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Oral Oncology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 125 ◽  
pp. 105715
Charlotte Le Roy ◽  
Cécile Le Péchoux ◽  
Claire Alapetite ◽  
Ratislav Bahleda ◽  
Carine Ngo ◽  

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Giuditta Chiloiro ◽  
Davide Cusumano ◽  
Luca Boldrini ◽  
Angela Romano ◽  
Lorenzo Placidi ◽  

Abstract Background Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (nCRT) is the standard treatment modality in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Since response to radiotherapy (RT) is dose dependent in rectal cancer, dose escalation may lead to higher complete response rates. The possibility to predict patients who will achieve complete response (CR) is fundamental. Recently, an early tumour regression index (ERI) was introduced to predict pathological CR (pCR) after nCRT in LARC patients. The primary endpoints will be the increase of CR rate and the evaluation of feasibility of delta radiomics-based predictive MRI guided Radiotherapy (MRgRT) model. Methods Patients affected by LARC cT2-3, N0-2 or cT4 for anal sphincter involvement N0-2a, M0 without high risk features will be enrolled in the trial. Neoadjuvant CRT will be administered using MRgRT. The initial RT treatment will consist in delivering 55 Gy in 25 fractions on Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) plus the corresponding mesorectum and 45 Gy in 25 fractions on the drainage nodes. Chemotherapy with 5-fluoracil (5-FU) or oral capecitabine will be administered continuously. A 0.35 Tesla MRI will be acquired at simulation and every day during MRgRT. At fraction 10, ERI will be calculated: if ERI will be inferior than 13.1, the patient will continue the original treatment; if ERI will be higher than 13.1 the treatment plan will be reoptimized, intensifying the dose to the residual tumor at the 11th fraction to reach 60.1 Gy. At the end of nCRT instrumental examinations are to be performed in order to restage patients. In case of stable disease or progression, the patient will undergo surgery. In case of major or complete clinical response, conservative approaches may be chosen. Patients will be followed up to evaluate toxicity and quality of life. The number of cases to be enrolled will be 63: all the patients will be treated at Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS in Rome. Discussion This clinical trial investigates the impact of RT dose escalation in poor responder LARC patients identified using ERI, with the aim of increasing the probability of CR and consequently an organ preservation benefit in this group of patients. Trial registration Identifier: NCT04815694 (25/03/2021).

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Kenta Takayasu ◽  
Koei Muguruma ◽  
Hidefumi Kinoshita

Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which promote or suppress the anti-tumor immune response, are becoming the mainstay of cancer treatment. In 2018, CheckMate 214 study showed a higher response rate with ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy compared to conventional therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma. We report a case of complete response and durable response for two years to ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy in a patient with postoperative renal cancer recurrence that caused immune-related adverse events such as interstitial pneumonia and hepatotoxicity.

2022 ◽  
Shoichiro Mukai ◽  
Naotaka Sakamoto ◽  
Hiroaki Kakinoki ◽  
Tadamasa Shibuya ◽  
Ryosuke Moriya ◽  

Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the management and outcome of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (iRPF) in Japan, and identify its clinical biomarker. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 129 patients with iRPF treated between January 2008 and May 2018 at 12 university and related hospitals. Patients treated with glucocorticoid were analyzed to identify a predictive biomarker. These patients were classified into three groups according to overall effectiveness (no change: NC, complete response: CR and partial response groups: PR), and each parameter was compared statistically.Results: Male-female ratio was 5: 1, and median age at diagnosis was 69 (33-86) years. Smoking history was reported in 59.6% of the patients. As treatment, 95 patients received glucocorticoid therapy with an overall response rate of 84%. As a result, serum concentration of IgG4 was significantly decreased in NC group compared with the other two groups (56.6mg/dL vs 255mg/dL, 206mg/dL, P=0.0059 and 0.0078). ROC analysis was performed between the non-responder (NC) and responder groups (CR+PR) to identify the cut-off value of serum IgG4 as a predictive marker. As a result, AUC was 0.793 and the values of sensitivity and specificity were 0.85 and 0.64, respectively, under the cut-off values of 67.6mg/dL. Conclusions: In the majority of iRPF patients, glucocorticoid therapy resulted in a favorable response. Pre-treatment serum IgG4 concentration may have potential as a predictive biomarker of steroid treatment.

