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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 123-139
Author(s):  
Jajat S. Ardiwinata ◽  
◽  
Khalid Zaman ◽  
Abdelmohsen A. Nassani ◽  
Mohamed Haffar ◽  
...  

The improper allocation of economic and environmental resources damages the United Nations sustainable development Agenda, which remains a challenge for policymakers to stop the rot through efficient governance mechanisms. The study designed an efficient environmental governance framework by extending the different governance factors linked to the environmental sustainability ratings in the cross-section of 67 countries. The results of the two-regime based estimator show that environmental corruption (regime-1), environmental politics (regime-2), and environmental laws (regime-2) negatively correlated with the environmental sustainability rating, whereas environmental democracy (regime-1 & 2) positively correlated with the environmental sustainability agenda across countries. The government effectiveness and the country’s per capita income both escalates environmental sustainability ratings. The results align with the Demopolis theory, the effective regulatory theory, and the theory of law and politics. The causality estimates show that environmental corruption and government effectiveness causes environmental politics and economic growth. In contrast, environmental democracy and environmental regulations cause a country’s per capita income. The bidirectional causality is found between environmental regulations and environmental corruption on the one hand, while environmental regulations and environmental politics Granger cause each other on the other hand. The results show the importance of environmental regulations in managing ecological corruption and politics across countries. The variance decomposition analysis suggested that environmental politics likely influenced the environmental sustainability agenda, followed by government effectiveness and environmental democracy for the next ten years. The study emphasized the need to design an efficient environmental governance framework that minimizes environmental corruption and enables them to move towards environmental democracy, stringent environmental laws, and regulations. Government effectiveness would mainly be linked to reducing corruption and political instability to achieve clean, green and sustainable development.


Author(s):  
Elmira Nasri Roodsari ◽  
Parian Hoseini

AbstractContact with UGS (urban green spaces) is a critical element for urban quality of life and an essential aspect of environmental justice, so all citizens should be able to access UGS regardless of their social and economic condition. In this regard, several studies have shown a positive correlation between UGS justice with socio-economic status in different contexts. In recent decades, Tehran has also experienced much wider socio-economic inequalities, reflected in its spatial configuration. Therefore, this study explored the possible correlation between the UGS supply and accessibility in the 22 Tehran municipal districts and their socio-economic development level. For this purpose, UGS supply (per capita) and accessibility (areas within 800 m walking distance to UGS) indicators are used to assess the UGS justice in Tehran. The research data are drawn from official spatial and statistical data, analysed using ArcGIS. This quantitative data are converted into map layers to shape a basis for UGS assessment indicators in conjunction with socio-economic status. The findings show an unbalanced distribution of UGS in Tehran. However, the areas with highest socio-economic status are at an optimum level of UGS justice in relation to all 22 districts, but no direct correlation confirms the same results for areas with lower socio-economic status.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lars Witting

I use the North American Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer et al. 2017) to construct 462 population trajectories with about 50 yearly abundance estimates each. Applying AIC model-selection, I find that selection-regulated population dynamics is 25,000 (95%:0.42-1.7e17) times more probable than density-regulated growth. Selection is essential in 94% of the best models explaining 82% of the population dynamics variance across the North American continent. Similar results are obtained for 111, 215, and 420 populations of British birds (BTO 2020), Danish birds (DOF 2020), and birds and mammals in the Global Population Dynamic Database (GPDD 2010). The traditional paradigm---that the population dynamic growth rate is a function of the environment, with maximal per-capita growth at low population densities, and sub-optimal reproduction from famine at carrying capacities with strong competition for limited resources---is not supported. Selection regulation generates a new paradigm where the world is green and individuals are selected to survive and reproduce at optimal levels at population dynamic equilibria with sufficient resources. It is only the acceleration of the population dynamic growth rate, and not the growth rate itself, that is determined by the density-dependent environment, with maximal growth occurring at the densities of the population dynamic equilibrium.


Author(s):  
T. J. Ruokonen ◽  
J. Karjalainen

AbstractTemperature is one of the most important factors governing the activity of ectothermic species, and it plays an important but less studied role in the manifestation of invasive species impacts. In this study, we investigated temperature-specific feeding and metabolic rates of invasive and native crayfish, and evaluated how temperature regulates their ecological impacts at present and in future according to different climatic scenarios by bioenergetics modelling. We conducted a series of maximum food consumption experiments and measured the metabolic rates of cold-adapted native noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) and invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) originally from a warmer environment over a temperature gradient resembling natural temperatures in Finland. The maximum feeding rates and routine metabolic rates (RMR) of native noble crayfish were significantly higher at low temperatures (< 10 °C than the rates of invasive signal crayfish. The RMRs of the species crossed at 18 °C, and the RMRs of signal crayfish were higher at temperatures above 18 °C. These findings indicate that the invader’s thermal niche has remained stable, and the potential impacts per capita are lower at suboptimal cold temperatures than for the native species. Our bioenergetics modelling showed that the direct annual predation impact of noble and signal crayfish seem similar, although the seasonal dynamics of the predation differs considerably between species. Our results highlight that the temperature-specific metabolic and feeding rates of species need to be taken into account in the impact assessment instead of simple generalisations of the direction or magnitude of impacts.


