human leukocyte
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 992-999
Mie Jin Lim ◽  
Eul Noh ◽  
Ro-Woon Lee ◽  
Kyong-Hee Jung ◽  
Won Park

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chongming Jiang ◽  
Evelien Schaafsma ◽  
Wei Hong ◽  
Yanding Zhao ◽  
Ken Zhu ◽  

BackgroundNeoantigens are presented on the cancer cell surface by peptide-restricted human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins and can subsequently activate cognate T cells. It has been hypothesized that the observed somatic mutations in tumors are shaped by immunosurveillance.MethodsWe investigated all somatic mutations identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Skin Cutaneous Melanoma (SKCM) samples. By applying a computational algorithm, we calculated the binding affinity of the resulting neo-peptides and their corresponding wild-type peptides with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I complex. We then examined the relationship between binding affinity alterations and mutation frequency.ResultsOur results show that neoantigens derived from recurrent mutations tend to have lower binding affinities with the MHC Class I complex compared to peptides from non-recurrent mutations. Tumor samples harboring recurrent SKCM mutations exhibited lower immune infiltration levels, indicating a relatively colder immune microenvironment.ConclusionsThese results suggested that the occurrences of somatic mutations in melanoma have been shaped by immunosurveillance. Mutations that lead to neoantigens with high MHC class I binding affinity are more likely to be eliminated and thus are less likely to be present in tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Karolina Piekarska ◽  
Paweł Radwan ◽  
Agnieszka Tarnowska ◽  
Andrzej Wiśniewski ◽  
Rafał Krasiński ◽  

Successful reproduction depends on many factors. Male factors contribute to infertility in approximately 50% of couples who fail to conceive. Seminal plasma consists of secretions from different accessory glands containing a mixture of various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which together can induce a local immune response that might impact on a male’s as well as a female’s fertility. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G expression has been suggested as an immunomodulatory molecule that influences pregnancy outcome. The HLA-G gene encodes either membrane-bound or/and soluble proteins. The aim of this study was the evaluation of HLA-G polymorphisms and their impact on soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) production. We tested the HLA-G polymorphism in three positions: rs1632947: c.-964G>A; rs1233334: c.-725G>C/T in the promoter region; rs371194629: c.∗65_∗66insATTTGTTCATGCCT in the 3′ untranslated region. We tested two cohorts of men: 663 who participated in in vitro fertilization (test material was blood or sperm), and 320 fertile controls who possessed children born after natural conception (test material was blood). Since 50% of men visiting assisted reproductive clinics have abnormal semen parameters, we wondered if men with normal sperm parameters differ from those with abnormal parameters in terms of HLA-G polymorphism and secretion of sHLA-G into semen. We found that certain rs1632947-rs1233334-rs371194629 HLA-G haplotypes and diplotypes were associated with male infertility, while others were protective. Normozoospermic men with the A-C-del haplotype and A-C-del/A-C-del diplotype secreted the most sHLA-G into semen (574.1 IU/mL and 1047.0 IU/mL, respectively), while those with the G-C-ins haplotype and G-C-ins/G-C-ins diplotype – the least (80.8 IU/mL and 75.7 IU/mL, respectively). Men with the remaining haplotypes/diplotypes secreted sHLA-G at an intermediate level. However, only in one haplotype, namely G-C-ins, did we observe strong significant differences in the concentration of sHLA-G in the semen of men with teratozoospermia compared to men with normal sperm parameters (p = 0.009). In conclusion, fertile men differ in the profile of HLA-G polymorphism from men participating in IVF. Among all HLA-G haplotypes, the most unfavorable for male fertility is the G-C-ins haplotype, which determines the secretion of the lowest concentration of the soluble HLA-G molecule. This haplotype may reduce sperm parameters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Fatma Savran Oguz ◽  
Suleyman Rustu Oguz ◽  
Yeliz Ogret ◽  
Tanju Sedat Karadeniz ◽  
Hayriye Senturk Ciftci ◽  

