microbial growth
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jörg S. Deutzmann ◽  
Grace Callander ◽  
Wenyu Gu ◽  
Albert L. Müller ◽  
Alexandra L. McCully ◽  

Optical density (OD) measurement is the gold standard to estimate microbial cell density in aqueous systems. Recording microbial growth curves is essential to assess substrate utilization, gauge sensitivity to inhibitors or toxins, or determine the perfect sampling point. Manual sampling for cuvette-photometer-based measurements can cause disturbances and impact growth, especially for strictly anaerobic or thermophilic microbes. For slow growing microbes, manual sampling can cause data gaps that complicate analysis. Online OD measurement systems provide a solution, but are often expensive and ill-suited for applications such as monitoring microbial growth in custom or larger anaerobic vessels. Furthermore, growth measurements of thermophilic cultures are limited by the heat sensitivity of complex electronics. Here, we present two simple, low-cost, self-assembled photometers—a “TubeOD” for online measurement of anaerobic and thermophilic cultures in Hungate tubes and a “ClampOD” that can be attached to virtually any transparent growth vessel. Both OD-meters can be calibrated in minutes. We detail the manufacturing and calibration procedure and demonstrate continuous acquisition of high quality cell density data of a variety of microbes, including strict anaerobes, a thermophile, and gas-utilizing strains in various glassware. When calibrated and operated within their detection limits (ca. 0.3–90% of the photosensor voltage range), these self-build OD-meters can be used for continuous measurement of microbial growth in a variety of applications, thereby, simplifying and enhancing everyday lab operations.

2022 ◽  
Marina Zhurina ◽  
Andrei Gannesen ◽  
Sergey Martyanov ◽  
Anna Kallistova ◽  
Victor Gerasin ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the dependence of the biocidal activity of polyguanidine (co)polymers on their structure during the formation of biofilms by active PE-degrading cultures of model microorganisms. The Bc-2 copolymer of methacryloyl guanidine hydrochloride (MGHC) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC), which suppressed both the formation of biofilms and the growth of planktonic cultures, exhibited the highest activity. When PE was exposed in tropical soil, the composition of the microbial community on the PE surface differed significantly from that of the community in the surrounding soil. In particular, the proportion of Actinobacteria increased from 7% to 29%, while the proportion of Bacteroidetes decreased from 38% to 8%. Keywords: biofilms, polyhexamethylene guanidine salts, dynamics of biofilm formation, antibiofilm effect, composite materials

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Anjali D. Boyd ◽  
Nia S. Walker ◽  
Stephanie R. Valdez ◽  
Y. Stacy Zhang ◽  
Andrew H. Altieri ◽  

In coastal wetlands and tropical reefs, snails can regulate foundation species by feeding on marsh grasses and hard corals. In many cases, their impacts are amplified because they facilitate microbial infection in grazer-induced wounds. Whether snails commonly graze live plants and facilitate microbial growth on plants in tropical seagrass systems is less explored. On a Belizean Caye, we examined patterns in snail-generated grazer scars on the abundant turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum). Our initial survey showed the occurrence of snail-induced scarring on live turtlegrass blades was common, with 57% of live leaves scarred. Feeding trials demonstrated that two of five common snails (Tegula fasciata–smooth tegula and Smaragdia viridis–emerald nerite) grazed unepiphytized turtlegrass blades and that smooth tegula abundance had a positive relationship with scarring intensity. Subsequent surveys at three Caribbean sites (separated by >150 km) also showed a high occurrence of snail-induced scars on turtlegrass blades. Finally, simulated herbivory experiments and field observations of a turtlegrass bed in Florida, United States suggests that herbivore damage could facilitate fungal growth in live seagrass tissue through mechanical opening of tissue. Combined, these findings reveal that snail grazing on live turtlegrass blades in the Caribbean can be common. Based on these results, we hypothesize that small grazers could be exerting top-down control over turtlegrass growth directly via grazing and/or indirectly by facilitating microbial infection in live seagrass tissue. Further studies are needed to determine the generality and relative importance of direct and indirect effects of gastropod grazing on turtlegrass health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Siva Kumar Malka ◽  
Me-Hea Park

Maintaining microbial safety and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables are a global concern. Harmful microbes can contaminate fresh produce at any stage from farm to fork. Microbial contamination can affect the quality and shelf-life of fresh produce, and the consumption of contaminated food can cause foodborne illnesses. Additionally, there has been an increased emphasis on the freshness and appearance of fresh produce by modern consumers. Hence, disinfection methods that not only reduce microbial load but also preserve the quality of fresh produce are required. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has emerged as a better alternative to chlorine-based disinfectants. In this review, we discuss the efficacy of gaseous and aqueous ClO2 in inhibiting microbial growth immediately after treatment (short-term effect) versus regulating microbial growth during storage of fresh produce (long-term effect). We further elaborate upon the effects of ClO2 application on retaining or enhancing the quality of fresh produce and discuss the current understanding of the mode of action of ClO2 against microbes affecting fresh produce.

