clonal diversity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Victoria Ballén ◽  
Yaiza Gabasa ◽  
Carlos Ratia ◽  
Melany Sánchez ◽  
Sara Soto

Escherichia coli is a well-characterized bacterium highly prevalent in the human intestinal tract and the cause of many important infections. The aim of this study was to characterize 376 extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains collected from four hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) between 2016 and 2017 in terms of antimicrobial resistance, siderophore production, phylogroup classification, and the presence of selected virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. In addition, the association between these characteristics and the ability to form biofilms was also analyzed. The strains studied were classified into four groups according to their biofilm formation ability: non-biofilm formers (15.7%), weak (23.1%), moderate (35.6%), and strong biofilm formers (25.6%). The strains were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (48.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (47.9%), and ampicillin (38%), showing a correlation between higher resistance to ciprofloxacin and lower biofilm production. Seventy-three strains (19.4%) were ESBL-producers. However, no relationship between the presence of ESBL and biofilm formation was found. The virulence factor genes fimH (92%), pgaA (84.6%), and irp1 (77.1%) were the most prevalent in all the studied strains. A statistically significant correlation was found between biofilm formation and the presence of iroN, papA, fimH, sfa, cnf, hlyA, iutA, and colibactin-encoding genes clbA, clbB, clbN, and clbQ. Interestingly, a high prevalence of colibactin-encoding genes (19.9%) was observed. Colibactin is a virulence factor, which interferes with the eukaryotic cell cycle and has been associated with colorectal cancer in humans. Most colibactin-encoding E. coli isolates belonged to phylogroup B2, exhibited low antimicrobial resistance but moderate or high biofilm-forming ability, and were significantly associated with most of the virulence factor genes tested. Additionally, the analysis of their clonal relatedness by PFGE showed 48 different clusters, indicating a high clonal diversity among the colibactin-positive strains. Several studies have correlated the pathogenicity of E. coli and the presence of virulence factor genes; however, colibactin and its relationship to biofilm formation have been scarcely investigated. The increasing prevalence of colibactin in E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae and the recently described correlation with biofilm formation, makes colibactin a promising therapeutic target to prevent biofilm formation and its associated adverse effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi Chen ◽  
Tobin Simonetti ◽  
Kari Peter ◽  
Qing Jin ◽  
Eric Brown ◽  

Whole genome analysis was performed on 501 isolates obtained from a previous survey which recovered 139 positive environmental sponge samples (i.e., up to 4 isolates per sample) from a total of 719 samples collected at 40 standardized sites in 3 commercial apple packinghouse facilities (i.e., P1, P2, and P3) over 3 successive seasons in a single production year. After excluding duplicated isolates, the data from 156 isolates revealed the clonal diversity of L. monocytogenes and allowed the detection of transient contamination, persistent contamination, and cross-area transmission events. Facility P2 with the poorest sanitary conditions had the least diversity (Shannon’s index of 0.38). P2 contained a Clonal Complex (CC) 554, serogroup IVb-v1 strain that persisted throughout the year and spread across the entire facility, a singleton Sequence Type (ST) 1003, lineage III strain that persisted through two seasons and spread across two areas of the facility, and 3 other clones from transient contaminations. P1 and P3, facilities with better sanitary conditions, had much higher diversity (i.e., 15 clones with a Shannon’s index of 2.49 and 10 clones with a Shannon’s index of 2.10, respectively) that were the result of transient contamination. Facilities P1 and P3 had the highest incidence (43.1%) of lineage III isolates, followed by lineage I (31.3%) and lineage II (25.5%) isolates. Only 1 isolate in the three facilities contained a premature stop codon in virulence gene inlA. Fourteen samples yielded 2–3 clones per sample, demonstrating the importance of choosing appropriate methodologies and selecting a sufficient number of isolates per sample for studying L. monocytogenes diversity. Only 1 isolate, belonging to CC5 and from facility P3, contained a known plasmid, and this was also the only isolate containing benzalkonium chloride tolerance genes. The persistent CC554 strain did not exhibit stronger sanitizer resistance than other isolates and did not contain any confirmed molecular determinants of L. monocytogenes stress resistance that were differentially present in other isolates, such as genes involved in sanitizer tolerance, heavy metal resistance, biofilm-forming, stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1), stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2) or Listeria genomic island (LGI2).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Syed Taufiqul Islam ◽  
Yoshihito Kurashige ◽  
Erika Minowa ◽  
Koki Yoshida ◽  
Durga Paudel ◽  

