The long-term outcomes after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer remain uncertain and the optimal surveillance strategy after curative surgery remains controversial.
In this study, the clinicopathological characteristics of patients who underwent curative thoracic esophagectomy between 1991 and 2015 at Toranomon Hospital were retrospectively analyzed and reviewed until December 2020. We evaluated the accumulated data regarding the pattern and rates of recurrence and second malignancy.
A total of 1054 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Of these, 97% were followed up for 5 years, and the outcomes after 25 years could be determined in 65.5%. Recurrence was diagnosed in 318 patients (30.2%), and the most common pattern was lymph node metastasis (n = 168, 52.8%). Recurrence was diagnosed within 1 year in 174 patients (54.7%) and within 3 years in 289 (90.9%). Second malignancy possibly occurred through the entire study period after esophagectomy even in early-stage cancer, keeping 2%–5% of the incidental risk. There was no significant difference in the prognosis between 3-year survivors with and without a second malignancy.
Most recurrences after resection of esophageal cancer occurred within 3 years regardless of disease stage. However, these patients have an ongoing risk of developing a second malignancy after esophagectomy. Further consideration is required regarding the efficacy of long-term surveillance.
BackgroundTumor flare reaction (TFR) is a clinical syndrome, which is mainly associated with painful and swollen lymph nodes or splenomegaly, slight fever, bone pain, and skin rash during treatment with immune-related drugs, causing difficulty in distinguishing TFR from disease progression. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor are two ideal drugs used for the treatment of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, but few studies have reported their adverse effects in association with TFR. The efficacy and safety of monotherapy or combination therapy with these drugs needs to be further evaluated. It is essential to determine whether treated patients can develop TFR, thus enabling more accurate diagnosis and treatment.Case presentationA 26-year-old female patient, diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma, had received 2 + 3 cycles of ABVD chemotherapy (a combination of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and 4 cycles of PD-1 inhibitor (tislelizumab) therapy but exhibited poor efficacy. Subsequently, she was given combination therapy of BV (100 mg) + tislelizumab (200 mg). However, a slight fever, painful and swollen axillary lymph nodes, multiple skin rashes with pruritus, joint pain, and fatigue with poor appetite appeared during the treatment. Ultrasound (US) scans revealed that multiple lymph nodes were significantly enlarged. After treatment with low-dose dexamethasone and cetirizine, the symptoms were alleviated. A biopsy of the left axillary lymph node revealed that lymphoid tissue exhibited proliferative changes, without tumor cell infiltration. These findings were consistent with the clinical and pathological manifestations of TFR.ConclusionCombination therapy with BV and PD-1 inhibitor was effective in the treatment of relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma. The results suggest that the combination therapy may cause TFR, and biopsy and also continuous imaging observation are important to determine the disease stage. This approach allows clinicians to decide whether to continue the current treatment plan, and alerts them to the occurrence of excessive activation of the immune system.
Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) is one of the diseases with the greatest social and health impact, due to the high cost of rehabilitation management and the high risk of dangerous behavior and relapse. This pathology frequently leads to unsuccessful attempts to interrupt the consumption, resulting in relapses and a vicious circle binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation (craving). The alternation of these phases in addictions was well illustrated by Koob and colleagues in the so-called “addictive cycle”, which nowadays represents a landmark in the addiction field. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the international literature for biomarkers able to explain the several phases of addiction, and one of the most studied biomarkers is undoubtedly Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). In this perspective article, we discuss the potential role of BDNF as biomarker of the CUD phases described in the “Addictive Cycle”, speculating about the close relationship between BDNF fluctuations and the clinical course of CUD. Furthermore, we discuss BDNF potential role as “staging” biomarker, able to predict disease worsening.
Finding valuable biomarkers of CUD severity and disease stage could shift clinicians' attention from the perspective of behavioral symptomatic treatment to a novel brain-based approach, allowing more effective and targeted therapeutic strategies to be developed, thus determining major benefits for CUD patients.
To investigate factors associated with delays in presentation and diagnosis of women with confirmed breast cancer (BC).
