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Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 845
Selma Schmidt ◽  
Heinrich Kreutzmann ◽  
Maria Stadler ◽  
Kerstin H. Mair ◽  
Melissa R. Stas ◽  

Vaccination with the live attenuated vaccine Salmoporc is an effective measure to control Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) in affected swine populations. However, the cellular immune response evoked by the Salmoporc vaccine including differences in vaccinated pigs versus non-vaccinated pigs upon STM infection have not been characterized yet. To investigate this, tissue-derived porcine lymphocytes from different treatment groups (vaccination-only, vaccination and infection, infection-only, untreated controls) were stimulated in vitro with heat-inactivated STM and abundances of IFN-γ, TNF-α and/or IL-17A-producing T-cell subsets were compared across organs and treatment groups. Overall, our results show the induction of a strong CD4+ T-cell response after STM infection, both locally and systemically. Low-level induction of STM-specific cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells, notably for the IFN-γ/TNF-α co-producing phenotype, was detected after vaccination-only. Numerous significant contrasts in cytokine-producing T-cell phenotypes were observed after infection in vaccinated and infected versus infected-only animals. These results suggest that vaccine-induced STM-specific cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells contribute to local immunity in the gut and may limit the spread of STM to lymph nodes and systemic organs. Hence, our study provides insights into the underlying immune mechanisms that account for the efficacy of the Salmoporc vaccine.

2021 ◽  
pp. bjophthalmol-2021-319839
Elisa E Cornish ◽  
Kelvin YC Teo ◽  
Mark C Gillies ◽  
Lyndell L Lim ◽  
Vuong Nguyen ◽  

BackgroundThe BEVORDEX trial compared outcomes of eyes with diabetic macular oedema (DMO) randomised to receive either intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX-) implant or bevacizumab over 2 years. We assessed long-term efficacy and safety outcomes 5 years from enrolment.MethodsPatients received standard clinical care after they finished the study. Their files were reviewed for visual and anatomical outcomes, post-trial treatments and complications.ResultsThree-year and five-year data were available for 82% and 59% of eyes enrolled in the BEVORDEX study, respectively. Visual acuity gains at end of trial were generally lost by both treatment groups at 5 years but the macular thickness did not change from end of trial to 5 years. A similar proportion of eyes from each treatment group gained ≥10 letters at 5 years from enrolment in the BEVORDEX trial.Eyes that were initially randomised to the DEX-implant group had significantly fewer treatments but were more likely to develop proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) over the 5-year period compared with eyes initially randomised to bevacizumab. The proportion of eyes that had cataract surgery by 5 years was similar between initial treatment groups.ConclusionsEyes in the BEVORDEX trial had similar 5-year rates of cataract surgery, however, more eyes converted to PDR in the group initially treated with DEX-implant. Eyes that were initially treated for 2 years with either intravitreal DEX-implant of bevacizumab followed by standard of care had similar visual and anatomical outcomes at 5 years.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chenyi Zhong ◽  
Liusijie Gao ◽  
Li Shu ◽  
Zhen Hou ◽  
Lingbo Cai ◽  