Sanne Johansson ◽  
Kristin Balksten ◽  
Paulien Brigitte Strandberg-de Bruijn

Microbial growth often thrives in humid conditions, at high relative humidity. Moulds are complex organisms; many types of mould are able to survive strong variations in humidity and temperature, such as those on building façades. For some building materials a critical relative humidity is determined, which functions as a theoretical threshold; at this (or lower) relative humidity microbial growth will likely not occur. Hemp-lime is a building material that consists of hemp shiv (the woody core parts of the hemp stem) and building lime. It is a material that can be used for walls, and even though it has been used for more than 20 years, thusfar little is known about its critical moisture levels for microbial growth. The aim of this research was therefore to determine at what relative humidity microbial growth occurs on carbonated hemp-lime material, and to study if there is a protective influence of a carbonated lime binder on the hemp shiv. The objective was to study microbial growth on hemp shiv, hemp-lime and on hemp with a thin layer of lime at three relative humidity (75 %, 85 % and 95 %) and at two different temperatures (15°C and 23°C); conditions that could occur naturally in a hemp-lime façade exposed to high rain loads in a northern European climate. Hemp shiv seems to have a relatively low resistance to microbial growth, similar to that of wood. However, because the hemp is protected by lime it can withstand much higher relative humidity without microbial growth occurring on the material. The critical moisture level for hemp-lime seemed to occur between 75 and 85 % RH, while the material was completely without microbial growth at 75 % RH. The lime had a protective effect on the hemp and acted as a mould inhibitor, both over time and with varying temperature and humidity.

2022 ◽  
pp. gr.275533.121
Tyler A Joseph ◽  
Philippe Chlenski ◽  
Aviya Litman ◽  
Tal Korem ◽  
Itsik Pe'er

Patterns of sequencing coverage along a bacterial genome---summarized by a peak-to-trough ratio (PTR)---have been shown to accurately reflect microbial growth rates, revealing a new facet of microbial dynamics and host-microbe interactions. Here, we introduce CoPTR (Compute PTR): a tool for computing PTRs from complete reference genomes and assemblies. Using simulations and data from growth experiments in simple and complex communities, we show that CoPTR is more accurate than the current state-of-the-art, while also providing more PTR estimates overall. We further develop theory formalizing a biological interpretation for PTRs. Using a reference database of 2935 species, we applied CoPTR to a case-control study of 1304 metagenomic samples from 106 individuals with inflammatory bowel disease. We show that growth rates are personalized, are only loosely correlated with relative abundances, and are associated with disease status. We conclude by demonstrating how PTRs can be combined with relative abundances and metabolomics to investigate their effect on the microbiome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 68-77
Damla Gümüş ◽  
Mevlüde Kızıl

Propolis is a natural mixture of saliva, enzymes and plant secretions which collected by bees from various plants and used for protection of hives against external fac-tors. Biological activities and chemical composition of propolis may vary accor-ding to the plant sources, location and time, and it contains phenolic compo-unds, aromatic acids, essen-tial oils, minerals and vita-mins. Propolis has been used in traditional medicine for various therapeutic pur-poses, and it has a potential as a natural preservative in foods. Propolis may have various protective effects such as reducing microbial growth and oxidation, pre-venting fungus, rotting and weight loss, maintaining product stability and exten-ding shelf life in meat, po-ultry, fish, dairy, vegetables, fruits and fruit juices during storage. However, propolis's unique odor and taste may alter the sensory quality of foods and that may effect its use in the food industry ne-gatively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 137-165
Agustín G. Yabo ◽  
Jean-Baptiste Caillau ◽  
Jean-Luc Gouzé ◽  
Hidde de Jong ◽  
Francis Mairet

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Gülru Bulkan ◽  
Sitaresmi Sitaresmi ◽  
Gerarda Tania Yudhanti ◽  
Ria Millati ◽  
Rachma Wikandari ◽  

Fruit and vegetable processing wastes are global challenges but also suitable sources with a variety of nutrients for different fermentative products using bacteria, yeast or fungi. The interaction of microorganisms with bioactive compounds in fruit waste can have inhibitory or enhancing effect on microbial growth. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of 10 bioactive compounds, including octanol, ellagic acid, (−)-epicatechin, quercetin, betanin, ascorbic acid, limonene, hexanal, car-3-ene, and myrcene in the range of 0–240 mg/L on filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger were investigated. These fungi were both found to be resistant to all compounds except octanol, which can be used as a natural antifungal agent, specifically against A. oryzae and A. niger contamination. On the contrary, polyphenols (quercetin and ellagic acid), ascorbic acid, and hexanal enhanced A. niger biomass yield 28%, 7.8%, 16%, and 6%, respectively. Furthermore, 240 mg/L car-3-ene was found to increase A. oryzae biomass yield 8%, while a 9% decrease was observed at lower concentration, 24 mg/L. Similarly, up to 17% decrease of biomass yield was observed from betanin and myrcene. The resistant nature of the fungi against FPW bioactive compounds shows the potential of these fungi for further application in waste valorization.

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