Abstract Objectives The antibodies interact with the “Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) antigens” at specific epitopes. “Epitopes” are present on a single HLA or shared by multiple antigens. In this study, we aim to determine the frequency of prevalent epitopes common in the Turkish population. Methods Non-related 644 healthy volunteers were recruited, and The “HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR -DQ’s” were typed using the “Next Generation Sequencing”. The provisional and confirmed epitopes were identified using the “HLA Epitope Registry databases, HLA Epitopia Maps and Immucor Epitope databases” dated 07.02.2018. Epitope frequencies were calculated by counting the shared epitopes in the total number of shared HLA Class epitopes in our sample database. Results Class I HLA’s had 298 epitopes that repeated a total of 158,117 times with frequencies ranging between 0.0006 and 2.03%, and the most frequent epitope was 170RY found on 119 different alleles. Class II HLA’s had 193 epitopes that repeated a total of 93,082 times with frequencies ranging between 0.002 and 1.36%, and the most frequent epitope was 108P found on 42 different alleles. Conclusions Our findings summarize both the provisional, and confirmed epitope frequencies in the Turkish population and may help clinicians and immunogeneticists develop a better understanding of HLA epitope mismatches.

2022 ◽  
Joshua Rushakoff ◽  
Loren Gragert ◽  
Marcelo Pando ◽  
Darren Stewart ◽  
Edmung Huang ◽  

Background: Homozygosity for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) has been associated with adverse outcomes after viral infection as well as pregnancy-induced HLA sensitization. We sought to assess the relationship between HLA locus homozygosity and the level of HLA antibody sensitization. Methods: We measured sensitization using the calculated panel reactive antibody (CPRA) value for a large cohort of 147,461 patients added to the US OPTN/UNOS kidney transplant waitlist between December 2014 and December 2019. We used multinomial logistic modeling to compare 62,510 sensitized patients to 84,955 unsensitized controls. Results: We found that the number of homozygous HLA loci was strongly associated with the level of sensitization. Within highly- or extremely-sensitized candidates, women displayed a higher relative abundance of HLA homozygosity at multiple HLA loci as compared to men, with attenuation of this effect in Black candidates. In multinomial logistic modeling, the number of homozygous HLA loci was an independent predictor of sensitization and interacted with female sex but not with other factors associated with sensitization. Conclusions: This study shows that HLA homozygosity is an innate genetic factor that contributes to HLA sensitization, and enhances the effect of pregnancy-related sensitization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Renata Fioravanti Tarabini ◽  
Mauricio Menegatti Rigo ◽  
André Faustino Fonseca ◽  
Felipe Rubin ◽  
Rafael Bellé ◽  

Although not being the first viral pandemic to affect humankind, we are now for the first time faced with a pandemic caused by a coronavirus. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, which caused more than 4.5 million deaths worldwide. Despite unprecedented efforts, with vaccines being developed in a record time, SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread worldwide with new variants arising in different countries. Such persistent spread is in part enabled by public resistance to vaccination in some countries, and limited access to vaccines in other countries. The limited vaccination coverage, the continued risk for resistant variants, and the existence of natural reservoirs for coronaviruses, highlight the importance of developing additional therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. At the beginning of the pandemic it was suggested that countries with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination programs could be associated with a reduced number and/or severity of COVID-19 cases. Preliminary studies have provided evidence for this relationship and further investigation is being conducted in ongoing clinical trials. The protection against SARS-CoV-2 induced by BCG vaccination may be mediated by cross-reactive T cell lymphocytes, which recognize peptides displayed by class I Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA-I) on the surface of infected cells. In order to identify potential targets of T cell cross-reactivity, we implemented an in silico strategy combining sequence-based and structure-based methods to screen over 13,5 million possible cross-reactive peptide pairs from BCG and SARS-CoV-2. Our study produced (i) a list of immunogenic BCG-derived peptides that may prime T cell cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, (ii) a large dataset of modeled peptide-HLA structures for the screened targets, and (iii) new computational methods for structure-based screenings that can be used by others in future studies. Our study expands the list of BCG peptides potentially involved in T cell cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides, and identifies multiple high-density “neighborhoods” of cross-reactive peptides which could be driving heterologous immunity induced by BCG vaccination, therefore providing insights for future vaccine development efforts.