A cross-sectional study nested in an ongoing prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients at Dr Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, was employed. Participants (n = 150) from the main study were recruited, with secondary information on demographic, clinical, and tumor variables collected from the study database. A questionnaire was used to gather data on other socioeconomic variables, herbal consumption, number of healthcare visits, knowledge-attitude-practice of BC, and open-ended questions relating to initial presentation. Presentation delay (time between initial symptom and first consultation) was defined as ≥3 months. Diagnosis delay was defined as ≥1 month between presentation and diagnosis confirmation. Impact on disease stage and determinants of both delays were examined. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the length and distribution of delays by disease stage. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the association between delays, cancer stage and factors.
Sixty-five (43.3%) patients had a ≥3-month presentation delay and 97 (64.7%) had a diagnosis confirmation by ≥1 month. Both presentation and diagnosis delays increased the risk of being diagnosed with cancer stage III-IV (odds ratio/OR 2.21, 95% CI 0.97–5.01, p = 0.059 and OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.28–7.19, p = 0.012). Visit to providers ≤3 times was significantly attributed to a reduced diagnosis delay (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.06–0.37, p <0.001), while having a family history of cancer was significantly associated with increased diagnosis delay (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.03–5.04, p = 0.042). The most frequent reasons for delaying presentation were lack of awareness of the cause of symptoms (41.5%), low perceived severity (27.7%) and fear of surgery intervention (26.2%).
Almost half of BC patients in our setting had a delay in presentation and 64.7% experienced a delay in diagnosis. These delays increased the likelihood of presentation with a more advanced stage of disease. Future research is required in Indonesia to explore the feasibility of evidence-based approaches to reducing delays at both levels, including educational interventions to increase awareness of BC symptoms and reducing existing complex and convoluted referral pathways for patients suspected of having cancer.
Background: In mouse models of amyloidosis, macrophage receptor 1 (MSR1) and neprilysin (NEP) have been shown to interact to reduce amyloid burden in the brain. Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze these two gene products in combination with apolipoproteins and Aβ 1 - 42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of individuals at different stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as in autopsied brain samples from ROSMAP (Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project). Methods: CSF/plasma levels of MSR1 and NEP were measured using the sensitive primer extension assay technology. CSF Aβ 1 - 42 was assessed with ELISA, while CSF ApoE and ApoJ were measured with the Luminex’s multiplex technology. Brain MSR1, APOE, and CLU (ApoJ) mRNA levels were measured with RNA-Seq and contrasted to amyloid plaques pathology using CERAD staging. Results: While plasma and CSF MSR1 levels are significantly correlated, this correlation was not observed for NEP. In addition to be highly correlated to one another, CSF levels of both MSR1 and NEP are strongly correlated with AD status and CSF Aβ 1 - 42, ApoE, and ApoJ levels. In the cortical tissues of subjects from ROSMAP, MSR1 mRNA levels are correlated with CLU mRNA levels and the CERAD scores but not with APOE mRNA levels. Conclusion: The discrepancies observed between CSF/plasma levels of MSR1 and NEP with CSF Aβ 1 - 42 and ApoE concentrations can be explained by many factors, such as the disease stage or the involvement of the blood-brain barrier breakdown that leads to the infiltration of peripheral monocytes or macrophages.
Background: Although early-stage lung cancer has increased owing to the introduction of screening programs, high recurrence rate remains a critical concern. We aimed to explore biomarkers related to the prognosis of surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: In this retrospective study, we collected medical records of patients with NSCLC and matched tissue microarray blocks from surgical specimens. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry was performed for measuring the expression level of fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-α), Jagged-1 (JAG1), and CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1). Results: A total of 453 patients who underwent complete resection between January 2011 and February 2012 were enrolled; 55.2% patients had stage I NSCLC, and 31.1% presented squamous cell carcinoma. Disease stage was a significant risk factor for recurrence and death, and age ≥ 65 years and male sex were associated with poor overall survival. FAP-a and JaG1 were not related to survivals, while CDCP1-expressing patients exhibited poor disease-free and overall survival. Moreover, CDCP1 expression in stage I NSCLC was significantly associated with recurrence. Conclusions: Old age, male sex, and high pathological stage were poor prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection. Furthermore, CDCP1 expression could serve as a biomarker for poor prognosis in stage I NSCLC.
