surgical methods
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Shiyuan Wan ◽  
Bin Xue ◽  
Yanhao Xiong

Lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion disease refers to the degeneration of intervertebral disc, rupture of fibrous ring, nucleus pulpous protrusion and stimulation or compression of nerve root. The import command in Mimics medical 3D reconstruction software was used to erase the irrelevant image data and obtain vertebral body images. The original 3D model of each vertebral body was built by 3D computing function. A three-dimensional finite element model was established to analyze the effect of different surgical methods on the mechanical distribution of the spine after disentomb. The stress distribution of the spine, intervertebral disc, and left and right articular cartilage at L4/L5 stage and the position shift of the fourth lumbar vertebra were analyzed under 7 working conditions of vertical, forward flexion, extension, left and right flexion, and left and right rotation. The results showed that the established model was effective, and the smaller the area of posterior laminar decompression was, the lesser the impact on spinal stability was. The PELD treatment of lumbar disc herniation had little impact on spinal biomechanics and could achieve good long-term biomechanical stability. Combining the clinical experiment method and finite element simulation, using the advantages of finite element software to optimize the design function can provide guidance for the design and improvement of medical devices and has important significance for the study of clinical mechanical properties and biomechanics.

2022 ◽  
Mitsuya Otsuka ◽  
Atsushi Hayashi ◽  
Naoki Tojo

Abstract Purpose: To compare surgical outcomes between Ex-PRESS® surgery (EXP) and trabeculectomy (Trab) for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with low preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP).Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective non-randomized study. We included POAG patients with preoperative IOP ≤16 mmHg who were taking tolerance glaucoma medications. We compared the surgical outcomes, postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, reduction rate of corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), visual acuity, and postoperative complications between POAG patients who underwent EXP (34 eyes) or Trab (38 eyes) and could be followed for >2 years.Results: Both surgeries significantly decreased the IOP (p<0.001): at 2 years, EXP provided decreases from 13.4 ± 2.3 to 10.2 ± 3.1 mmHg, Trab provided decreases from 13.5 ± 2.0 to 8.9 ± 3.2 mmHg. No significant differences were observed in the postoperative IOP (p=0.076), number of postoperative medications (p=0.263), success rate (p=0.900), reduction rate of ECD (p=0.410), or difference in visual acuity (p=0.174). The reduction rate of IOP was significantly high in the Trab group (p=0.047).Conclusions: Both surgeries significantly decreased IOP and were useful surgical methods for low-IOP glaucoma. Our results suggest that trabeculectomy can decrease IOP more than Ex-PRESS surgery but might have more complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 427
Jonathan Steinhäuser ◽  
Gerd Fabian Volk ◽  
Jovanna Thielker ◽  
Maren Geitner ◽  
Anna-Maria Kuttenreich ◽  

To determine treatment and outcome in a tertiary multidisciplinary facial nerve center, a retrospective observational study was performed of all patients referred between 2007 and 2018. Facial grading with the Stennert index, the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale, and the Facial Disability Index (FDI) were used for outcome evaluation; 1220 patients (58.4% female, median age: 50 years; chronic palsy: 42.8%) were included. Patients with acute and chronic facial palsy were treated in the center for a median of 3.6 months and 10.8 months, respectively. Dominant treatment in the acute phase was glucocorticoids ± acyclovir (47.2%), followed by a significant improvement of all outcome measures (p < 0.001). Facial EMG biofeedback training (21.3%) and botulinum toxin injections (11%) dominated the treatment in the chronic phase, all leading to highly significant improvements according to facial grading, FDI, and FaCE (p < 0.001). Upper eyelid weight (3.8%) and hypoglossal–facial-nerve jump suture (2.5%) were the leading surgical methods, followed by improvement of facial motor function (p < 0.001) and facial-specific quality of life (FDI, FaCE; p < 0.05). A standardized multidisciplinary team approach in a facial nerve center leads to improved facial and emotional function in patients with acute or chronic facial palsy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 918
Bruna Lopes ◽  
Patrícia Sousa ◽  
Rui Alvites ◽  
Mariana Branquinho ◽  
Ana Catarina Sousa ◽  

Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) can have several etiologies, such as trauma and iatrogenic interventions, that can lead to the loss of structure and/or function impairment. These changes can cause partial or complete loss of motor and sensory functions, physical disability, and neuropathic pain, which in turn can affect the quality of life. This review aims to revisit the concepts associated with the PNI and the anatomy of the peripheral nerve is detailed to explain the different types of injury. Then, some of the available therapeutic strategies are explained, including surgical methods, pharmacological therapies, and the use of cell-based therapies alone or in combination with biomaterials in the form of tube guides. Nevertheless, even with the various available treatments, it is difficult to achieve a perfect outcome with complete functional recovery. This review aims to enhance the importance of new therapies, especially in severe lesions, to overcome limitations and achieve better outcomes. The urge for new approaches and the understanding of the different methods to evaluate nerve regeneration is fundamental from a One Health perspective. In vitro models followed by in vivo models are very important to be able to translate the achievements to human medicine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 99 (12) ◽  
pp. 27-32
I. A. Dyachkov ◽  
I. Ya. Motus ◽  
A. V. Bazhenov ◽  
S. N. Skornyakov ◽  
R. B. Berdnikov

The objective of the study: a comparative study of immediate and long-term results of pulmonary tuberculoma precision resection with Nd:YAG-laser with a wavelength of 1,318 nm and atypical resection with suturing devices.Subjects and Methods. Two groups of 58 patients each were compared. The groups were comparable in terms of gender, age, the nature of the concomitant pathology and the main pathological process. In Group I, patients were operated on using precision 1,318-nm Nd:YAG-laser resection, and in Group II, the sublobar resection with suturing devices were used.Results. The mean duration of hospital stay in Groups I and II was 19.10 ± 6.02 and 19.20 ± 6.02 days respectively (p > 0.05), the duration of surgery made 65 [55; 75] and 55 [45; 60] minutes (p > 0.05), the mean volume of surgical blood loss was 50 [33; 70] and 70 [50; 165] ml (p > 0.05), and the mean duration of pleural cavity drainage after surgery was 4 [3; 5] and 4 [3; 6] days (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were noted in the mean volume of the resected part of the lung: 14.0 ± 7.4 mm3 in Group I versus 95.0 ± 9.7 mm3 in Group II (p ≤ 0.05). The complete clinical and radiological cure was achieved in 70% of patients in Group I and 82% in Group II. According to MSCT data, in 91.6% of cases, a thin linear scar is formed in the area of precision intervention.Conclusion: The surgical methods are comparable in terms of immediate and long-term results but precision laser resection minimizes the removal of intact tissue during the removal of tuberculomas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 675
Andrei Baskov ◽  
Igor A. Borshchenko ◽  
Vladimir Baskov ◽  
Anatoly Shekhter ◽  
Emil Sobol

Degenerative disease of the intervertebral discs (DDD) is currently a serious problem facing the world community. The surgical methods and conservative therapy used today, unfortunately, do not stop the pathological process, but serve as a palliative method that temporarily relieves pain and improves the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, at present, there is an active search for new methods of treating DDD. Among new techniques of treatment, biological methods, and minimally invasive surgery, including the use of laser radiation, which, depending on the laser parameters, can cause ablative or modifying effects on the disc tissue, have acquired considerable interest. Here, we analyze a new approach to solving the DDD problem: laser tissue modification. This review of publications is focused on the studies of the physicochemical foundations and clinical applications of a new method of laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs. Thermomechanical action of laser radiation modifies tissue and leads to its regeneration as well as to a long-term restoration of disc functions, elimination of pain and the return of patients to normal life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Pei-Rong Gao ◽  
Chi-Hui Wang ◽  
Yu-Jr Lin ◽  
Yu-Huei Huang ◽  
Ya-Ching Chang ◽  

