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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-45
Biqing Chen

ABSTRACT Introduction: Taekwondo is one of the main events of the Olympic Games. It mainly uses hands and feet for fighting or confrontation and the competition is extremely fierce. Therefore, Taekwondo is more prone to muscle, bone, and joint sports injuries. Objective: To understand the characteristics of taekwondo sports injuries. Methods: Using the literature and questionnaire survey methods, mathematical statistics is used to investigate the sports injuries of young Taekwondo athletes. Results: Among 100 young Taekwondo athletes, 93individuals had different degrees of sports injuries, accounting for 93%, and 7had no sports injuries, accounting for only 7%. The total number of injuries was 160 or 1.6injuries per capita. Conclusions: Athletes should improve their ideological understanding and training level and pay attention to the timely treatment of acute injuries, which can effectively reduce sports injuries. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

Charifa Haouraji ◽  
Badia Mounir ◽  
Ilham Mounir ◽  
Laila Elmazouzi ◽  
Abdelmajid Farchi

In a comprehensive LMDI-STIRPAT-ARDL framework, this research investigates the residential electricity consumption (REC)-income nexus in Morocco for the period 1990 to 2018. The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) results show that economic activity and electricity intensity are the leading drivers of Morocco’s REC, followed by population and residential structure. And then, the LMDI analysis was combined with stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT) analysis and the bounds testing approach to search for a long-run equilibrium relationship. The empirical results show that REC, economic growth, urbanization, and electricity intensity are cointegrated. The results further show that there exists a U-shaped relationship between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and REC: an increase in per capita GDP reduces REC initially; but, after reaching a turning point (the GDPPC level of 17,145.22 Dh), further increases in per capita GDP increase REC. Regarding urbanization, the results reveal that it has no significant impact on Morocco’s REC. The stability parameters of the short and long-term coefficients of residential electricity demand function are tested. The results of these tests showed a stable pattern. Finally, based on the findings mentioned above, policy implications for guiding the country's development and electricity planning under energy and environmental constraints are given.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 22-30
Muhammed Çelik ◽  
Zehra Vildan Serin ◽  

Predicting a sustainable food safety policy for the near future is among Turkey's priority problems. In this context, this study aims to predict Turkey's sustainable food safety policies. For this reason, the system dynamics model, which is a dynamic cycle-based method with stock and flow diagrams, is used in this paper. This study supposed the six different scenarios for 2020 and 2050. Data were selected as population, productivity rate, arable land fertility rate, and annual food consumption (per capita). The purpose of creating these scenarios; To determine the most appropriate policy to ensure food safety in Turkey. In the first scenario, we assumed that the current situation continues. In the second scenario, the average productivity rate was increased by 1.5%. The third scenario assumes that annual per capita food consumption rises to 1.2 tonnes per year. In the fourth scenario, the total fertility rate is accelerated by 2%. In the fifth scenario, we assumed that the arable land loss rate decreased by 1/3. Finally, we assumed that the sixth scenario covers all the second, third, fourth, and fifth scenarios and that 2 points reduce food losses. In conclusion, the findings show that food security responds positively in scenarios 2 and 6. However, in other scenarios, food security is negatively affected. The findings show that the sixth scenario is the best-case scenario. To ensure food security, it is necessary to reduce arable land losses and food waste. Training farmers and control of the food supply chain will be beneficial for sustainable food security in Turkey. We recommend that policymakers consider these recommendations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Andi Riyanto ◽  
Syarwani Canon ◽  
Ivan Rahmad Santoso

This study aims to determine the factors that influence the distribution of income in Sulawesi. The data used is data sourced from the Central Statistics Agency, for the period 2011-2020 in 6 Sulawesi Island Provinces. The method used is multiple regression analysis with the help of the eviews 9 application. The results show that per capita expenditure has a positive and significant effect on income distribution, average years of schooling has a negative and significant effect on income distribution, life expectancy has a negative but not significant effect on income distribution.

BMC Nutrition ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Hasinthi Swarnamali ◽  
Ranil Jayawardena ◽  
Michail Chourdakis ◽  
Priyanga Ranasinghe

Abstract Background Although it is reported in numerous interventional and observational studies, that a low-fat diet is an effective method to combat overweight and obesity, the relationship at the global population level is not well established. This study aimed to quantify the associations between worldwide per capita fat supply and prevalence of overweight and obesity and further classify this association based on per capita Gross National Income (GNI). Methods A total of 93 countries from four GNI groups were selected. Country-specific overweight and obesity prevalence data were retrieved from the most recent WHO Global Health Observatory database. Per capita supply of fat and calories were obtained from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization database; FAOSTAT, Food Balance Sheet for years 2014–2016. The categorizations of countries were done based on GNI based classification by the World Bank. Results Among the selected countries, the overweight prevalence ranged from 3.9% (India) to 78.8% (Kiribati), while obesity prevalence ranged from 3.6% (Bangladesh) to 46.0% (Kiribati). The highest and the lowest per capita fat supply from total calorie supply were documented in Australia (41.2%) and Madagascar (10.5%) respectively. A significant strong positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of overweight (r = 0.64, p < 0.001) and obesity (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) with per capita fat supply. The lower ends of both trend lines were densely populated by the low- and lower-middle-income countries and the upper ends of both lines were greatly populated by the high-income countries. Conclusions Per capita fat supply per country is significantly associated with both prevalence of overweight and obesity.

