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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
T. S. C. Batista ◽  
G. S. Barros ◽  
F. C. Damasceno ◽  
E. A. F. Cândido ◽  
M. V. A. Batista

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Zaman ◽  
N. Roohi ◽  
M. Irfan

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
F. S. Khan ◽  
R. Adalat ◽  

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Kegan Romelle Jones ◽  
Gary Wayne Garcia

Abstract The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a rodent that is found in the Neo-tropical region. This animal is hunted for its meat but has recently been reared in captivity as a source of meat protein in rural communities. A 20-month experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an anthelmintic on the reproductive performance of the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reared in captivity. This experiment was conducted in the humid tropics of Trinidad and Tobago. Sixteen animals (15 females, 1 male) placed in each of the two treatment groups in a completely randomized study design. In treatment 1 (T1) animals were given subcutaneous injections of Endovet Ces® (Ivermectin/Praziquantel) at 0.2 mg/kg every three months. Treatment 2 (T2) was the negative control group where animals were not exposed to an anthelmintic. Reproductive data were collected at parturition which included birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender of offspring. The results showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the treatment groups with respect to birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender. However, agoutis that were dewormed had a higher birth weight (220.24 g vs 209.1 g) and litter weight (369.8 g vs 343 g). The same values were obtained for the litter size (1.7 vs 1.7) and animals that were dewormed had a higher female offspring to male offspring (2.41:1 vs 1.11:1). This experiment demonstrated that the use of an anthelmintic strategically in the management of captive reared agoutis had no statistical effect (p > 0.05) on the reproductive parameters. Therefore, these animals can be kept in captive conditions without being dewormed and produce efficiently with proper feeding and housing management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Su Won Lee ◽  
Yee Ran Lyu ◽  
Si Yeon Kim ◽  
Won Kyung Yang ◽  
Seung Hyung Kim ◽  

Acute bronchitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) have cough and sputum as the main symptoms with a high prevalence and substantial economic burden. Although the demand for bronchitis treatment increases due to causes, such as air pollution, the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions and the effects of current symptomatic treatments for bronchitis are unclear. GHX02, which is a combined formulation containing four herbs, and has been clinically used for bronchitis in South Korea. We conducted a phase II, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Patients with acute bronchitis or AECB were recruited and randomized to receive high-dose GHX02 (1920 mg/day), standard-dose GHX02 (960 mg/day), or placebo for 7 days. The primary outcome measure was the change in Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) from baseline to Day 7. The secondary outcomes were the frequency of coughing fits, Questionnaire of Clinical Symptoms of Cough and Sputum (QCSCS), Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), Integrative Medicine Outcome Scale (IMOS), and Integrative Medicine Patient Satisfaction Scale (IMPSS). A total of 117 patients were randomized to parallel groups (38 in the high-dose GHX02, 41 in the standard-dose GHX02 group, and 38 in the placebo group). The mean differences in BSS from baseline to Day 7 in the treatment groups (4.2 ± 2.0 and 4.5 ± 1.8 in the high-dose GHX02 and standard-dose GHX02 groups, respectively) were higher than the placebo group (3.8 ± 2.1), p = 0.028. The mean differences in the frequency of coughing fits from baseline to Day 7 and IMPSS were better in the GHX02 treatment group than in the placebo group (standard-dose GHX02 group vs placebo group, p = 0.036). The QCSCS, LCQ, IMOS, and GHX02 of the treatment groups also showed more improvement than the placebo group, but there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. There were no severe adverse effects during the trial. This study supports that GHX02 is effective and safe for patients with bronchitis and provides the basis for progression to a phase III study.Clinical Trial Registration: [] WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinical Research Information Service [KCT0003665].

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Abigail B. Feuka ◽  
Melia G. Nafus ◽  
Amy A. Yackel Adams ◽  
Larissa L. Bailey ◽  
Mevin B. Hooten

Abstract Background Invasive reptiles pose a serious threat to global biodiversity, but early detection of individuals in an incipient population is often hindered by their cryptic nature, sporadic movements, and variation among individuals. Little is known about the mechanisms that affect the movement of these species, which limits our understanding of their dispersal. Our aim was to determine whether translocation or small-scale landscape features affect movement patterns of brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis), a destructive invasive predator on the island of Guam. Methods We conducted a field experiment to compare the movements of resident (control) snakes to those of snakes translocated from forests and urban areas into new urban habitats. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyze snake movement mechanisms and account for attributes unique to invasive reptiles by incorporating multiple behavioral states and individual heterogeneity in movement parameters. Results We did not observe strong differences in mechanistic movement parameters (turning angle or step length) among experimental treatment groups. We found some evidence that translocated snakes from both forests and urban areas made longer movements than resident snakes, but variation among individuals within treatment groups weakened this effect. Snakes translocated from forests moved more frequently from pavement than those translocated from urban areas. Snakes translocated from urban areas moved less frequently from buildings than resident snakes. Resident snakes had high individual heterogeneity in movement probability. Conclusions Our approach to modeling movement improved our understanding of invasive reptile dispersal by allowing us to examine the mechanisms that influence their movement. We also demonstrated the importance of accounting for individual heterogeneity in population-level analyses, especially when management goals involve eradication of an invasive species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 103-116
Emmanuel Bizimana ◽  
Dieudonné Mutangana ◽  
Adrian Mwesigye