AbstractThe automated blister epidermal micrograft (ABEM) is a newly introduced surgical transplantation for refractory vitiligo. Comparative analysis of other surgical methods is lacking. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the efficacy, safety, and experience of ABEM with conventional suction blister epidermal graft (SBEG). A total of 118 anatomically based vitiligo lesions from 75 patients were included. The primary outcome was the degree of repigmentation; the patient and operator experience were evaluated. SBEG had a significantly greater incidence of repigmentation (p < 0.001), as measured by the Physician Global Assessment, as well as improvements in the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, particularly on the face/neck area (p < 0.001). ABEM, on the contrary, had reduced donor harvest time, a better patient operative experience, and more significant Dermatology Life Quality Index improvements. In a subgroup of 38 lesions from ten patients who received both SBEG and ABEM concomitantly, there was no difference in the degree of repigmentation in the same recipient area. Overall, the degree of repigmentation for SBEG is higher than ABEM, especially in the mobilized region, and the cost is less expensive. On the contrary, ABEM requires less procedure learning curve and can supply a greater transplanting zone with shorter donor site recovery. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of two blister grafting procedures is essential for optimal surgical outcomes for vitiligo grafting.


Modern medicine has achieved significant results in the development of techniques to avoid surgeries. However, surgical methods are still one of the main tools for treating pathologies in the human body. Plastic surgery and cosmetology are gaining popularity every year, and sports injuries require the use of combined treatment methods, but any such intervention leads to the risk of keloids. The younger the person, the higher the likelihood of developing a keloid, due to the high degree of elasticity of the skin at an earlier age, which is prone to scarring than in older people. Women are at higher risk of developing keloids than men because their skin is more elastic. Thus, children and young women are most at risk of keloid formation, both as a result of physiological processes of skin scarring and preference for plastic surgery, cosmetic procedures and other methods of correction. In world pharmaceutical practice, there are not enough existing ways to prevent the development of keloid. It is necessary to conduct research on the selection of a fundamentally new structural basis for a transdermal therapeutic system containing the most effective and safe compounds of the regenerating and antioxidant mechanisms of action (vitamins and other biologically active compounds) from the point of view of preventing the formation of keloids, which will help in solving the problem of not only preventing the formation of keloids in the dermis, but also its subsequent growth and exit to the surface layers of the skin.

2022 ◽  
G. William Arnett ◽  
Lorenzo Trevisiol ◽  
Elisabetta Grendene ◽  
Richard P. McLaughlin ◽  
Antonio D'Agostino

This paper is divided into Part 1, the study findings, and Part 2, a detailed explanation of orthodontic and surgical methods used in the study. In this Part 1, treatment protocols will be mentioned, but explained in Part 2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Dong Yang ◽  
Ying Piao ◽  
Fengshun Yuan ◽  
Hongtao Chen ◽  
Ding Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery reduces the local recurrence and improves the prognosis. However, a considerable part of patients developed digestive reaction in daily treatment. In order to explore the correlation between breast radiotherapy and gastric toxicity, we investigated the clinic symptoms and stomach dose during DIBH or FB mode while left-sided breast cancer patients (LSBCP) receiving radiotherapy. Methods In the study, 124 LSBCP received adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery at our department were analyzed clinical characteristics and enquired about gastrointestinal side effects after treatment. Moreover, dosimetric parameters were assessed. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in age, T staging, N staging, hormone receptors, human epidermal receptor-2 (HER2), surgical methods, fractionated regimen, and chemotherapy conditions. However, larger stomach volumes and higher fractionated dose (Dmax/F) were associated with a statistically significantly greater risk for acute radiotherapy toxicity. In addition, the use of the DIBH gating technique (FB/DIBH) reduced the incidence of digestive reactions. Conclusion In order to cut down gastric side effects after breast radiotherapy, large meals should be avoided before treatment. DIBH treatment should be implemented in centers where conditions are satisfied to reduce radiotherapy side effects. Furthermore, dose limitation in stomach should be considered when the radiotherapy plan was formulated, especially for the patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy.

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