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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Noora Lari ◽  
Mohammad Al-Ansari ◽  
Engi El-Maghraby

Purpose In patriarchal settings, cultural barriers continue to influence women’s participation in positions of leadership and political authority. This paper aims to explore these findings in light of the theoretical concepts of “hegemonic masculinity” and “patriarchy,” which explain gender disparities in the occupancy of political power and leadership positions in Qatar. Design/methodology/approach Data from original face-to-face national surveys conducted among subjects in Qatar were used, including 1,611 completed household interviews. Findings The findings were consistent with the prevailing patriarchal beliefs present in Qatari society and Arab Gulf States. The analysis showed that there was greater significant support for men holding key leadership and authority positions than women. Individual-level factors were found to have a significant association with attitudes favoring women. Compared to respondents who had never attended school, those who had completed secondary school and those who had partaken in higher education favored having women in leadership roles. Practical implications As a means to fix the gender imbalance within the occupancy of positions of political power in Qatar, this study recommends putting substantial efforts into increasing the number of interventions underpinning gender equality through social awareness programs that may improve the public’s perceptions. Furthermore, gender-equitable affirmative actions are needed to promote the inclusion of women in power and increase their presence in leadership roles. Originality/value This study is among the very few that have theoretically and empirically addressed the issue of women’s authority and involvement in key leadership roles in the context of Qatar.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
William A. Kerr ◽  
Jill E. Hobbs

Abstract Background On an individual level, food security has multiple dimensions and consumers exhibit heterogeneity in the extent to which different attributes matter in their quest for enhanced food security. The aim of this paper is to explain how the quest for individual food security arises and its dynamic nature and its implications for how food security-enhancing attributes are defined and how they are signaled, and for the role of regulators and food supply chains in establishing credible signals. Results The paper finds that the quest for enhanced individual food security is a dynamic process that responds to the disequilibrium that change brings. The changing role of standards and grades as signals in food markets is discussed as a precursor to considering the implications for both market and non-market (regulatory) failure in determining the appropriate role for the public sector in regulating food safety and quality standards and labeling. The rise of private standards is examined, along with a consideration of how these standards differ in terms of scope and objective and their implications for international trade in increasingly globalized food supply chains. Conclusions Despite the growth of private standards, a clear role remains for mandatory public standards, yet challenges arise when these standards differ across countries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 974
Author(s):  
Mathewos Temesgen ◽  
Abebe Getahun ◽  
Brook Lemma ◽  
Geert P. J. Janssens

This study aimed to investigate the natural feeding behavior of Nile tilapia in Lake Langeno, Ethiopia, with emphasis on potential spatial, size and seasonal effects on ingested food items. This study of the food and feeding biology of O. niloticus in Lake Langeno, Ethiopia, was conducted from March 2016to February 2017. Fish samples were collected monthly from six different sampling sites using different mesh sizes of gillnets. A total of 610 fish specimens with full stomachs were considered for the assessment of feeding biology. In total, seven food items, namely phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, detritus, macrophytes, fish parts and nematodes, were identified from the fish stomach contents. Phytoplankton was the most commonly consumed food prey, followed by detritus, zooplankton and macrophytes. The other food items were occasionally and randomly consumed. Phytoplankton and detritus were the dominant food prey in the dry season, with zooplankton and macrophytes the main prey during the wet months. The contribution of phytoplankton, zooplankton and insects were slightly highest in small-sized groups (<10 cm), whereas detritus, macrophytes and fish parts were highest in larger-size groups (>20 cm) (p < 0.05). The present results point to a concurrence of the relative importance of dietary items at the individual level, species level and among the study sites. Phytoplankton was the primary consumed food item, which indicates the specialist feeding strategy of Nile tilapia in the lake. Generally, food items of plant origin, typically associated with less protein content than animal origin food items, dominated the stomach contents of Nile tilapia. The dietary pattern of Nile tilapia in Lake Langeno shifts with size and season, aspects that might warrant further study in view of aquaculture applications as well as climate change.


Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Grant A. Mackenzie ◽  
Isaac Osei ◽  
Rasheed Salaudeen ◽  
Ousman Secka ◽  
Umberto D’Alessandro ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) effectively prevent pneumococcal disease, but the global impact of pneumococcal vaccination is hampered by its cost. The evaluation of reduced dose schedules of PCV includes measurement of effects on immunogenicity and carriage acquisition compared to standard schedules. The relevance and feasibility of trials of reduced dose schedules is greatest in middle- and low-income countries, such as The Gambia, where the introduction of PCV resulted in good disease control but where transmission of vaccine-type pneumococci persists. We designed a large cluster-randomised field trial of an alternative reduced dose schedule of PCV compared to the standard schedule, the PVS trial. We will also conduct a sub-study to evaluate the individual-level effect of the two schedules on carriage acquisition, immunogenicity, and co-administration of PCV with yellow fever vaccine, the PVS-AcqImm trial. Methods PVS-AcqImm is a prospective, cluster-randomised trial of one dose of PCV scheduled at age 6 weeks with a booster dose at age 9 months (i.e. alternative ‘1+1’ schedule) compared to three primary doses scheduled at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age (i.e. standard ‘3+0’ schedule). Sub-groups within the alternative schedule group will receive yellow fever vaccine separately or co-administered with PCV at 9 months of age. The primary endpoints are (a) rate of nasopharyngeal vaccine-type pneumococcal acquisition from 9 to 14 months of age, (b) geometric mean concentration of vaccine-type pneumococcal IgG at 18 months of age, and (c) proportions with yellow fever neutralising antibody titre ≥8 four weeks after administration of yellow fever vaccine. Participants and field staff will not be masked to group allocation while the measurement of laboratory endpoints will be masked. Approximately equal numbers of participants will be resident in each of 28 geographic clusters (14 clusters in alternative and standard schedule groups); 784 enrolled for acquisition measurements and 336 for immunogenicity measurements. Discussion Analysis will account for potential non-independence of measurements by cluster and so interpretation of effects will be at the individual level (i.e. a population of individuals). PVS-AcqImm will evaluate whether acquisition of vaccine-type pneumococci is reduced by the alternative compared to the standard schedule, which is required if the alternative schedule is to be effective. Likewise, evidence of superior immune response at 18 months of age and safety of PCV co-administration with yellow fever vaccine will support decision-making regarding the use of the alternative 1+1 schedule. Acquisition and immunogenicity outcomes will be essential for the interpretation of the results of the large field trial comparing the two schedules. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number 72821613.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 14
Author(s):  
Paul Schneider ◽  
Ben van Hout ◽  
Marike Heisen ◽  
John Brazier ◽  
Nancy Devlin

Introduction Standard valuation methods, such as TTO and DCE are inefficient. They require data from hundreds if not thousands of participants to generate value sets. Here, we present the Online elicitation of Personal Utility Functions (OPUF) tool; a new type of online survey for valuing EQ-5D-5L health states using more efficient, compositional elicitation methods, which even allow estimating value sets on the individual level. The aims of this study are to report on the development of the tool, and to test the feasibility of using it to obtain individual-level value sets for the EQ-5D-5L. Methods We applied an iterative design approach to adapt the PUF method, previously developed by Devlin et al., for use as a standalone online tool. Five rounds of qualitative interviews, and one quantitative pre-pilot were conducted to get feedback on the different tasks. After each round, the tool was refined and re-evaluated. The final version was piloted in a sample of 50 participants from the UK. A demo of the EQ-5D-5L OPUF survey is available at: https://eq5d5l.me Results On average, it took participants about seven minutes to complete the OPUF Tool. Based on the responses, we were able to construct a personal EQ-5D-5L value set for each of the 50 participants. These value sets predicted a participants' choices in a discrete choice experiment with an accuracy of 80%. Overall, the results revealed that health state preferences vary considerably on the individual-level. Nevertheless, we were able to estimate a group-level value set for all 50 participants with reasonable precision. Discussion We successfully piloted the OPUF Tool and showed that it can be used to derive a group-level as well as personal value sets for the EQ-5D-5L. Although the development of the online tool is still in an early stage, there are multiple potential avenues for further research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrzej Z. Wasilczuk ◽  
Qing Cheng Meng ◽  
Andrew R. McKinstry-Wu

Previous studies have demonstrated that the brain has an intrinsic resistance to changes in arousal state. This resistance is most easily measured at the population level in the setting of general anesthesia and has been termed neural inertia. To date, no study has attempted to determine neural inertia in individuals. We hypothesize that individuals with markedly increased or decreased neural inertia might be at increased risk for complications related to state transitions, from awareness under anesthesia, to delayed emergence or confusion/impairment after emergence. Hence, an improved theoretical and practical understanding of neural inertia may have the potential to identify individuals at increased risk for these complications. This study was designed to explicitly measure neural inertia in individuals and empirically test the stochastic model of neural inertia using spectral analysis of the murine EEG. EEG was measured after induction of and emergence from isoflurane administered near the EC50 dose for loss of righting in genetically inbred mice on a timescale that minimizes pharmacokinetic confounds. Neural inertia was assessed by employing classifiers constructed using linear discriminant or supervised machine learning methods to determine if features of EEG spectra reliably demonstrate path dependence at steady-state anesthesia. We also report the existence of neural inertia at the individual level, as well as the population level, and that neural inertia decreases over time, providing direct empirical evidence supporting the predictions of the stochastic model of neural inertia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Author(s):  
Fayika Farhat Nova ◽  
Amanda Coupe ◽  
Elizabeth D. Mynatt ◽  
Shion Guha ◽  
Jessica A. Pater

A growing body of HCI research has sought to understand how online networks are utilized in the adoption and maintenance of disordered activities and behaviors associated with mental illness, including eating habits. However, individual-level influences over discrete online eating disorder (ED) communities are not yet well understood. This study reports results from a comprehensive network and content analysis (combining computational topic modeling and qualitative thematic analysis) of over 32,000 public tweets collected using popular ED-related hashtags during May 2020. Our findings indicate that this ED network in Twitter consists of multiple smaller ED communities where a majority of the nodes are exposed to unhealthy ED contents through retweeting certain influential central nodes. The emergence of novel linguistic indicators and trends (e.g., "#meanspo") also demonstrates the evolving nature of the ED network. This paper contextualizes ED influence in online communities through node-level participation and engagement, as well as relates emerging ED contents with established online behaviors, such as self-harassment.


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