2022 ◽  
Håkan Leifman ◽  
Kalle Dramstad ◽  
Emil Juslin

Abstract BackgroundThe closing of bars, restaurants and international borders during the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant changes in alcohol availability. The study provides a first systematic overview of the monthly development of alcohol sales in Europe during the pandemic in order to determine the effect of closed borders on the sales and consumption of alcohol.MethodsThe study covers 60 months from January 2015 to December 2020 in 14 northern-European countries with excise revenue data for beer, wine, spirits separately and summed, converted into litres of pure alcohol per capita 15+ as a proxy for alcohol sales. March-December 2020 is seen as the pandemic period. The analyses consist of (1) descriptive trends of sales before and during the pandemic, (2) assessment of the pandemic impact on sales by time-series analyses and (3) case studies of countries with substantial cross-border inflow or outflow of alcohol.ResultsThe result shows an overall reduction in alcohol sales during the pandemic. Nevertheless, the results differ based on the level of cross-border purchasing flows pre-pandemic, as countries with high cross-border inflow saw an increase in domestic sales as the pandemic hit. ConclusionThe closing of intra-European borders had a significant redistributing effect on alcohol sales. While noting sales increases, cross-border inflow countries generally saw a decrease in total alcohol consumption as not all cross-border purchases were replaced by domestic sales. This has important policy implications as large volumes of cross-border inflow of alcohol can negatively affect excise revenue as well as public health outcomes. The methodology can be used to further explore the reliance of different purchasing streams in a domestic alcohol market.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 326
Mengmeng Jia ◽  
Lin Zhen ◽  
Yu Xiao

Food resource is an important bond that connects human beings and nature. In this study, we investigated the changes in food consumption and nutrition intake in Kazakhstan from a spatial and temporal perspective, from 2001 to 2018. The data were obtained from the Bureau of Statistics, international organizations and our social interview work. After the start of the 21st century, it was found that per capita food consumption significantly increased; however, the consumption of crop, vegetables and milk decreased. Per capita meat consumption was similar in both urban and rural areas. However, some food consumption showed differences between urban and rural areas. Changes of food consumption quantity and structure also had some effects on nutrient intake and the proportion of nutrients. Per capita energy intake in the national, urban and rural areas all increased remarkably. The energy intake changes in eastern states increased much more than that in western states. Protein intake in rural and urban areas was similar; however, the gap between carbohydrates and fat intake in urban and rural areas increased. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fat in different states showed the same trend. Food consumption and nutrition intake are affected by economic, social and ecological factors.

2022 ◽  
Raul Abreu de Assis ◽  
Mazilio Coronel Malavazi ◽  
Rubens Pazim ◽  
Gustavo Cannale ◽  
Moiseis Cecconello ◽  

Abstract In the analysis of anthropogenic impact on the environment arises the question of whether the shapes of preserved habitat fragments play an important role in the conservation of wild species. In this work we use a very simple mathematical model based on a reaction-diffusion equation to analyze the effects of geometric shape and area on the permanence of populations in habitat fragments. Our results indicate that a dimensionless quantity calculated from a combination of biological variables is the main component that determines if the species survives in the preserved fragment and whether its geometric shape is important. We provide a methodology to calculate critical area sizes for which population size is most affected by fragment shape. The calculation is based on four quantitative variables: maximum per capita reproduction rate, per capita mortality rate outside the fragment, carrying capacity in the conserved environment and mobility in the disturbed environment. The methodology is illustrated by a preliminary study, in which the model is used to estimate threshold area sizes for habitat fragments for the threatened species Sapajus xanthosternos .

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 163-183
Bea Bringas ◽  
Lance Jared Bunyi ◽  
Carlos L. Manapat

Over the past century, natural disasters have been terrorizing the economy by causing human fatalities and damaging infrastructure and production inputs. The Solow growth model suggests that natural disasters adversely affect gross domestic product (GDP) since these disrupt the production of inputs. On the contrary, the Schumpeterian growth theory provides an explanation behind the positive effect of natural disasters on economic growth. This study analyzed the relationship between natural disasters (i.e. earthquake, flood, and storm), economic activities (i.e. foreign aid and foreign direct investment) and GDP per capita income in the Philippines from 1990 to 2019. This study employed a multivariate analysis, time series regression, and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The results revealed a complex relationship between GDP per capita and the regressors. In the short run, the independent variables have a negative and significant relationship with the country’s per capita income. On the contrary, only FDI has a significant long-run relationship with the economy of the Philippines. The results highlight the Philippines’ need for comprehensive disaster plans and to lessen its dependence on foreign and external factors.

Carlos Armando Reyes Flores ◽  
Alan Cavalcanti da Cunha ◽  
Helenilza Ferreira Albuquerque Cunha

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