Author(s):  
Fabian Baier ◽  
Peter Berster ◽  
Marc Gelhausen

AbstractThe reliability of forecast models in the aviation sector is an important factor for industry and policy makers likewise. Expanding airports and fleets usually is a cost and time intensive process, and in order to maintain efficient market behavior, accurate anticipation of future demand and structural changes is attempted. We present a new quantitative approach to air cargo forecasts utilizing global airport-dyadic ICAO CASS data in general linearized airport fixed effects gravity models. While the strong explanatory power of our time invariant constant model has its natural difficulties predicting a variety of smaller indicators from previous models found in literature, we achieve very good results for selected time variant variables as gross domestic product per capita or kerosene prices. This makes our model a perfect tool for forecast simulations: extrapolating general economic forecast data provided by IHS Markit yield similar results to Boeing cargo forecasts (2020), with a slight decrease in the long run. Additionally, we do not need to split or control our sample in regional groups due to airport fixed effects, which makes the model on the other hand suitable for country- and airport level forecasts as well. The utilization of a large unique bilateral freight data set also helps answering classical gravity model questions in aviation: we track the distance effect to a matter of sample selection, finding no significant interaction following state of the art gravity econometrics.


Author(s):  
Sławomira Kańduła ◽  
Joanna Przybylska

AbstractStudies on the influence of COVID-19 on municipalities are scarce, although it was precisely municipalities that stood in the first line of combat. It is important to estimate the negative budgetary consequences of the crisis for municipalities and to detect potential patterns in the application of their anti-crisis financial instruments. Our study reveals that the initial response of Polish municipalities to the pandemic crisis in this area varied depending on their administrative type, the amount of current income per capita and the population size. However, the correlations between the applied income instruments and expenditures and the above factors were rather weak.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (12) ◽  
Author(s):  
Prince Charles Heston Runtunuwu

This examination was led to gauge the factors that impact individuals' utilization design in Ternate City by utilizing the macroeconomic idea of the monetary factors to be contemplated, specifically pay per capita, swelling, and reserve funds. The populace and test in this investigation were individuals of Template City. The insightful strategy used to test theories is different relapse examination. In light of the consequences of examination on the impact of pay on pay. Expansion and reserve funds on society utilization in the city of Template from 2009 to 2018 by utilizing a various relapse model can be closed as follows. The Income Per Capita Variable has a huge beneficial outcome on the Community Consumption of Template City; the Inflation variable has a positive and unimportant impact on the Community Consumption of Tomato City. The investment funds variable has a negative and unimportant impact on local area utilization in the City of Template. The factors of per capita pay, expansion, and Savings together have a huge beneficial outcome on Community Consumption in Ternate City.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Luiz G. A. Alves ◽  
Diego Rybski ◽  
Haroldo V. Ribeiro

AbstractUrban scaling theory explains the increasing returns to scale of urban wealth indicators by the per capita increase of human interactions within cities. This explanation implicitly assumes urban areas as isolated entities and ignores their interactions. Here we investigate the effects of commuting networks on the gross domestic product (GDP) of urban areas in the US and Brazil. We describe the urban GDP as the output of a production process where population, incoming commuters, and interactions between these quantities are the input variables. This approach significantly refines the description of urban GDP and shows that incoming commuters contribute to wealth creation in urban areas. Our research indicates that changes in urban GDP related to proportionate changes in population and incoming commuters depend on the initial values of these quantities, such that increasing returns to scale are only possible when the product between population and incoming commuters exceeds a well-defined threshold.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Author(s):  
Gashaw Getaye Molla

Income inequality means that one segment of the population has a disproportionately large share of income compared to the other. Disparities in income and wealth have tended to dominate the discussion on inequality because they contribute directly to individuals and families’ well-being and shape the opportunities people have in life. Therefore, addressing income inequality is essential to inspire each country’s population’s human and productive potentials to bring development. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between income inequality and human capital using static panel data analysis. Specifically, the study employs fixed effect panel data analysis using Least Square Dummy Variable for 25 sub-Saharan African countries. The World Bank data series was widely used as the data source for macroeconomic variables, while the Gini index has obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. The empirical results reveal that human capital in terms of secondary school enrollment rate has a negative impact on income inequality. The study also found a U-shaped relationship between real gross domestic product per capita and inequality, and it does not support the well-known concept of the Kuznets curve.Keywords: Income Inequality; Human Capital; Panel Data; Random Effect; Fixed Effect.JEL: C10, Q0, A10


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Miguel Angel Santos ◽  
Farah Hani

The empirical literature on the contributions of human capital investments to economic growth shows mixed results. While evidence from OECD countries demonstrates that human capital accumulation is associated with growth accelerations, the substantial efforts of developing countries to improve access to and quality of education, as a means for skill accumulation, did not translate into higher income per capita. In this Element, we propose a framework, building on the principles of 'growth diagnostics', to enable practitioners to determine whether human capital investments are a priority for a country's growth strategy. We then discuss and exemplify different tests to diagnose human capital in a place, drawing on the Harvard Growth Lab's experience in different development context, and discuss various policy options to address skill shortages.


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