Tomoko Horinouchi ◽  
Kandai Nozu ◽  
Kazumoto Iijima

Abstract Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is the most common childhood glomerular disease. Most forms of this syndrome respond to corticosteroids at standard doses and are, therefore, defined as steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Immunological mechanisms and subsequent podocyte disorders play a pivotal role in SSNS and have been studied for years; however, the precise pathogenesis remains unclear. With recent advances in genetic techniques, an exhaustive hypothesis-free approach called a genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been conducted in various populations. GWASs in pediatric SSNS peaked in the human leukocyte antigen class II region in various populations. Additionally, an association of immune-related CALHM6/FAM26F, PARM1, BTNL2, and TNFSF15 genes, as well as NPHS1, which encodes nephrin expressed in podocytes, has been identified as a locus that achieves genome-wide significance in pediatric SSNS. However, the specific mechanism of SSNS development requires elucidation. This review describes an updated view of SSNS pathogenesis from immunological and genetic aspects, including interactions with infections or allergies, production of circulating factors, and an autoantibody hypothesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 716
Olga Sierawska ◽  
Paulina Małkowska ◽  
Cansel Taskin ◽  
Rafał Hrynkiewicz ◽  
Paulina Mertowska ◽  

In the literature, burns are understood as traumatic events accompanied by increased morbidity and mortality among affected patients. Their characteristic feature is the formation of swelling and redness at the site of the burn, which indicates the development of inflammation. This reaction is not only important in the healing process of wounds but is also responsible for stimulating the patient’s innate immune system. As a result of the loss of the protective ability of the epidermis, microbes which include bacteria, fungi, and viruses have easier access to the system, which can result in infections. However, the patient is still able to overcome the infections that occur through a cascade of cytokines and growth factors stimulated by inflammation. Long-term inflammation also has negative consequences for the body, which may result in multi-organ failure or lead to fibrosis and scarring of the skin. The innate immune response to burns is not only immediate, but also severe and prolonged, and some people with burn shock may also experience immunosuppression accompanied by an increased susceptibility to fatal infections. This immunosuppression includes apoptosis-induced lymphopenia, decreased interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion, neutrophil storm, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR. This is why it is important to understand how the immune system works in people with burns and during infections of wounds by microorganisms. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular pathways of cell signaling of the immune system of people affected by burns, taking into account the role of microbial infections.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12692
Jarmo Ritari ◽  
Kati Hyvärinen ◽  
Jukka Partanen ◽  
Satu Koskela

The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster on chromosome 19 encodes cell surface glycoproteins that bind class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules as well as some other ligands. Through regulation of natural killer (NK) cell activity KIRs participate in tumour surveillance and clearing viral infections. KIR gene gene copy number variation associates with the outcome of transplantations and susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. Inferring KIR gene content from genetic variant data is therefore desirable for immunogenetic analysis, particularly in the context of growing biobank genome data collections that rely on genotyping by microarray. Here we describe a stand-alone and freely available gene content imputation for 12 KIR genes. The models were trained using 807 Finnish biobank samples genotyped for 5900 KIR-region SNPs and analysed for KIR gene content with targeted sequencing. Cross-validation results demonstrate a high mean overall accuracy of 98.5% (95% CI [97.0–99.2]%) which compares favourably with previous methods including short-read sequencing based approaches.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Dhwani Dholakia ◽  
Ankit Kalra ◽  
Bishnu Raman Misir ◽  
Uma Kanga ◽  
Mitali Mukerji

AbstractExtreme complexity in the Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) system and its nomenclature makes it difficult to interpret and integrate relevant information for HLA associations with diseases, Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) and Transplantation. PubMed search displays ~ 146,000 studies on HLA reported from diverse locations. Currently, IPD-IMGT/HLA (Robinson et al., Nucleic Acids Research 48:D948–D955, 2019) database houses data on 28,320 HLA alleles. We developed an automated pipeline with a unified graphical user interface HLA-SPREAD that provides a structured information on SNPs, Populations, REsources, ADRs and Diseases information. Information on HLA was extracted from ~ 28 million PubMed abstracts extracted using Natural Language Processing (NLP). Python scripts were used to mine and curate information on diseases, filter false positives and categorize to 24 tree hierarchical groups and named Entity Recognition (NER) algorithms followed by semantic analysis to infer HLA association(s). This resource from 109 countries and 40 ethnic groups provides interesting insights on: markers associated with allelic/haplotypic association in autoimmune, cancer, viral and skin diseases, transplantation outcome and ADRs for hypersensitivity. Summary information on clinically relevant biomarkers related to HLA disease associations with mapped susceptible/risk alleles are readily retrievable from HLASPREAD. The resource is available at URL This resource is first of its kind that can help uncover novel patterns in HLA gene-disease associations.

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