AbstractThe epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) are essential in preventing ankylosis between the alveolar bone and the tooth (dentoalveolar ankylosis). Despite extensive research, the mechanism by which ERM cells suppress ankylosis remains uncertain; perhaps its varied population is to reason. Therefore, in this study, eighteen unique clones of ERM (CRUDE) were isolated using the single-cell limiting dilution and designated as ERM 1–18. qRT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot analyses revealed that ERM-2 and -3 had the highest and lowest amelogenin expression, respectively. Mineralization of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF) was reduced in vitro co-culture with CRUDE ERM, ERM-2, and -3 cells, but recovered when an anti-amelogenin antibody was introduced. Transplanted rat molars grown in ERM-2 cell supernatants produced substantially less bone than those cultured in other cell supernatants; inhibition was rescued when an anti-amelogenin antibody was added to the supernatants. Anti-Osterix antibody staining was used to confirm the development of new bones. In addition, next-generation sequencing (NGS) data were analysed to discover genes related to the distinct roles of CRUDE ERM, ERM-2, and ERM-3. According to this study, amelogenin produced by ERM cells helps to prevent dentoalveolar ankylosis and maintain periodontal ligament (PDL) space, depending on their clonal diversity.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Anna Richter ◽  
Catrin Roolf ◽  
Anett Sekora ◽  
Gudrun Knuebel ◽  
Saskia Krohn ◽  

In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), conventional cell lines do not recapitulate the clonal diversity and microenvironment. Orthotopic patient-derived xenograft models (PDX) overcome these limitations and mimic the clinical situation, but molecular stability and engraftment patterns have not yet been thoroughly assessed. We herein describe and characterize the PDX generation in NSG mice. In vivo tumor cell proliferation, engraftment and location were monitored by flow cytometry and bioluminescence imaging. Leukemic cells were retransplanted for up to four passages, and comparative analyses of engraftment pattern, cellular morphology and genomic hotspot mutations were conducted. Ninety-four percent of all samples were successfully engrafted, and the xenograft velocity was dependent on the molecular subtype, outcome of the patient and transplantation passage. While BCR::ABL1 blasts were located in the spleen, KMT2A-positive cases had higher frequencies in the bone marrow. Molecular changes appeared in most model systems, with low allele frequency variants lost during primary engraftment. After the initial xenografting, however, the PDX models demonstrated high molecular stability. This protocol for reliable ALL engraftment demonstrates variability in the location and molecular signatures during serial transplantation. Thorough characterization of experimentally used PDX systems is indispensable for the correct analysis and valid data interpretation of preclinical PDX studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 145-151
Abdulrahman A. Al-Sultan

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii strains resistant to carbapenems are a global public health problem. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of genetic fingerprints associated with Metallo β-lactamases in A. baumannii in addition to the clonal diversity of A. baumannii in Makkah and Al-Madinah regions of Saudi Arabia, which receive a high number of international visitors. Methods: Multi-antibiotic resistant A. baumannii isolates were investigated. Bacterial isolation was conducted employing a basic bacteriological technique after confirming the ID of isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out using the Vitek 2 compact system. The molecular clonal diversity of the isolates was determined by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Clusters were analyzed with BioNumerics software version 6.5. Dice coefficient was used for calculating the similarities. Results: The results indicated resistance in 82.5% of A. baumannii isolates against the carbapenems. All the isolates were found to be sensitive to colistin, while 5% of isolates were resistant to tigecycline. The screening of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates showed that the dissemination of imipenem and meropenem resistance was 81 and 84%, respectively, while the majority of the strains were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. The blaOXA and blaVIM were the most encountered genes in A. baumannii isolates, while ISAba1 was the prominent insertion sequence. The genetic fingerprinting results (PFGE) revealed two types of epidemic clones: monoclonal and polyclonal models of 17 clusters. Conclusion: The current investigation indicates the diversity in genetic fingerprints of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Makkah and Al-Madinah region of Saudi Arabia, and that two types of epidemic clones are present. It has also been demonstrated that such clones create serious infection dissemination to other parts of the world as heavy pilgrimage traffic is received throughout the year in Makkah and Al-Madinah, especially in the Haj season.

