long term effect
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2022 ◽  
Vol 321 ◽  
pp. 126357
Artur Spat Ruviaro ◽  
Laura Silvestro ◽  
Fernando Pelisser ◽  
Afonso Rangel Garcez de Azevedo ◽  
Paulo Ricardo de Matos ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 245 ◽  
pp. 110404
Aliyu Abdullahi ◽  
Subhamoy Bhattacharya ◽  
Chao Li ◽  
Yiqing Xiao ◽  
Ying Wang

RELC Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 003368822110729
Zhenhao Cao ◽  
Zhicheng Mao

While a surge of research has investigated the use of reformulations and models as positive evidence feedback (PEF) in second language (L2) writing, so far no research synthesis seeking to review the status quo of this particular topic has been published. To fill the gap, the present study synthesized 23 studies on reformulations and models as PEF in L2 writing and examined the salient findings regarding three major research strands: (1) students’ noticing and incorporation from reformulations; (2) students’ noticing and incorporation from models; and (3) effects of PEF on L2 writing. Informed by the study findings, we suggest L2 teachers vary their feedback decisions with flexibility, consider individual and contextual factors in PEF practices, combine PEF and corrective feedback to maximize student learning, and provide guidance to support student actions in response to PEF. We also propose three areas for further research, namely going beyond linguistic issues to explore the potential of PEF, systematically investigating factors influencing students’ engagement with PEF, and collecting longitudinal data to examine the long-term effect of PEF. This study enhances our understanding of this emerging research area and provides implications for L2 pedagogy, as well as suggestions for future investigations.

2022 ◽  
Guillaume Peron

The graph transitivity measures the probability that adjacent vertices in a network are interconnected, thus revealing the existence of tightly connected neighborhoods playing a role in information and pathogen circulation. The graph transitivity is usually computed for dichotomized networks, therefore focusing on whether triangular relationships are closed or open. But when the connections vary in strength, focusing on whether the closing ties exist or not can be reductive. I score the weighted transitivity according to the similarity between the weights of the three possible links in each triad. In a simulation, that new technique correctly diagnosed excesses of balanced or imbalanced triangles, for example, strong triplets closed by weak links. I illustrate the biological relevance of that information with two reanalyses of animal contact networks. In the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta, a species in which kin relationships strongly predict social relationships, the new metrics revealed striking similarities in the configuration of grooming networks in captive and free-ranging groups, but only as long as the matrilines were preserved. In the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis, in an experiment designed to test the long-term effect of the goslings' social environment, the new metrics uncovered an excess of weak triplets closed by strong links, particularly pronounced in males, and consistent with the triadic process underlying goose dominance relationships.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Siva Kumar Malka ◽  
Me-Hea Park

Maintaining microbial safety and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables are a global concern. Harmful microbes can contaminate fresh produce at any stage from farm to fork. Microbial contamination can affect the quality and shelf-life of fresh produce, and the consumption of contaminated food can cause foodborne illnesses. Additionally, there has been an increased emphasis on the freshness and appearance of fresh produce by modern consumers. Hence, disinfection methods that not only reduce microbial load but also preserve the quality of fresh produce are required. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has emerged as a better alternative to chlorine-based disinfectants. In this review, we discuss the efficacy of gaseous and aqueous ClO2 in inhibiting microbial growth immediately after treatment (short-term effect) versus regulating microbial growth during storage of fresh produce (long-term effect). We further elaborate upon the effects of ClO2 application on retaining or enhancing the quality of fresh produce and discuss the current understanding of the mode of action of ClO2 against microbes affecting fresh produce.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Kentaro Shirotsuki ◽  
Nagisa Sugaya ◽  
Mutsuhiro Nakao

Abstract Background COVID-19 continues to have a global impact and has yet to converge. Behavioral restrictions in daily life are widespread, forcing changes to the behavioral patterns of people. Significant changes have also occurred in children’s lives, raising concerns about mental health. The same is true for anxiety symptoms. Research In this paper, we described the COVID-19 pandemic effects on mental health, summarized Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) as an applicability of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for COVID-19, and summarized ICBT’s current state as a response for anxiety. An overview of previous intervention studies, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on ICBT, showed that many studies were highly effective against anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, regarding the follow-up of ICBT’s intervention effect, long-term effect maintenance was also clarified. It was likewise pointed out that ICBT may be used in the future since it is beneficial for children’s anxiety symptoms in telemedicine. Conclusions Based on these results from previous studies, we discuss ICBT’s applicability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, future measures and prospects for children’s mental health during the pandemic are discussed in this study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
M. Meenakshi ◽  

Water pollution is an issue of great concern worldwide, contamination by organic compounds, inorganic compounds and microorganisms. Bioremediation using microorganisms helps in the removal of toxic metals from the environment. The focus is on the heavy metals associated with environmental contamination, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) which are potentially hazardous to ecosystems. In the present study textile effluent was collected, and subjected to Physicochemical treatment methods , Herbal-Metal nanocomposite was prepared and used to treat textile effluents. As a bioremediation study, the plant growth potential of treated effluents was evaluated using pot studies of an aquatic plant .Laboratory and field test results confirmed superior bioremediation efficiency and long-term effect. When compared to today’s most-efficient bioremediation technologies there is an efficient, fast, safe, and inexpensive way to clean up polluted waters through acceleration of natural bioremediation process. Nanotechnology provides an economical, convenient and ecofriendly means of wastewater remediation. The results obtained in this study shall be carried out as future studies using different types and concentrations of nanoparticles for the treatment of any types of effluents causing land and water pollution. There is a growing need for the development of novel, efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective approach for the remediation of inorganic metals released into the environment and to safeguard the ecosystem. In this regard, recent advances in microbes-base heavy metal have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to conventional techniques.

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