2022 ◽  
Jing Jin ◽  
Qidong Yang ◽  
Yangyang Yu ◽  
Lin Chen ◽  
Shouhua Pan

Abstract Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) is a highly aggressive urothelial carcinoma. Radical cystectomy (RC) is standard of treatment, but still more than 50% patients with cancer invading the muscularis propria or involving the regional lymph nodes will have metastatic recurrence. In CheckMate274 study, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor nivolumab as adjuvant treatment has shown effective for patients with MIUC. Tislelizumab is an anti-human PD-1 monoclonal IgG4 antibody which was specifically engineered to minimize FcɣR macrophage binding to abrogate antibody-dependent phagocytosis. But there is no report of tislelizumab as adjuvant treatment in MIUC currently. Here, we report a case of MIUC in a patient with PD-L1-negative, microsatellite stable (MSS), high tumor mutational burden (TMB-H) obtained complete response (CR) receiving tislelizumab therapy after surgery. Progression-free survival (PFS) exceeded 6 months since tislelizumab treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MIUC patient with PD-L1-negative, MSS and TMB-H who responded well to tislelizumab as adjuvant treatment. However, we still need more studies to assess the efficacy of tislelizumab as adjuvant treatment in MIUC and to confirm that TMB is a predicted biomarker of tislelizumab for efficacy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Liting Zhong ◽  
Xiaoyu Liu ◽  
Zelei Li ◽  
Xuebing Zhang ◽  
Yuli Wang ◽  

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) with proficient mismatch repair (pMMR)/microsatellite stable (MSS) is associated with limited response to programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor monotherapy. Limited data of PD-1 blockade combined with anti-angiogenic therapy in GBC are reported. One recurrent GBC patient with pMMR/MSS was treated with camrelizumab plus apatinib. After 4 cycles of combination therapy, the patient achieved a durable complete response with manageable toxicity. The next-generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that tumor mutation burden (TMB) was 7.26 mutants/Mb and PD-L1 expression was 10% (tumor proportion score) and 20% (immune proportion score). This case suggests that camrelizumab in combination with apatinib may be an effective treatment option for GBC patients with pMMR/MSS status, who have moderate expression of TMB and PD-L1. Additionally, TMB and PD-L1 expression may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting PD-1 inhibitor response of GBC. Furthermore, this needs to be verified in future studies.

Agnieszka Irena Jagiełło-Gruszfeld ◽  
Magdalena Rosinska ◽  
Malgorzata Meluch ◽  
Katarzyna Pogoda ◽  
Anna Niwińska ◽  

Neoadjuvant systemic therapy has now become the the standard in early breast cancer management. Chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab +/- pertuzumab targeted therapy can improve rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Achieving a pCR is considered a good prognostic factor, in particular in patients with more aggressive breast cancer subtypes such as TNBC or HER2 positive cancers. Furthermore, most studies demonstrate that chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is well tolerated. The retrospective analysis presented here concentrates on neoadjuvant therapy with the TCbH-P regimen, with a particular emphasis on patients over 60 years of age. We analysed the factors affecting the achievement of pCR and presented adverse effects of the applied therapies, which opened a discussion about optimizing the therapy of older patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Ala Ghobadian ◽  
Saba Mokhtari ◽  
Behnam Shariati ◽  
Leila Kamalzadeh ◽  
Mohsen Shati ◽  

Abstract Background: Medications currently recommended for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) usually relieve the severity of symptoms by as much as 20–30%, and satisfactory treatment is obtained in 40–60% of patients with OCD. Nevertheless, the remaining symptoms continue to impair the patients’ function. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate possible strategies to improve the mitigation of symptoms.In this study, the main objective was to examine and investigate the effectiveness of granisetron, which is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 (5-HT3) antagonist, as an adjunct therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, for the purpose of ameliorating OCD symptoms. Methods: fifty-eight patients diagnosed with OCD, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, who had a Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) score of more than 21 were recruited in a double-blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of 10 weeks to receive either granisetron (1 mg twice daily) and sertraline (100 mg daily initially followed by 200 mg daily after week 4) or placebo and sertraline. The primary outcome was OCD symptoms measured by the Y-BOCS.Results: Y-BOCS total score significantly dropped in both groups (28.9 to 17.7 for granisetron and 27.5 to 19.3 for placebo group with a slightly greater drop for granisetron group), while the granisetron group experienced a significantly greater reduction in obsession scores (Greenhouse-Geisser F(2.32,97.57)=4.52,p-value=0.01). Moreover, in comparison with the placebo group, the proportion of the patients showing complete response was considerably higher among the granisetron group (P-value <0.01). No major adverse effects were observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that granisetron augmentation of sertraline may increase the rate of response in patients with moderate to severe non-refractory OCD. Further studies are suggested in this regard.Trial registration: The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials on 27/03/2019 (; IRCT ID: IRCT20170123032145N3).

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Kristian Larson ◽  
Atlantis Russ ◽  
Hina Arif-Tiwari ◽  
Daruka Mahadevan ◽  
Alex Elliott ◽  

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