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2022 ◽  
Vol 272 ◽  
pp. 69-78
Yuangao Liu ◽  
Fernando A. Padilla ◽  
Edward A. Graviss ◽  
Duc T. Nguyen ◽  
Harveen K. Lamba ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 317-324
Purva Verma ◽  
Ashwin Mathew George

Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically analyze the efficacy of molar distalization using clear aligners in non-growing Class II patients. Materials and Methods: A complete search across the electronic database through PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar, LILACS, and manual search of orthodontic journals were done till 2019. Studies were selected on the basis of PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total of four articles were included in this review. The amount of molar distalization reported was 2–3 mm. Conclusion: Out of the four studies included. In all the studies a significant amount of distalization was reported. Three retrospective studies concluded that distalization with aligners is the most effective of all tooth movements. One study concluded that aligners effectively achieved distalization with an efficacy of 87%, other two studies concluded that aligners effectively distalized the molars with good control over vertical dimension and mesiodistal tipping.

2022 ◽  
Carmela Gallo ◽  
Emiliano Manzo ◽  
Giusi Barra ◽  
Laura Fioretto ◽  
Marcello Ziaco ◽  

Abstract The immune response arises from a fine balance of cellular and molecular mechanisms that provide for surveillance, tolerance, and elimination of dangers as pathogens. Improving the quality of the immune response remains a major goal in immunotherapy and vaccine development. Sulfavant A (SULF A) is a sulfolipid that has shown promising adjuvant activity in a cancer vaccine model. Here we report that SULF A is the first synthetic small molecule binding to the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-2 (TREM2). The receptor engagement initiates an unconventional maturation of Dendritic cells (DCs) leading to upregulation of the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHC Class II) and costimulatory molecules (CD83, CD86, DC54) without release of T helper type 1 (Th1) or 2 (Th2) cytokines. According to a TREM2 mechanism, this response is mediated by SYK-NFAT axis and is compromised by blockade and gene silencing of the receptor. Activation by SULF A preserved the DC functions to excite the allogeneic T cell response, and induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) release after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. These results well support the adjuvant effect of SULF A and offer novel insights into the role of TREM2 in the differentiation of an unprecedented DC phenotype (homeDCs) that contributes to the maintenance of immune homeostasis without compromising lymphocyte activation and immunogenic response. The biological function of SULF-A may be of interest in various physiological and pathological processes involving the immune system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Moonhwan Kim ◽  
Chung-Ju Hwang ◽  
Jung-Yul Cha ◽  
Sang-Hwy Lee ◽  
Young Joon Kim ◽  

Introduction. Studies on the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) changes using three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) have shed more light on patients with Class III than Class II malocclusion. This paper focuses on analyzing the long-term changes in the PAS and evaluating the postoperative association between these PAS and skeletal changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion who have undergone orthognathic surgery. Methods. The records of 21 patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion who had undergone orthognathic surgery were included. The anatomical modifications in both jaws, changes in volume, sectional area (SA), minimum sectional area (MSA), and anterior-posterior (AP) and transverse (TV) width in the airway at one month before surgery ( T 0 ), and one month ( T 1 ) and one year ( T 2 ) after surgery were analyzed using CT images. The association between the skeletal and airway changes was evaluated between T 0 , T 1 , and T 2 . Results. After surgery, the ANS, A point, and PNS demonstrated significant posterior and superior movement. The B point and the pogonion exhibited substantial anterior and superior movement. The total and inferior oropharyngeal volumes (vol 3, vol 4) notably increased, while the nasopharyngeal volume (vol 1) decreased. The anterior-posterior movement at the ANS and PNS after surgery was significantly associated with the total volume, vol 2, vol 3, SA 1, MSA, and TV width 1, while substantial association with the total volume was found at the pogonion. Conclusion. Thus, an ideal treatment plan can be formulated for patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion by considering the postoperative PAS changes.

2022 ◽  

Correctional institutions are organizations that have the same important duties and functions as other institutions in the Criminal Justice System, such as the Police, Prosecutors and Courts. The duties and functions of the Correctional Institution are to carry out guidance for prisoners and correctional students. The formulation of the problem in this research is what are the patterns, what are the obstacles and what are the efforts of the Class II/B Muara Bungo prison in conducting prisoner development based on Law Number 12 of 1995. The method used is descriptive qualitative. Informants in this study were all Penitentiary Class II/B Muara Bungo and all convicts and ex-convicts. With the number of informants as many as 12 people. The results of the study show that the pattern of fostering prisoners at the Class II/B Muara Bungo prison based on Law Number 12 of 1995 has been implemented well through spiritual development and independence. With the aim of building mental and spiritual as well as developing the potential, talents and interests of prisoners. The results of inmates coaching by the Class II/B Muara Bungo prison can also be said to be quite good because it has been able to improve the abilities and skills of prisoners in various fields of business and has been able to increase the obedience of the prisoners. However, the implementation has not been optimal due to limited facilities and infrastructure, human resources, and low awareness of prisoners to be able to do coaching. Efforts are being made to increase human resources, improve facilities and infrastructure and collaborate with the Bungo Regency Job Training Center, and provide motivation and understanding to prisoners about the importance of coaching programs.

Nicolas G. Brukman ◽  
Xiaohui Li ◽  
Benjamin Podbilewicz

Gamete fusion is the climax of fertilization in all sexually reproductive organisms, from unicellular fungi to humans. Similarly to other cell-cell fusion events, gamete fusion is mediated by specialized proteins, named fusogens, that overcome the energetic barriers during this process. In recent years, HAPLESS 2/GENERATIVE CELL-SPECIFIC 1 (HAP2/GCS1) was identified as the fusogen mediating sperm-egg fusion in flowering plants and protists, being both essential and sufficient for the membrane merger in some species. The identification of HAP2/GCS1 in invertebrates, opens the possibility that a similar fusogen may be used in vertebrate fertilization. HAP2/GCS1 proteins share a similar structure with two distinct families of exoplasmic fusogens: the somatic Fusion Family (FF) proteins discovered in nematodes, and class II viral glycoproteins (e.g., rubella and dengue viruses). Altogether, these fusogens form the Fusexin superfamily. While some attributes are shared among fusexins, for example the overall structure and the possibility of assembly into trimers, some other characteristics seem to be specific, such as the presence or not of hydrophobic loops or helices at the distal tip of the protein. Intriguingly, HAP2/GCS1 or other fusexins have neither been identified in vertebrates nor in fungi, raising the question of whether these genes were lost during evolution and were replaced by other fusion machinery or a significant divergence makes their identification difficult. Here, we discuss the biology of HAP2/GCS1, its involvement in gamete fusion and the structural, mechanistic and evolutionary relationships with other fusexins.

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