<p style="text-align: justify;">The performance in biology at the secondary level has not been as good as expected. This has been a matter of concern. Thus, there has been a continuous focus on exploring newer innovative learner-centered and friendly instructional strategies to enhance understanding and retention in biology. This study, therefore, determined the effects of Concept Mapping (CM) and Cooperative Mastery Learning (CML) on fostering retention in photosynthesis among secondary schools in Nyamagabe district, Rwanda. A pre-test and post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used. Data were obtained from 151 students taught with CM, 144 students taught with CML, and 154 students taught with Conventional Teaching Methods (CTM). The Photosynthesis Retention Test (KR-21= 0.82) was used for data collection. The data were mainly analyze d using mean and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The results showed that the CM and CML treatment groups outperformed the CTM group in retention in photosynthesis. There was a statistically significant difference in favor of the CM between the two experimental groups. The male and female students taught using CM retained equally in photosynthesis while gender difference was revealed in the mean retention scores of the students exposed to the CML, with females retained significantly higher than males. The study concluded that the CM and CML strategies were more effective than CTM. It was suggested, among other things, that teachers should be encouraged to apply CM and CML strategies when teaching biology.</p>

Sandra Notaro ◽  
Gianluca Grilli

AbstractScientific evidence suggests that emotions affect actual human decision-making, particularly in highly emotionally situations such as human-wildlife interactions. In this study we assess the role of fear on preferences for wildlife conservation, using a discrete choice experiment. The sample was split into two treatment groups and a control. In the treatment groups the emotion of fear towards wildlife was manipulated using two different pictures of a wolf, one fearful and one reassuring, which were presented to respondents during the experiment. Results were different for the two treatments. The assurance treatment lead to higher preferences and willingness to pay for the wolf, compared to the fear treatment and the control, for several population sizes. On the other hand, the impact of the fear treatment was lower than expected and only significant for large populations of wolves, in excess of 50 specimen. Overall, the study suggests that emotional choices may represent a source of concern for the assessment of stable preferences. The impact of emotional choices is likely to be greater in situations where a wildlife-related topic is highly emphasized, positively or negatively, by social networks, mass media, and opinion leaders. When stated preferences towards wildlife are affected by the emotional state of fear due to contextual external stimuli, welfare analysis does not reflect stable individual preferences and may lead to sub-optimal conservation policies. Therefore, while more research is recommended for a more accurate assessment, it is advised to control the decision context during surveys for potential emotional choices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Yaser Masoumi-Ardakani ◽  
Hamid Najafipour ◽  
Hamid Reza Nasri ◽  
Soheil Aminizadeh ◽  
Shirin Jafari ◽  

Objectives. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Despite advances in treatment and control of HTN, the prevalence of HTN is still increasing. MitoQ is a supplement that acts on mitochondria and attenuates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays an important role in cardiovascular health. miRNAs play an important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. We evaluated the effects of MitoQ supplementation and endurance training (ET), alone and in combination, on functional indices of the heart and serum levels of miR-126, miR-27a, antioxidants, and NO, in patients with HTN. Methods. In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 52 male participants (age 40-55 years) were randomly divided into four groups ( n = 13 ) of placebo, MitoQ (20 mg/day, oral), ET (cycle ergometer, moderate intensity, 40-60% VO2 peak, heart rate 120-140 b/min, 45 min a day, three days/week for six weeks), and MitoQ+ET. Cardiac function indices were assessed by echocardiography before and after interventions. Results. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased in all intervention groups ( P < 0.001 ) while DBP ( P < 0.01 ) and LV hypertrophy ( P < 0.05 ) were significantly decreased only in the MitoQ+ET group. Serum levels of SOD, GPx, and NO and the level of miR-126 significantly increased in all treatment groups, while miR-27a reduced in the ET ( P < 0.05 ) and MitoQ+ET ( P < 0.01 ) groups. Conclusions. Compared to MitoQ and ET alone, their combination has more prominent improving effects on cardiac health and amelioration of BP in the patients with HTN. These effects are through miR-126 and miR-27a modulation and ameliorating mitochondrial ROS production.

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