2021 ◽  
Hung-Cheng Tsai ◽  
Chik-On Choy ◽  
Tsai-Hung Wu ◽  
Chih-Wei Liu ◽  
Yu-Jen Pan ◽  

Abstract Objectives Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is associated with polymorphism in major histocompatibility complex class II genes and dysregulations of CD4+ T cells which cause abnormalities in immune repertoire (iR) expression and intracellular signaling. We monitored nucleotide sequence changes in iR of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH), particularly complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) during the course of treatments in RA patients using massively parallel sequencing technology.Methods CDR3 sequencing was carried out on clinical blood samples from RA patients for disease progress monitoring. The iR of each sample was measured using next generation sequencing (NGS) pipeline. Data analysis was done with a web-based iRweb server. Principal components analysis (PCA) was completed with commercial statistical pipeline. Results Datasets from 14 patients covered VDJ regions of IGH gene. D50 stayed low for all cases (mean D50 = 6.5). A pattern of shared CDR3 sequences was confirmed by a clustering pattern using PCA. Shared profile of 608 CDR3 sequences unique to the disease baseline was identified. D50 analyses revealed clonal diversity would remain low throughout the disease course even after treatment (mean D50 = 11.7 & 8.2 for csDMARD & bDMARD groups respectively) regardless of fluctuated disease activity. PCA has provided a correlation of change in immune diversity along the whole course of RA. Conclusion We have successfully constructed the experimental design, data acquisition, processing, and analysis pipeline of a high throughput massively parallel CDR3 sequences detection to be used to correlate RA disease activity and IGH CDR3 iR during disease progression with or without treatments.

2021 ◽  
Diede A. G. van Bladel ◽  
Michiel van den Brand ◽  
Jos Rijntjes ◽  
Samhita Pamidimarri Naga ◽  
Demi L. C. M. Haacke ◽  

AbstractClonality analysis in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is of added value for correctly diagnosing patients with atypical presentation or histology reminiscent of T cell lymphoma, and for establishing the clonal relationship in patients with recurrent disease. However, such analysis has been hampered by the sparsity of malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in a background of reactive immune cells. Recently, the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group developed a novel next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay and bioinformatics platform (ARResT/Interrogate) to detect immunoglobulin (IG) gene rearrangements for clonality testing in B-cell lymphoproliferations. Here, we demonstrate the improved performance of IG-NGS compared to conventional BIOMED-2/EuroClonality analysis to detect clonal gene rearrangements in 16 well-characterized primary cHL cases within the IG heavy chain (IGH) and kappa light chain (IGK) loci. This was most obvious in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, where three times more clonal cases were detected with IG-NGS (9 cases) compared to BIOMED-2 (3 cases). In total, almost four times more clonal rearrangements were detected in FFPE with IG-NGS (N = 23) as compared to BIOMED-2/EuroClonality (N = 6) as judged on identical IGH and IGK targets. The same clonal rearrangements were also identified in paired fresh frozen cHL samples. To validate the neoplastic origin of the detected clonotypes, IG-NGS clonality analysis was performed on isolated HRS cells, demonstrating identical clonotypes as detected in cHL whole-tissue specimens. Interestingly, IG-NGS and HRS single-cell analysis after DEPArray™ digital sorting revealed rearrangement patterns and copy number variation profiles indicating clonal diversity and intratumoral heterogeneity in cHL. Our data demonstrate improved performance of NGS-based detection of IG gene rearrangements in cHL whole-tissue specimens, providing a sensitive molecular diagnostic assay for clonality assessment in Hodgkin lymphoma.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (30) ◽  
pp. 57-60
I. N. Protasova ◽  
N. V. Bakhareva ◽  
N. A. Ilyenkova ◽  
E. S. Sokolovskaya ◽  
T. A. Elistratova ◽  

