overweight and obesity
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. A. F. Khan ◽  
M. Sohaib ◽  
S. Iqbal ◽  
M. S. Haider ◽  
M. Chaudhry

Abstract The present study was carried out to determine incidence of overweight and obesity in Pakistani servicemen with reference to their area of duty, feeding habits and also to identify risk factors. Accordingly, 2,501 servicemen selected from all over Pakistan using multiple stage stratified sampling protocol. Nutrition assessment performed using body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using the SPSS version 25. Regression was used to find risk factors of obesity and WHR. Results indicated that about 1/4th of servicemen were smokers. Approximately, 1/5th of them were overweight and about one quarter were eating fruits and vegetables for <3 days/ week and <4 days/week, respectively. Only 1/3rd of them were physically active for at least <40 minutes per day. Age and fruits intake were significantly predicting BMI with a direct relation and vegetable intake was negatively correlated to BMI of the servicemen. Age and rank were significant predictors of WHR while, physical activity was negatively correlated to WHR. It is concluded and suggested from our study that there is a need to modify eating patterns and habits as well as improving physical activity on daily basis for healthy and long life of the servicemen.

BMC Surgery ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Woubet Tefera Kassahun ◽  
Matthias Mehdorn ◽  
Jonas Babel

Abstract Background Obesity has been shown to increase the rates of morbidity and occasionally mortality in patients undergoing nonbariatric elective surgery. However, little is known about the impact of obesity on outcomes after surgery for high-risk abdominal emergencies. Methods A single-center retrospective evaluation of outcomes in high-risk abdominal emergency patients categorized by body mass index (BMI) was conducted. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative details were analyzed. Patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) served as comparators. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of obesity on surgical outcomes. Results In total, 886 patients with BMI < 18.5 (underweight; n = 50), 18.5–24.9 (normal weight; n = 306), 25–29.9 (overweight; n = 336) and ≥ 30 (obese; n = 194) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) weight classification criteria met the inclusion criteria. Compared to normal-weight patients, patients with overweight and obesity were older and more likely to be male. The rates of comorbidity (100% vs 91.2%, p =  < 0.0001), morbidity (77.8% vs 65.6%, p = 0.003), and in-hospital mortality (44.8% vs 30.4%, p = 0.001) were all higher in patients with obesity than in normal-weight patients. Patients with obesity had an increased intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) (13 days vs 9 days, p = 0.019) and hospital LOS (21.4 days vs 18.1 days, p = 0.081) and prolonged ventilation (39.1% vs 19.6%, p = 0.003). As BMI deviated from the normal range, the morbidity and mortality rates increased incrementally, with the highest morbidity (87.9%) and mortality (54.5%) rates observed in morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 40). Conclusions Patients with obesity were the most likely to have coexisting conditions, experience postoperative complications, and die during the first admission following EL for high-risk abdominal emergencies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Antonio Nicolucci ◽  
Claudio Maffeis

AbstractThe dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has become a major public health problem. Obesity in children and young adults is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Obesity during adolescence represents a strong predictor of obesity and higher mortality in adulthood. Due to the serious implications of obesity in adolescents, effective treatments are urgently needed. Lifestyle interventions represent the recommended therapy. Nevertheless, real world data show that the majority of adolescents do not achieve weight loss in the long term, and are reluctant to participate in lifestyle interventions. Pharmacological treatment is recommended if a formal lifestyle modification program fails to limit weight gain or to improve comorbidities. However, until 2020 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) had not approved any pharmacotherapeutic agents for obesity in pediatric patients. On April 2021, EMA has authorized the use of Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analog, for the treatment of obesity in adolescents (12–17 years). The efficacy and safety of Liraglutide were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind trial, enrolling 251 adolescents. After 56 weeks, a reduction in BMI of at least 5% was observed in 43.3% of participants in the liraglutide group vs. 18.7% in the placebo group, and a reduction in BMI of at least 10% was observed in 26.1 and 8.1%, respectively. Gastrointestinal events were the events most frequently reported with liraglutide. Bariatric surgery represents another effective treatment for adolescents with severe obesity, with sustained benefits on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, long-term safety and effectiveness data in adolescents are still scarce. Risks of bariatric surgery include the need for additional abdominal surgical procedures and specific micronutrient deficiencies. Hopefully, new pharmacological treatments in addition to lifestyle interventions will offer more chances of success.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Hwal Rim Jeong ◽  
Hae Sang Lee ◽  
Young Suk Shim ◽  
Jin Soon Hwang