ObjectiveTo study the influence of endometriosis activity on the pregnancy outcomes of patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles. The pregnancy outcomes were compared between RIF patients with endometriosis who received treatment at different occasions to explore the appropriate treatment plan for these patients and to optimize the pregnancy-support strategies.DesignAmbispective cohort study.MethodsA total of 330 patients with endometriosis were enrolled from 2008 to 2018 and included 1043 IVF/ICSI cycles. All patients were diagnosed with RIF after IVF/ICSI. Patients were assigned to three subtypes according to different control states of endometriosis, including the untreated, early-treatment, and late-treatment groups. The clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and cumulative live birth rate of endometriosis patients with RIF were the main outcomes; additionally, the fertilization rate, available embryonic rate, and high-quality embryonic rate were also compared.ResultsThe early-treatment and late-treatment groups showed higher cumulative live birth rate than the untreated group (early-treated 43.6% vs. late-treated 46.3% vs. untreated 27.7%, P<0.001), though patients in the two treatment groups had higher rates of adenomyosis and ovarian surgery. The two treatment group showed a better laboratory result than the untreated and especially, the early-treatment group. The untreated group (46.24%) had a lower IVF fertilization rate than the treated group (early-treated [64.40%] and late-treated [60.27%] (P<0.001). In addition, the rates of available embryos and high-quality embryos in the early-treated group were much higher those that in the untreated group (90.30% vs. 85.20%, 76.50% vs. 64.47%). Kaplan–Meier curve showed that patients in the untreated group needed a mean of 23.126 months to achieve one live birth; whereas those in the treated group needed a comparatively shorter duration (early-treated: 18.479 ± 0.882 months and late-treated: 14.183 ± 1.102 months, respectively).ConclusionEndometriosis has a negative influence on IVF/ICSI outcome. The control of endometriosis activity can result in a higher cumulative live birth rate in patients. It is necessary for endometriosis patients to receive medical treatment to achieve a better prognosis especially for those with RIF.

2021 ◽  
Salman Khan ◽  
Ru Yang ◽  
Chunjie wei ◽  
Anam Khalid ◽  
Zaigui Wang

Abstract Background The broiler chicks provide the major portion of daily food items. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis on broiler chicken gut microflora diversity, digestive enzyme activity and expression of Toll-like receptors. A total of 240 crossbred broiler chickens were randomly allocated into 4 groups with 3 replicates. The groups were named as control group (basal diet), group Ⅰ (BD with 300 g/d BS,1.08×107 CFU/kg), group Ⅱ (BD with 600 g/d BS, 2.16×107 CFU/kg), and group Ⅲ (BD with 900 g/d BS, 3.24×107 CFU/kg). Samples were collected at the 21st day. The difference of α diversity and β diversity between control group and treatment groups were not significant, but the abundance of some microorganisms in the treatment groups were improved, and the core microorganisms were different between groups. Results In comparison of control group, the protease activity in ileum of experimental groups was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Protease activity in ileum of group Ⅱ and Ⅲ was improved by 22.59% (p < 0.01) and 14.49% (p < 0.05). The amylase activity in ileum of treatment groups were also significantly increased (p < 0.05). Amylase activity of group Ⅱ was increased by 41.85% (p < 0.01) in comparison to control, group Ⅰ and Ⅲ. Expression of TLR1A and TLR7 in the jejunum and caecum of treatment groups were significantly up-regulated while their expression in ileum was decreased. Similarly, the expression of TLR1B gene was significantly improved in the ileum, and down regulated in the cecum. Transcription levels of TLR2A and MyD88 in jejunum, liver, spleen and kidney were significantly increased, but their expression was significantly lower in the ileum and cecum. The TLR2B, TLR3, TLR4, TLR15, TLR21, IL- β expression in spleen and kidney were also significantly modulated in various organ of broiler chicken. Conclusion Bacillus subtilis could not regulate the caecal microflora diversity, but improved amount of some gut probiotics such as lactobacillus, the digestive enzyme activity, regulate some immunogenic expressions and enhance the immune capacity of animal. We hope that the impact of this data will explore the diseases control and feeding quality of broiler chicks at industrial level.

Mohammad Amir Mishan ◽  
Sahar Balagholi ◽  
Tahereh Chamani ◽  
Sepehr Feizi ◽  
Zahra-Soheila Soheili ◽  

