classic hodgkin lymphoma
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chunting Zhu ◽  
Yi Zhao ◽  
Fang Yu ◽  
Weijia Huang ◽  
Wenjun Wu ◽  

BackgroundTumor flare reaction (TFR) is a clinical syndrome, which is mainly associated with painful and swollen lymph nodes or splenomegaly, slight fever, bone pain, and skin rash during treatment with immune-related drugs, causing difficulty in distinguishing TFR from disease progression. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor are two ideal drugs used for the treatment of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, but few studies have reported their adverse effects in association with TFR. The efficacy and safety of monotherapy or combination therapy with these drugs needs to be further evaluated. It is essential to determine whether treated patients can develop TFR, thus enabling more accurate diagnosis and treatment.Case presentationA 26-year-old female patient, diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma, had received 2 + 3 cycles of ABVD chemotherapy (a combination of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and 4 cycles of PD-1 inhibitor (tislelizumab) therapy but exhibited poor efficacy. Subsequently, she was given combination therapy of BV (100 mg) + tislelizumab (200 mg). However, a slight fever, painful and swollen axillary lymph nodes, multiple skin rashes with pruritus, joint pain, and fatigue with poor appetite appeared during the treatment. Ultrasound (US) scans revealed that multiple lymph nodes were significantly enlarged. After treatment with low-dose dexamethasone and cetirizine, the symptoms were alleviated. A biopsy of the left axillary lymph node revealed that lymphoid tissue exhibited proliferative changes, without tumor cell infiltration. These findings were consistent with the clinical and pathological manifestations of TFR.ConclusionCombination therapy with BV and PD-1 inhibitor was effective in the treatment of relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma. The results suggest that the combination therapy may cause TFR, and biopsy and also continuous imaging observation are important to determine the disease stage. This approach allows clinicians to decide whether to continue the current treatment plan, and alerts them to the occurrence of excessive activation of the immune system.

2022 ◽  
Benjamin Stewart ◽  
Martin Fergie ◽  
Matthew Young ◽  
Claire Jones ◽  
Ashwin Sachdeva ◽  

Abstract Although a lymph node infiltrated by classic Hodgkin lymphoma is mostly composed of non-neoplastic immune cells, the malignant Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells (HRSC) successfully suppress an anti-tumor immune response, to create a cancer-permissive microenvironment. Accordingly, unleashing the dormant immune cells, for example by checkpoint inhibition, has been a central focus of recent therapeutic advances for this disease. Here, we profiled the global immune cell composition of normal and diseased lymph nodes by single-cell RNA sequencing, as a basis for interrogating the immediate vicinity of HRSC, first regionally and then at cellular resolution. Our analyses revealed specific immune cells and functional states associated with HRSC. Most prominently, we discovered a non-random spatial association of immunoregulatory mononuclear phagocytes positioned around HRSC, which express the immune checkpoints PD-L1, TIM-3, and the tryptophan-catabolizing protein IDO1. These findings provide a basis for rational targeting and activation of the anti-tumor immune response in classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 247
Bent Honoré ◽  
Maja Dam Andersen ◽  
Diani Wilken ◽  
Peter Kamper ◽  
Francesco d’Amore ◽  

In classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), the tumour microenvironment (TME) is of major pathological relevance. The paucity of neoplastic cells makes it important to study the entire TME when searching for prognostic biomarkers. Cure rates in cHL have improved markedly over the last several decades, but patients with primary refractory disease still show inferior survival. We performed a proteomic comparison of pretreatment tumour tissue from ABVD treatment-refractory versus ABVD treatment-sensitive cHL patients, in order to identify biological differences correlating with treatment outcome. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissues from 36 patients with cHL, 15 with treatment-refractory disease, and 21 with treatment-sensitive disease, were processed for proteomic investigation. Label-free quantification nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was performed on the tissues. A total of 3920 proteins were detected and quantified between the refractory and sensitive groups. This comparison revealed several subtle but significant differences in protein expression which could identify subcluster characteristics of the refractory group. Bioinformatic analysis of the biological differences indicated that a number of pathologically activated signal transduction pathways are disturbed in ABVD treatment-refractory cHL.

2021 ◽  
Diede A. G. van Bladel ◽  
Michiel van den Brand ◽  
Jos Rijntjes ◽  
Samhita Pamidimarri Naga ◽  
Demi L. C. M. Haacke ◽  

AbstractClonality analysis in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is of added value for correctly diagnosing patients with atypical presentation or histology reminiscent of T cell lymphoma, and for establishing the clonal relationship in patients with recurrent disease. However, such analysis has been hampered by the sparsity of malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in a background of reactive immune cells. Recently, the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group developed a novel next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay and bioinformatics platform (ARResT/Interrogate) to detect immunoglobulin (IG) gene rearrangements for clonality testing in B-cell lymphoproliferations. Here, we demonstrate the improved performance of IG-NGS compared to conventional BIOMED-2/EuroClonality analysis to detect clonal gene rearrangements in 16 well-characterized primary cHL cases within the IG heavy chain (IGH) and kappa light chain (IGK) loci. This was most obvious in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, where three times more clonal cases were detected with IG-NGS (9 cases) compared to BIOMED-2 (3 cases). In total, almost four times more clonal rearrangements were detected in FFPE with IG-NGS (N = 23) as compared to BIOMED-2/EuroClonality (N = 6) as judged on identical IGH and IGK targets. The same clonal rearrangements were also identified in paired fresh frozen cHL samples. To validate the neoplastic origin of the detected clonotypes, IG-NGS clonality analysis was performed on isolated HRS cells, demonstrating identical clonotypes as detected in cHL whole-tissue specimens. Interestingly, IG-NGS and HRS single-cell analysis after DEPArray™ digital sorting revealed rearrangement patterns and copy number variation profiles indicating clonal diversity and intratumoral heterogeneity in cHL. Our data demonstrate improved performance of NGS-based detection of IG gene rearrangements in cHL whole-tissue specimens, providing a sensitive molecular diagnostic assay for clonality assessment in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 5833
Geok Wee Tan ◽  
Peijia Jiang ◽  
Ilja M. Nolte ◽  
Kushi Kushekhar ◽  
Rianne N. Veenstra ◽  

Several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are strongly associated with susceptibility to classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), also in subgroups stratified for presence of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). We tested the hypothesis that the pressure on cHL tumour cells to lose HLA expression is associated with HLA susceptibility alleles. A meta-analysis was carried out to identify consistent protective and risk HLA alleles in a combined cohort of 839 cHL patients from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Tumour cell HLA expression was studied in 338 cHL cases from these two cohorts and correlated to the presence of specific susceptibility HLA alleles. Carriers of the HLA-DRB1*07 protective allele frequently lost HLA class II expression in cHL overall. Patients carrying the HLA-DRB1*15/16 (DR2) risk allele retained HLA class II expression in EBV− cHL and patients with the HLA-B*37 risk allele retained HLA class I expression more frequently than non-carriers in EBV+ cHL. The other susceptibility alleles showed no significant differences in expression. Thus, HLA expression by tumour cells is associated with a subset of the protective and risk alleles. This strongly suggests that HLA associations in cHL are related to peptide binding capacities of specific HLA alleles.

Han-Na Kim ◽  
Min Ji Jeon ◽  
Eun Sang Yu ◽  
Dae Sik Kim ◽  
Chul-Won Choi ◽  

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