Purpose. To investigate the serotype distribution, clonal structure and antimicrobial resistance of pneumococci isolated from schoolchildren.Materials and methods. During the period from 2012 to 2018 we examined 498 healthy school children aged 6 to 17 years. Oropharyngeal swab was taken from each child for culture, after that all S. pneumoniae strains were genotyped for serotype and ST-type deduction (PCR and sequencing, respectively). Antimicrobial resistance was also determined.Results. Pneumococcal culture was positive in 10.6 % of children. S. pneumoniae isolates belonged to seven serogroups and seven serotypes. Serogroup 6 and serotype 19F strains (15.1% each), and serogroup 9 strains (13.2%) were the most prevalent. S. pneumoniae33FA/37 and 3 (9.4 and 5.7%), serogroups 15 and 18 (7.6 and 5.7%), and 10A serotype (3.8%) were determined at a lower frequency. 20 detected ST-types belonged to 14 clonal complexes (CCs); CC156, CC447, and CC320 were predominant. 1.9% of isolates were penicillin-resistant; 13.2% – macrolide-, clindamycin-, and tetracycline-resistant. S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistant strains belonged to multidrug-resistant CCs 320, 315, and 156.Conclusion. S. pneumoniae prevalence in school children is not high. Pneumococcal population is characterized by serotype and clonal diversity including ‘invasive’ serotypes and genotypes. Most of strains are susceptible to antimicrobials.

2021 ◽  
Nicola Crosetto ◽  
Ning Zhang ◽  
Luuk Harbers ◽  
Michele Simonetti ◽  
Gabriel Longo ◽  

Abstract Copy number alterations (CNAs) are pervasive in advanced human cancers, but their prevalence in early-stage, localized tumors and their surrounding normal tissues is poorly characterized. To investigate this phenomenon, here we developed a method for spatially resolved single-cell CNA profiling and applied it to characterize the CNA landscape in 10,007 nuclei extracted from 70 tumor and normal tissue regions (~125 mm3 tissue cubes) from prostatectomies performed in six patients with localized prostate cancer. We identified two distinct groups of cells with abnormal karyotype, one mainly consisting of sparse alterations (‘pseudo-diploid’ cells) and the other characterized by genome-wide karyotypic changes (‘monster’ cells). Pseudo-diploid cells displayed high clonal diversity and formed numerous small sized clones ranging from highly spatially localized to broadly spread clones, whereas monster cells were singular events detected throughout the prostate. We observed a remarkable correlation between the fraction of the genome affected by CNAs and the number of tissue regions in which pseudo-diploid cells were found. Highly localized pseudo-diploid clones were enriched in tumor regions and carried deletions of known or putative tumor suppressors, including APC, CDKN1B, FOXO1, FOXP1, and RB1. Spatially resolved targeted deep sequencing of 523 cancer genes detected non-synonymous mutations in both normal and tumor regions, including mutations in FOXA1, FOXP1, and SPOP genes previously implicated in prostate cancer. Strikingly, in two regions in which targeted deep sequencing detected a point mutation affecting the DNA-binding activity of the FOXA1 transcription factor, we also found a co-deletion of FOXO1 and FOXO3 genes in cells from two different pseudo-diploid clones, implicating combinatorial perturbations of Forkhead transcription factors as an early driver of prostate carcinogenesis. Our study reveals that CNAs and mutations are widespread across normal and tumor regions in the prostate glands of patients with localized prostate cancer and suggests that a subset of alterations—most likely small deletions causing the loss of key tumor suppressors—confer a fitness advantage and channel cells towards tumorigenesis.

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