Purpose: Corneal endothelial cell (CEC) therapy can be used as a promising therapeutic option for patients with various corneal endothelial dysfunctions. In this study, we compared the proliferative effect of human platelet lysate (HPL), as a xeno-free medium supplement, with Y-27632 Rho/rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, as a wellknown proliferative and adhesive agent for CECs, and fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the control, in the culture medium of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). Methods: We isolated HCECs from human donors and treated the cells as three different treatment groups including 20% HPL only, 10 μM Y-27632 ROCK inhibitor, combination of 20% HPL and 10 μM Y-27632 ROCK inhibitor, and 20% FBS as the control group. ELISA cell proliferation assay and cell counting was performed on the treated cells. Finally, HCECs were characterized by morphology and immunocytochemistry (ICC). Results: There was no significant proliferative effect of HPL on cell proliferation compared with the cells treated with Y-27632 ROCK inhibitor or the combination of HPL and Y-27632 ROCK inhibitor, but all the respected treatments had significant inducible effect on cell proliferation as compared with FBS-treated cells. The cells grown in all three treatment groups exhibited CEC morphology. Also, there was a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1, as CEC characteristic markers, in the culture of HCECs treated with HPL as compared with FBS. Conclusion: HPL offers a xeno−free and affordable medium supplement for CEC expansion that can be used in clinical applications.

Jaehwuen Jung ◽  
Hyungsoo Lim ◽  
Dongwon Lee ◽  
Chul Kim

Online matching platforms require new approaches to market design because firms can now control many aspects of the search and interaction process through various IT-enabled features. Although choice capacity—the number of candidates a user can view and select—is a key design feature of online matching platforms, its effect on engagement and matching outcomes remains unclear. We examine the effect of different choice capacities on market performance by conducting a randomized field experiment in collaboration with an online dating platform. Specifically, we design four treatment groups with different choice capacities in which users can only interact with other users in the same group and randomly assign the users to the treatment groups. We find that providing more choice capacity to male and female users has different effects on choice behaviors and matching outcomes. Although increasing the choice capacity of male users yields the highest engagement, increasing the choice capacity of female users is the most effective method to increase matching outcomes. We empirically demonstrate four mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of different choice capacity designs and generalize our findings by discussing how choice capacity can be designed to increase engagement and matching outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-54
Siska Yunita Damiyati ◽  
Iman Surya Pratama ◽  
Galuh Tresnani

Pineapple peel (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) has a potential natural-based anthelmintic agent. This study aimed to determine the effective concentration of pineapple peel juice against Paramphistomum sp. in vitro. Adults Paramphistomum sp. were divided into 5 test groups, the control group contained Albendazole 10% w/v, the nontreatment group contained NaCl 0.9% w/v and the treatment group contained pineapple peel juice with concentration of 12.5, 20, and 25% w/v. The number of live flukes and the motility scores were recorded every 15 minutes for 5 hours of incubation. The Survival Index (SI) and Relative Motility (RM) of flukes were calculated and statically analyzed using SPSS version 23 software. SI values of flukes in the 12.5, 20, and 25% w/v concentration of treatment group were 46.3, 50.0, and 38.9% respectively. RM values of flukes in the 12.5, 20 and 25% w/v concentration of treatment groups were 39.1, 42.0, and 34.1 respectively. RM values of flukes in the 12.5, 20 and 25% w/v concentration of treatment groups were 39.1359, 42.0249, and 34.1174 respectively. This research showed that, pineapple peel juice 25% w/v was effective against Paramphistomum sp. with survival index and relative motility values comparable to Albendazole 10% w/v (p <0.05).

Onengiyeofori Ibama ◽  
Kinikanwo I. Green ◽  
Edna O. Nwachuku ◽  
Adline Erinma Ben-Chioma

