intrinsic resistance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Andrzej Z. Wasilczuk ◽  
Qing Cheng Meng ◽  
Andrew R. McKinstry-Wu

Previous studies have demonstrated that the brain has an intrinsic resistance to changes in arousal state. This resistance is most easily measured at the population level in the setting of general anesthesia and has been termed neural inertia. To date, no study has attempted to determine neural inertia in individuals. We hypothesize that individuals with markedly increased or decreased neural inertia might be at increased risk for complications related to state transitions, from awareness under anesthesia, to delayed emergence or confusion/impairment after emergence. Hence, an improved theoretical and practical understanding of neural inertia may have the potential to identify individuals at increased risk for these complications. This study was designed to explicitly measure neural inertia in individuals and empirically test the stochastic model of neural inertia using spectral analysis of the murine EEG. EEG was measured after induction of and emergence from isoflurane administered near the EC50 dose for loss of righting in genetically inbred mice on a timescale that minimizes pharmacokinetic confounds. Neural inertia was assessed by employing classifiers constructed using linear discriminant or supervised machine learning methods to determine if features of EEG spectra reliably demonstrate path dependence at steady-state anesthesia. We also report the existence of neural inertia at the individual level, as well as the population level, and that neural inertia decreases over time, providing direct empirical evidence supporting the predictions of the stochastic model of neural inertia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Mike-Andrew Westhoff ◽  
Marie Schuler-Ortoli ◽  
Daniela Zerrinius ◽  
Amina Hadzalic ◽  
Andrea Schuster ◽  

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common solid tumour in children and, despite current treatment with a rather aggressive combination therapy, accounts for 10% of all deaths associated with paediatric cancer. Breaking the tumour cells’ intrinsic resistance to therapy-induced cell death should lead to less aggressive and more effective treatment options. In other tumour entities, this has been achieved by modulating the balance between the various pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family with small molecule inhibitors. To evaluate the therapeutic benefits of ABT-199 (Venetoclax), a Bcl-2 inhibitor, and ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a dual Bcl-XL/Bcl-2 inhibitor, increasingly more relevant model systems were investigated. Starting from established MB cell lines, progressing to primary patient-derived material and finally an experimental tumour system imbedded in an organic environment were chosen. Assessment of the metabolic activity (a surrogate readout for population viability), the induction of DNA fragmentation (apoptosis) and changes in cell number (the combined effect of alterations in proliferation and cell death induction) revealed that ABT-263, but not ABT-199, is a promising candidate for combination therapy, synergizing with cell death-inducing stimuli. Interestingly, in the experimental tumour setting, the sensitizing effect of ABT-263 seems to be predominantly mediated via an anti-proliferative and not a pro-apoptotic effect, opening a future line of investigation. Our data show that modulation of specific members of the Bcl-2 family might be a promising therapeutic addition for the treatment of MB.

2022 ◽  
Ola E Salama ◽  
Aleeza C Gerstein

Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis ('yeast infection') and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, though the incidence of non-albicans yeast species is increasing. The azole fluconazole is the primary antifungal drug used to treat R/VVC yet isolates from some species have intrinsic resistance to fluconazole, and recurrent infection can occur even with fluconazole-susceptible populations. The second-line broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug, boric acid, is an alternative treatment that has been found to successfully treat complicated VVC infections. Far less is known about how boric acid inhibits growth of yeast isolates in different morphologies compared to fluconazole. We found significant differences in drug resistance and drug tolerance (the ability of a subpopulation to grow slowly in high levels of drug) between C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis isolates, with the specific relationships dependent on both drug and phenotype. Population-level variation for both susceptibility and tolerance was broader for fluconazole than boric acid in all species. Unlike fluconazole, which neither prevented hyphal formation nor disrupted mature biofilms, boric acid inhibited C. albicans hyphal formation and reduced mature biofilm biomass and metabolic activity in all isolates in a dose-dependent manner. Variation in planktonic response did not generally predict biofilm phenotypes. Overall, our findings illustrate that boric acid is broadly effective at inhibiting growth across many isolates and morphologies, which could explain why it is an effective treatment for R/VVC.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 279
Anna Kawiak ◽  
Anna Kostecka

Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer accounts for around two-thirds of breast cancer occurrences, with endocrine therapy serving as first-line therapy in most cases. Targeting estrogen signaling pathways, which play a central role in regulating ER+ breast cell proliferation and survival, has proven to improve patient outcomes. However, despite the undeniable advantages of endocrine therapy, a subset of breast cancer patients develop acquired or intrinsic resistance to ER-targeting agents, limiting their efficacy. The activation of downstream ER signaling pathways upregulates pro-survival mechanisms that have been shown to influence the response of cells to endocrine therapy. The Bcl-2 family proteins play a central role in cell death regulation and have been shown to contribute to endocrine therapy resistance, supporting the survival of breast cancer cells and enhancing cell death evasion. Due to the overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in ER-positive breast cancer, the role of these proteins as potential targets in hormone-responsive breast cancer is growing in interest. In particular, recent advances in the development of BH3 mimetics have enabled their evaluation in preclinical studies with ER+ breast cancer models, and BH3 mimetics have entered early ER+ breast cancer clinical trials. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in ER+ breast cancer. Furthermore, an overview of recent advances in research regarding the efficacy of BH3 mimetics in ER+ breast cancer has been provided.

