graded materials
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 472
Amir Partovi ◽  
Mohammad Mehdi Shahzamanian ◽  
Peidong Wu

The effects of cladding layers of rate-sensitive materials on the ductility and fracture strain of compressed rings are numerically investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) and employing the Johnson–Cook (J–C) model. The results show that ductility is governed by the behavior of the material that is located at the ring outer wall regardless of the volume fraction of the core and clad materials. However, as the number of layers increases, this influence becomes less noticeable. Moreover, as barreling increases at the outer wall and decreases at the inner wall, fracture strain increases. Furthermore, the effects of ring shape factor and bonding type of clad and core materials are numerically evaluated. The numerical results show that less force per unit volume is required to fracture narrower rings and that using a noise diffusion pattern at the interface of the materials is more suitable to simulate crack propagation in the compressed rings and functionally graded materials (FGMs). Additionally, delamination has a direct relation to layer thickness and can occur even in the presence of perfect bonding conditions owing to differences among the material and fracture parameters of laminated layers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 321-371
Ismail Barbaros ◽  
Yongmin Yang ◽  
Babak Safaei ◽  
Zhicheng Yang ◽  
Zhaoye Qin ◽  

Abstract Functionally graded porous (FGP) nanocomposites are the most promising materials among the manufacturing and materials sector due to their adjustable physical, mechanical, and operational properties for distinctive engineering applications for maximized efficiency. Therefore, investigating the underlying physical and materialistic phenomena of such materials is vital. This research was conducted to analyze the preparation, fabrication, applications, and elastic properties of functionally graded materials (FGMs). The research investigated for both porous and nonporous synthesis, preparation, and manufacturing methods for ceramics, metallic, and polymeric nanocomposites in the first section, which is followed by deep research of the development of elastic properties of the above-mentioned materials. Main nano-reinforcing agents used in FGMs to improve elastic properties were found to be graphene platelets, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanofibers. In addition, research studied the impact of nano-reinforcing agent on the elastic properties of the FGMs. Shape, size, composition, and distribution of nano-reinforcing agents were analyzed and classified. Furthermore, the research concentrated on modeling of FGP nanocomposites. Extensive mathematical, numerical, and computational modeling were analyzed and classified for different engineering analysis types including buckling, thermal, vibrational, thermoelasticity, static, and dynamic bending. Finally, manufacturing and design methods regarding different materials were summarized. The most common results found in this study are that the addition of reinforcement units to any type of porous and nonporous nanocomposites significantly increases materialistic and material properties. To extend, compressive and tensile stresses, buckling, vibrational, elastic, acoustical, energy absorption, and stress distribution endurance are considerably enhanced when reinforcing is applied to porous and nonporous nanocomposite assemblies. Ultimately, the review concluded that the parameters such as shape, size, composition, and distribution of the reinforcing units are vital in terms of determining the final mechanical and materialistic properties of nanocomposites.

Mingyong Jia ◽  
Fei Chen ◽  
Yueqi Wu ◽  
Like Xu ◽  
Qiang Shen ◽  

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