We conducted this study to investigate the associations between hematological parameters and obesity in children and adolescents. The levels of hematological parameters (including white blood cells [WBCs], red blood cells [RBCs], hemoglobin [Hb], hematocrit [Hct], and platelets) of 7997 participants (4259 boys and 3738 girls) aged 10–18 years were recorded. The parameters were compared among participants with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. Significantly higher mean levels of WBCs (7.16 vs. 6.16 × 103/mm3, p < 0.001), RBCs (4.90 vs. 4.82 × 106/mm3, p < 0.001), Hb (14.07 vs. 13.99 g/dL, p < 0.05), Hct (42.31 vs. 41.91%, p < 0.001), and platelets (311.87 vs. 282.66 × 103/mm3, p < 0.001) were found in the obese than normal weight group, respectively, after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and sex. BMI SDS had significant positive associations with the levels of WBCs (β = 0.275, p < 0.001), RBCs (β = 0.028, p < 0.001), Hb (β = 0.034, p < 0.001), Hct (β = 0.152, p < 0.001), and platelets (β = 8.372, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors in a multiple linear regression analysis. A higher BMI was associated with elevated WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct, and platelet counts in children and adolescents. Because higher levels of hematological parameters are potential risk factors for obesity-related diseases, hematological parameters should be evaluated in obese children and adolescents.

BMC Nutrition ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Hasinthi Swarnamali ◽  
Ranil Jayawardena ◽  
Michail Chourdakis ◽  
Priyanga Ranasinghe

Abstract Background Although it is reported in numerous interventional and observational studies, that a low-fat diet is an effective method to combat overweight and obesity, the relationship at the global population level is not well established. This study aimed to quantify the associations between worldwide per capita fat supply and prevalence of overweight and obesity and further classify this association based on per capita Gross National Income (GNI). Methods A total of 93 countries from four GNI groups were selected. Country-specific overweight and obesity prevalence data were retrieved from the most recent WHO Global Health Observatory database. Per capita supply of fat and calories were obtained from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization database; FAOSTAT, Food Balance Sheet for years 2014–2016. The categorizations of countries were done based on GNI based classification by the World Bank. Results Among the selected countries, the overweight prevalence ranged from 3.9% (India) to 78.8% (Kiribati), while obesity prevalence ranged from 3.6% (Bangladesh) to 46.0% (Kiribati). The highest and the lowest per capita fat supply from total calorie supply were documented in Australia (41.2%) and Madagascar (10.5%) respectively. A significant strong positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of overweight (r = 0.64, p < 0.001) and obesity (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) with per capita fat supply. The lower ends of both trend lines were densely populated by the low- and lower-middle-income countries and the upper ends of both lines were greatly populated by the high-income countries. Conclusions Per capita fat supply per country is significantly associated with both prevalence of overweight and obesity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 101-110
E. A. Ryabova ◽  
I. Y. Ragino

In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Obesity has become an underestimated pandemic and a public health threat around the world. Adipose tissue is positioned as an endocrine organ that secretes a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, inducing a state of chronic subinflammation. The results of epidemiological studies over the past 30 years have also shown that visceral adipose tissue is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, cardiometabolic diseases and chronic kidney disease. We performed a systematic review to summarize important aspects of the state of chronic subinflammation in the context of its effect on the decrease in glomerular filtration rate and the development of chronic kidney disease. The review deals with the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity, the hormonal profile of adipose tissue, the molecular mechanisms of the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines on the kidneys, and the pathophysiology of renal diseases. Information on the topic from publications based on the Pubmed database has been used.