Background: Revive capsule is a polyherbal formulation commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction or enhance libido in men. Some of the individual herbs used in the formulation of this drug have been known scientifically to affect various biochemical components of the human body; hence this study was aimed at evaluating the reproductive profile in male albino rats following varied duration of administration with Revive capsule.  Methods: A total of 42 male albino rats were used for the study, and were divided into six (6) groups of seven (7) rats each. They were allowed to acclimatize for two (2) weeks by maintaining 12-hour light and dark cycles daily, with access to standard feed and water ad libitum. Group A (negative control) rats were administered with distilled water once daily, while groups B, C, D, E and F were administered once daily with 72 mg/kg of Revive capsule for 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. The rat dose administered was extrapolated from the human dose using the formula by Paget and Barnes. At the end of each treatment week, the rats were allowed to fast overnight, followed by their anaesthetization using chloroform, and blood sample collection via jugular vein puncture. Also, the testes were excised; the epididymis were also excised from the testes and used immediately for semen analysis, while the epididymis-free testes were examined histologically. Rat-specific test kits with ELISA method were used to analyze serum LH, FSH and testosterone.Results: The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels, and a significant increase in sperm count and sperm quality parameters in the treatment groups compared to the negative control, with the maximum levels attained after 6 weeks of treatment (group F). Also, photomicrographs of histologically examined testes of the treatment groups appeared indifferent from those of the negative control.Conclusions: These findings may suggest that in using a rat model, treatment with Revive capsule at the appropriate dosage for 6 weeks is safe, and that, besides its acclaimed use in enhancing libido or treating erectile dysfunction, it may also be effective in promoting male fertility. 

2021 ◽  
Man Zhao ◽  
Wenbo He ◽  
Can Tao ◽  
Beiyu Zhang ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  

Abstract The objective of this study was to reveal the effects of cadmium (Cd) on ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress, and transcriptome expression in the kidneys of laying hens. Seventy-two healthy Hy-Line brown laying hens at 41 weeks old were randomly allocated to four treatment groups with six replicates. The control group received a basal diet without additional Cd incorporation, and the other three treatment groups received diets supplemented with 15, 30, or 60 mg Cd /kg of feed. After 6 weeks of exposure the results show that administration of 60 mg/kg Cd significantly reduced (P < 0.05) eggshell thickness. With an increase in the Cd concentration in feed, the concentrations of renal Zn, Fe also had changed. Renal histopathology and ultrastructure also showed aggravated damage to glomeruli and renal tubules, and the deformation of nuclei and mitochondria in all Cd treatment groups. With an increase in Cd in feed, the activity of GPX and CAT was significantly reduced (P<0.05), while the activity of T-AOC was decreased (P<0.05) only in the 60 mg/kg Cd group. RNA-seq analysis revealed that 410 genes displayed differential expression (≥ 1.5-fold) in the 60 mg/kg supplementation group, compared to the control group. GO and KEGG pathway analysis results showed that Cd affected many genes involved in mitochondria and ion transport. In conclusion, this study elaborates the mechanisms underlying renal toxicity caused by Cd, which might provide target candidate genes for alleviating Cd poisoning in laying hens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Carmella C. Nugent Britt ◽  
Leilani X. Alvarez ◽  
Kenneth Lamb

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a single administration of 6 and 12 g of Fortetropin compared to placebo on serum myostatin in healthy, adult dogs over a 72-h period.Methods: Prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Ten hospital-employee-owned healthy adult dogs aged 2 to 8 years old were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected prior to and then 12-, 24-, 36-, 48-, and 72-h following administration of the test agent (6 and 12 g) or placebo. Serum samples were processed according to manufacturer's guidelines for canine serum using GDF-8/Myostatin Quantikine ELISA kit (R&amp;D Systems). Analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) analyses were carried out where P &lt; 0.05 was deemed significant.Results: Mean serum myostatin was not significantly lower in treatment groups of either low or high dose compared to placebo at any time point. Baseline mean serum myostatin in low and high dose treatment groups was 29,481 (SD = 5,224) and 32,214 pg/mL (SD = 7,353), respectively. Placebo group low and high dose baseline mean serum myostatin was 30,247 (SD = 5,875) and 28,512 (SD = 5,028).Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that administration of single 6 or 12 g dose of Fortetropin does not reduce serum myostatin in healthy adult dogs over a 72-h period.Clinical Importance: Oral supplements, like Fortetropin, require further studies to determine the efficacy and bioavailability in order to guide clinical use in dogs.

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