AbstractThe Saudi Cancer Registry reported in 2007 the 5-year observed survival for the most common cancer sites for the years 1994–2004. In this report we looked at the cancer survival in the period 2005–2009 and evaluated the trend over the 15 years period from 1994 to 2009. Cases of the top 14 cancer sites reported by the population based Saudi Cancer Registry from 1 January 2005 to December 31, 2009, were submitted for survival analysis. The vital status of those patients was collected. Analysis of survival for the above period was compared with the prior reported 2 periods (1994–1999, 2000–2004). In addition, analysis was done according to age, sex, disease stage and the province. Data of 25,969 patients of the commonest cancer sites were submitted. Of those 14,146 patients (54%) had complete demographic data available and vital status was reported. Thyroid cancer had the highest 5- year observed survival of 94% (95% confidence interval (CI) 93–95%)), followed by Breast (72%, 95% CI 71–74%). In hematological malignancies, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma had the highest 5-year survival of 86% (95% CI 84–88%). Survival rates has improved in most of the cancers sites for the studied periods except for lung, uterine and Hodgkin’s lymphoma which plateaued. Our study confirms a steady improvement in the 5-year observed survival over time for the majority of cancers. Our survival data were comparable to western countries. This data should be used by policy makers to improve on cancer care in the kingdom.
Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is an orphan disease, with an estimated prevalence of 1–5/10,000. No data regarding the incidence exists. The primary aim was to evaluate incidence and prevalence of NK at a tertiary referral center in Germany, and the secondary aim was to analyze demographic parameters, etiology, and clinical features and therapeutic outcomes.
Methods and material
All patients treated for NK with serum eye drops (SED), amnionic membrane transplantation (AMT), or penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in 2013–2017 were identified. Age, sex, etiology of NK, visual acuity, disease stage, treatment, and visual acuity were analyzed. Incidence and prevalence of NK in our hospital and the overall population of the city were calculated.
In 63 eyes of 60 patients (56.7% male; 68 ± 16 years), the most common underlying diseases were herpetic infections (23.8%), neurological causes (19%), and diabetes mellitus (14.3%). The annual incidence of NK in our tertiary referral center ranges between 5/10,000 and 3/10,000, the prevalence between 9/10,00 and 22/10,000. In all patients treated with corneal ulcers, the prevalence was up to 27% (2706/10,000). The incidence in the overall population is estimated at 0.1–0.3/10,000, the prevalence at 0.2–0.5/10,000 to 0.5/10,000.
Based on our assessment, the prevalence of NK in the overall population is lower than estimated before. However, in patients with corneal ulcers, the percentage of NK is comparably high. The disease may still be underdiagnosed due to the variety of underlying disorders and unknown comorbidities. Thus, in cases of therapy-refractive superficial keratopathy or ulcerations, NK should be considered more frequently.
Endometrioid endometrial cancer is associated with increased BMI and obesity through multiple pathogenetic mechanisms involving hyperestrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, altered adipokine secretion, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between BMI, leptin, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the traditional prognostic factors T, G, N and M status among type I endometrioid and type II endometrial cancer patients. We enrolled 305 consecutive endometrial cancer patients prospectively. We found that BMI, leptin, and IL-6 significantly correlated with T status, N status, and M status among endometrioid type I endometrial cancer patients. Among type II endometrial cancer patients, BMI and leptin did not correlate with any of the prognostic parameters, whereas there was a positive correlation between IL-6 and the presence of distant metastases. In the multivariate regression analysis, BMI, leptin, and IL-6 were independent predictive variables of T, N, and M status in endometrioid type I endometrial cancer patients. Our study demonstrates that weight gain, adiposity-related adipokines, inflammation, and oxidative stress correlate with the prognostic factors of endometrioid endometrial cancer. Knowledge of the role of obesity-related biological pathways and mediators in the pathogenesis and prognosis of endometrioid endometrial malignancies may offer new perspectives on combined therapeutic strategies that have not been explored to date, both in the advanced disease and in the adjuvant setting.