different ages and sex groups were investigated, however, only 192 (92%) of the suspected cases were found to have the disease 64% of cases were male which were significantly high (p<0.05), than female 36%. The lesion was more frequently detected among the youth ages of 21-30 years (31%) as compared to other groups. In both sexes, legs were found to be more infected (25% male + 20% female) followed by arms (20% male + 0% female) and face (15% male +11% female). The mixed body parts had shown the lowest infections such as (4% in males + 5%) in females. In conclusion, the highest and lowest leishmaniasis infections were observed in District West (23% male + 9% female) followed by District East (15% male + 7% female), District Malir (11% male+ 4% female), District Central (7% male + 5% female), District Korangi (4% male + 7% female) and District South (4% male + 4% female) respectively.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 216
Author(s):  
Carmen Sorina Martin ◽  
Ovidiu Dumitru Parfeni ◽  
Liliana Gabriela Popa ◽  
Mara Madalina Mihai ◽  
Dana Terzea ◽  
...  

Glucagonomas are neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that arise from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. They are typically slow-growing tumors associated with abnormal glucagon secretion, resulting in one or more non-specific clinical features, such as necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), diabetes, diarrhea, deep vein thrombosis, weight loss, and depression. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, presenting with a pruritic and painful disseminated cutaneous eruption of erythematous plaques, with scales and peripheral pustules, misdiagnosed as disseminated pustular psoriasis and treated for 2 years with oral retinoid and glucocorticoids. During this period, the patient complained of weight loss of 32 kg and diarrhea and developed deep vein thrombosis. These symptoms, together with an inadequate response to therapy of the skin lesions, led to the reassessment of the initial diagnosis. Laboratory tests confirmed elevated plasma glucagon levels (>1000 pg/mL) and computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a 35/44 mm tumor in the pancreatic tail. Due to considerable disease complications and the COVID-19 pandemic, the surgical removal of the tumor was delayed for nearly 2 years. During this time, somatostatin analogue therapy efficiently controlled the glucagonoma syndrome and likely prevented tumor progression. As in other functional pancreatic NETs, the early clinical recognition of hormonal hypersecretion syndrome and the multidisciplinary approach are the keys for best patient management.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 203
Author(s):  
Grazia Pastorelli ◽  
Valentina Serra ◽  
Lauretta Turin ◽  
Veronica Redaelli ◽  
Fabio Luzi ◽  
...  

Tail docking has been used in the pig industry to decrease the occurrence of tail biting behavior. This abnormal behavior has a multifactorial origin since it is a response to simultaneous environmental, nutritional and management changes. Given the calming properties of Passiflora incarnata, we hypothesized that dietary supplementation with the extract in weaned pigs could result in a modification of behavior and physiologic indicators linked to stress. Weaned piglets (n = 120, mean body weight 9.07 ± 2.30 kg) were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: control diet (CON) and CON supplemented with 1 kg/t of P. incarnata (PAS). The trial was 28 days long. The presence of skin lesions was assessed at d-1, d-10, d-19, and d-28, and saliva samples were collected for IgA and cortisol determinations at the same sampling times. Results showed the PAS group was characterized by equal growth performance as the CON group, fewer ear lesions (p < 0.05), less aggressive behavior (p < 0.001), higher enrichment exploration (p < 0.001) and lower cortisol levels (p < 0.01). Time effect was observed for tail lesions (p < 0.001) and behavioral observations (p < 0.001). Additional research is required to determine the effect of P. incarnata extract using a larger number of animals and longer period of supplementation when risks associated with tail biting are uncontrolled.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 204
Author(s):  
Gergely Csány ◽  
László Hunor Gergely ◽  
Norbert Kiss ◽  
Klára Szalai ◽  
Kende Lőrincz ◽  
...  

A compact handheld skin ultrasound imaging device has been developed that uses co-registered optical and ultrasound imaging to provide diagnostic information about the full skin depth. The aim of the current work is to present the preliminary clinical results of this device. Using additional photographic, dermoscopic and ultrasonic images as reference, the images from the device were assessed in terms of the detectability of the main skin layer boundaries and characteristic image features. Combined optical-ultrasonic recordings of various types of skin lesions (melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis, dermatofibroma, naevus, dermatitis and psoriasis) were taken with the device (N = 53) and compared with images captured with a reference portable skin ultrasound imager. The investigator and two additional independent experts performed the evaluation. The detectability of skin structures was over 90% for the epidermis, the dermis and the lesions. The morphological and echogenicity information observed for the different skin lesions were found consistent with those of the reference ultrasound device and relevant ultrasound images in the literature. The presented device was able to obtain simultaneous in-vivo optical and ultrasound images of various skin lesions. This has the potential for further investigations, including the preoperative planning of skin cancer treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 375
Author(s):  
Magdalena Żychowska ◽  
Adam Reich

Background: (Video)dermoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that has a well-established role in dermatooncology. In recent years, this method has also been increasingly used in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses. So far, little is known about the (video)dermoscopic features of dermatomyositis (DM). Methods: Consecutive patients with DM were included in the study and videodermoscopic assessments of the nailfolds, scalp, and active skin lesions were performed. Results: Fifteen patients with DM (10 women and 5 men) were included. Capillaroscopy showed elongated capillaries (90.9%), avascular areas (81.8%), disorganized vessel architecture (81.8%), tortuous capillaries (72.7%), dilated capillaries (72.7%), and hemorrhages (72.7%). The trichoscopic findings included linear branched vessels (80.0%), linear vessels (60.0%), linear curved vessels (53.3%), perifollicular pigmentation (40.0%), perifollicular erythema (33.3%), scaling (20.0%), white (20.0%) or yellow (20%) interfollicular scales, and white (20.0%) or pinkish (13.3%) structureless areas. Polymorphic vessels of an unspecific distribution and white or pink structureless areas were frequently observed under dermoscopy in cutaneous manifestations of DM, including Gottron’s papules and Gottron’s sign. Conclusions: Dermoscopy of the nailfolds (capillaroscopy), scalp (tricoscopy), and active cutaneous lesions may be of value in the preliminary diagnosis of DM.


Cosmetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Author(s):  
Kamal Alhallak ◽  
Adel Abdulhafid ◽  
Salem Tomi ◽  
Dima Omran

Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin diseases and cosmetic issues are treated has altered dramatically as a result of laser technology. This is the first article to our knowledge that describes the treatment of pigmentation and scarring produced by Hypodermoclysis cutaneous damage by using laser treatment. It was vital to select the appropriate endpoint, technology, and configuration parameters. The lesion was completely resolved after five months of treatment with four laser sessions. The first session used a fractional Er-Yag laser to perform cold ablation. The remaining sessions used 1064 and 585 nm Nd-Yag Q-switch lasers to operate in the nanosecond region. To minimize the danger of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), the treated region was prepped between laser treatments with 4% hydroquinone (HQ) cream. Our protocol may reduce scars and pigmentation while minimizing adverse effects and downtime.


2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qingwen Li ◽  
Jiao Zhang ◽  
Shougang Liu ◽  
Fangfei Zhang ◽  
Jiayi Zhuang ◽  
...  

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Although miRNAs are reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the contribution of individual microRNAs toward psoriasis remains unclear. The miR-17-92 cluster regulates cell growth and immune functions that are associated with psoriasis. miR-17-3p is a member of miR-17-92 cluster; however, its role in dermatological diseases remains unclear. Our study aims at investigating the effects of miR-17-3p and its potential target gene on keratinocytes proliferation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine and their involvement in psoriasis. Initially, we found that miR-17-3p was upregulated in psoriatic skin lesions, and bioinformatic analyses suggested that CTR9 is likely to be a target gene of miR-17-3p. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CTR9 expression was downregulated in psoriatic lesions. Using dual-luciferase reporter assays, we identified CTR9 as a direct target of miR-17-3p. Further functional experiments demonstrated that miR-17-3p promoted the proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of keratinocytes, whereas CTR9 exerted the opposite effects. Gain-of-function studies confirmed that CTR9 suppression partially accounted for the effects of miR-17-3p in keratinocytes. Furthermore, Western blot revealed that miR-17-3p activates the downstream STAT3 signaling pathway while CTR9 inactivates the STAT3 signaling pathway. Together, these findings indicate that miR-17-3p regulates keratinocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion partially by targeting the CTR9, which inactivates the downstream STAT3 protein, implying that miR-17-3p might be a novel therapeutic target for psoriasis.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Himal Shrestha ◽  
Karen McCulloch ◽  
Shannon M Hedtke ◽  
Warwick N Grant

Background Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical and filarial disease transmitted by the bites of blackflies, causing blindness and severe skin lesions. The change in focus for onchocerciasis management from control to elimination requires thorough mapping of pre-control endemicity to identify areas requiring interventions and to monitor progress. Onchocerca volvulus infection prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is spatially continuous and heterogeneous, and highly endemic areas may contribute to transmission in areas of low endemicity or vice-versa. Ethiopia is one such onchocerciasis-endemic country with heterogeneous O. volvulus infection prevalence, and many districts are still unmapped despite their potential for O. volvulus infection transmission. Methodology/Principle findings A Bayesian geostatistical model was fitted for retrospective pre-intervention nodule prevalence data collected from 916 unique sites and 35,077 people across Ethiopia. We used multiple environmental, socio-demographic, and climate variables to estimate the pre-intervention prevalence of O. volvulus infection across Ethiopia and to explore their relationship with prevalence. Prevalence was high in southern and northwestern Ethiopia and low in Ethiopia's central and eastern parts. Distance to the nearest river (-0.015, 95% BCI: -0.025 - -0.005), precipitation seasonality (-0.017, 95% BCI: -0.032 - -0.001), and flow accumulation (-0.042, 95% BCI: -0.07 - -0.019) were negatively associated with O. volvulus infection prevalence, while soil moisture (0.0216, 95% BCI: 0.014 - 0.03) was positively associated. Conclusions/Significance Infection distribution was correlated with habitat suitability for vector breeding and associated biting behavior. The modeled pre-intervention prevalence can be used as a guide for determining priority for intervention in regions of Ethiopia that are currently unmapped, most of which have comparatively low infection prevalence.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Fei Li ◽  
Dan Han ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Wentao Zhang ◽  
Yan Zhao ◽  
...  

Itch is one of the major clinical manifestations of psoriasis, which is closely related with neurogenic inflammation and difficult to control. Colquhounia Root (CR) is a Chinese herb exhibiting broad bioactivities on anti-inflammation. This study was designed to explore the antipsoriatic and anti-itch potential of CR and its underlying mechanisms. Mice in a model of imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis were treated topically with CR for 7 days, and the severity of skin lesions and itch was significantly ameliorated. CR reduced the inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as mast cells in skins. Particularly, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine including Il17a, Il22, and Ccl20 and itch-related molecules such as SP, CGRP, and NGF in lesions were decreased in diseased mice upon application with CR. The normal human epidermal keratinocytes were stimulated with the M5 cytokine cocktail, the mixture of IL-17A, IL-22, Oncostatin M, IL-1α, and TNF-α, and cell viability and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors and itch-related molecules were measured after being treated with CR. We found that CR inhibited both cell hyperproliferation and overexpression of inflammatory cytokines and itch-related molecules in vitro. Altogether, we conclude that CR relieves psoriatic lesions and itch via controlling immunological and neurogenic inflammation.


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