2022 ◽  
Soo Chan Lee ◽  
Alexis Garcia ◽  
Eun Young Huh

Procedures such as solid organ transplants and cancer treatments can leave many patients in an immunocompromised state resulting in an increased susceptibility to opportunistic diseases including fungal infections. Mucormycosis infections are continually emerging and pose a serious threat to immunocompromised patients. Currently there has been a sharp increase in mucormycosis cases as a secondary infection in patients battling SARS-CoV-2 infections. Mucorales fungi are notorious for presenting resistance to most antifungal drugs. The absence of effective means to treat these infections results in mortality rates approaching 100% in cases of disseminated infection. One of the most effective antifungal drug classes currently available are echinocandins. Echinocandins seem to be efficacious in treatment of many other fungal infections. Unfortunately, susceptibility testing has found that echinocandins have no to little effect on Mucorales. In this study, we found that the model Mucorales Mucor circinelloides genome carries three copies of the genes encoding for the echinocandin target protein β-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase (fksA, fksB, and fksC). Interestingly, we revealed that exposing M. circinelloides to micafungin significantly increased the expression of the fksA and fksB genes when compared to an untreated control. We further uncovered that the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin is responsible for the overexpression of fksA and fksB as deletion of calcineurin results in a decrease in expression of all three fks genes and a lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to micafungin. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the fks gene duplication and overexpression by calcineurin contribute to the intrinsic resistance to echinocandins in Mucor.

2022 ◽  
Samson Ghilu ◽  
Christopher L. Morton ◽  
Angelina V. Vaseva ◽  
Siyuan Zheng ◽  
Raushan T. Kurmasheva ◽  

Aim: Despite aggressive multiagent protocols, patients with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have poor prognosis. In a recent high-risk trial (ARST0431), 25% of patients failed within the first year, while on therapy and 80% had tumor progression within 24 months. However, the mechanisms for tumor resistance are essentially unknown. Here we explore the use of preclinical models to develop resistance to complex chemotherapy regimens used in ARST0431. Methods: A Single Mouse Testing (SMT) protocol was used to evaluate the sensitivity of 34 RMS xenograft models to one cycle of vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide (VAC) treatment. Tumor response was determined by caliper measurement, and tumor regression and event-free survival (EFS) were used as endpoints for evaluation. Treated tumors at regrowth were transplanted into recipient mice, and the treatment was repeated until tumors progressed during the treatment period (i.e., became resistant). At transplant, tumor tissue was stored for biochemical and omics analysis. Results: The sensitivity to VAC of 34 RMS models was determined. EFS varied from 3 weeks to > 20 weeks. Tumor models were classified as having intrinsic resistance, intermediate sensitivity, or high sensitivity to VAC therapy. Resistance to VAC was developed in multiple models after 2-5 cycles of therapy; however, there were examples where sensitivity remained unchanged after 3 cycles of treatment. Conclusion: The SMT approach allows for in vivo assessment of drug sensitivity and development of drug resistance in a large number of RMS models. As such, it provides a platform for assessing in vivo drug resistance mechanisms at a “population” level, simulating conditions in vivo that lead to clinical resistance. These VAC-resistant models represent “high-risk” tumors that mimic a preclinical phase 2 population and will be valuable for identifying novel agents active against VAC-resistant disease.

Camila Rafaeli Bocatti ◽  
Eduara Ferreira ◽  
Renan Augusto Ribeiro ◽  
Ligia Maria de Oliveira Chueire ◽  
Jakeline Renata Marçon Delamuta ◽  

Abstract The use of inoculants carrying diazotrophic and other plant growth–promoting bacteria plays an essential role in the Brazilian agriculture, with a growing use of microorganism-based bioproducts. However, in the last few years, some farmers have multiplied microorganisms in the farm, known as “on farm” production, including inoculants of Bradyrhizobium spp. for soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) and Azospirillum brasilense for corn (Zea mays L.) or co-inoculation in soybean. The objective was to assess the microbiological quality of such inoculants concerning the target microorganisms and contaminants. In the laboratory, 18 samples taken in five states were serial diluted and spread on culture media for obtaining pure and morphologically distinct colonies of bacteria, totaling 85 isolates. Molecular analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 25 genera of which 44% harbor species potentially pathogenic to humans; only one of the isolates was identified as Azospirillum brasilense, whereas no isolate was identified as Bradyrhizobium. Among 34 isolates belonging to genera harboring species potentially pathogenic to humans, 12 had no resistance to antibiotics, six presented intrinsic resistance, and 18 presented non-intrinsic resistance to at least one antibiotic. One of the samples analyzed with a shotgun-based metagenomics approach to check for the microbial diversity showed several genera of microorganisms, mainly Acetobacter (~ 32% of sequences) but not the target microorganism. The samples of inoculants produced on farm were highly contaminated with non-target microorganisms, some of them carrying multiple resistances to antibiotics.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Elisabetta de Alteriis ◽  
Angela Maione ◽  
Annarita Falanga ◽  
Rosa Bellavita ◽  
Stefania Galdiero ◽  

The high virulence of Candida auris, a pathogen fungus considered as a global threat for public health, is due to its peculiar traits such as its intrinsic resistance to conventional antifungals. Its biofilm lifestyle certainly promotes the prolonged survival of C. auris after disinfection or antifungal treatments. In this work, for the first time, we detected persister cells in a biofilm of C. auris in a microwell plate model, following caspofungin treatment. Furthermore, we showed how persisters can progressively develop a new biofilm in situ, mimicking the re-colonization of a surface which may be responsible for recalcitrant infections. Plant-derived compounds, such as essential oils, may represent a valid alternative to combat fungal infections. Here, Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, as free or encapsulated in liposomes, was used to eradicate primary and persister-derived biofilms of C. auris, confirming the great potential of alternative compounds against emergent fungal pathogens. As in other Candida species, the action of essential oils against C. auris involves ROS production and affects the expression of some biofilm-related genes.

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