Miloš Stojković ◽  
Katie M. Heinrich ◽  
Aleksandar Čvorović ◽  
Velimir Jeknić ◽  
Gianpiero Greco ◽  

The first aim of this study was to compare body mass index (BMI) (indirect method) classification with the body fat percent (PBF) (direct method) and to determine how BMI classifies subjects with different levels of skeletal muscle mass percent (PSMM). The second aim was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity status among police trainees (PTs). A total of 103 male PTs participated in this research: age = 21.46 ± 0.64 years, body mass (BM) = 75.97 ± 8.10 kg, body height (BH) = 174.07 ± 6.31 cm, BMI = 25.05 ± 2.12 kg/m2. The InBody 370 multichannel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measured body composition. Study results indicated that muscular PTs could be misclassified as overweight and that PBF identified more subjects as obese. Namely, three PTs were obese according to BMI, while 13 were obese according to PBF. The information provided by this research could be used to help professionals understand the importance of measuring body composition, and the inaccuracies in BMI classification. In conclusion, whenever possible PSMM and PBF should replace the utilization of BMI to screen overweight and obesity in PTs. Agencies may think of using BIA as non-invasive, quick and inexpensive measurement tool.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Huaqing Liu ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Peipei Fu ◽  
Yan Chen ◽  
Chengchao Zhou

Background: Hunger is a pandemic among adolescents, resulting in both underweight and obesity, and posing a substantial health challenge.Objective: To estimate the dual burden of malnutrition among adolescents with hunger.Design: Data were from the Global school-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). In total, data from 26,986 adolescents with hunger across 5 regions and 41 countries between 2010 and 2015 were analyzed in this study. Weighted prevalence and mean estimates of underweight, overweight, and obesity were calculated by gender, age, and country. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for regional and country-level income.Results: The total prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among young adolescents with hunger was 6.2% (95% CI: 4.4–8.0%), 25.1% (95% CI: 20.3–29.9%) and 8.9% (95% CI: 6.5–11.3%), respectively. Southeast Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight (17.2%; 95% CI: 7.3–27.0%). America had the highest regional prevalence of obesity (11.1%; 95% CI: 7.2–15.1%) and overweight (28.9%; 95% CI: 21.9–35.9%). Low income countries had relatively high prevalence of underweight (11.5%; 95% CI: 3.2–19.9%). High income countries had the highest prevalence of obesity (17.4%; 95% CI: 14.9–19.9%) and overweight (38.7%; 95% CI: 32.0–45.4%). The co-existence of underweight and overweight among adolescents with hunger was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and in upper-middle and high-income countries.Conclusions: There is a dual burden of underweight and obesity among adolescents with hunger aged 12–15 years, which differs between geographical regions. The integration of targeted interventions and policies is required to simultaneously address both underweight and increasing rates of obesity among adolescents with hunger in different regions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 104063872110710
Cecilia Ley ◽  
Alexandra T. Leijon ◽  
Tora E. Nyberg ◽  
Lisa M. Lindström ◽  
Charles J. Ley

Determination of the nutritional condition, including estimation of amounts of total body fat (tBF), at routine postmortem examination of cats is typically based on subjective visual assessment. Subjective assessment may result in uncertainties regarding degree of overweight, and objective methods that provide a numerical value reflecting the tBF could be valuable to accurately judge excess body fat. We investigated if the falciform fat pad weight (FFPW) was correlated to tBF and could be used to detect overweight and obesity in cats. The FFPW and the femur length (FL) were recorded at postmortem examination in 54 cats and the FFPW:FL ratio (FFR) calculated. Each cat was additionally assigned to a fat category (FC) according to subjective assessment. Computed tomography was used to determine tBF as the body fat percentage (%BF), the body fat volume (BFV), and BFV normalized to animal size (nBFV) in 39 cats. There was strong correlation between the FFPW and the BFV ( r = 0.888) and between the FFR and the nBFV ( r = 0.897). The correlation between the nBFV and %BF was very strong ( r = 0.974). Using a lower FFR cutoff value of 3.5 for obesity and 1.6 for overweight, there was a discrepancy in FC between using the FFR and subjective assessment in 6 of 54 cats (11%). We conclude that the FFPW increases proportionally with tBF and that the FFR provides a method for objective tBF estimation. We suggest introducing the FFR to feline postmortem examination protocols as an objective estimate of tBF.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 270
Cristina Lugones-Sánchez ◽  
José I. Recio-Rodríguez ◽  
Marta Menéndez-Suárez ◽  
Alicia Saz-Lara ◽  
José I. Ramirez-Manent ◽  

A balanced diet can help in the prevention of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an mHealth intervention on the distribution of macronutrients and the intake of food groups. A total of 650 participants were included in this multi-center, clinical, randomized, controlled trial (Evident 3 study). All participants were given brief advice about diet and exercise. The intervention group received, in addition, an app (Evident 3) for the self-recording of their diet and an activity tracker wristband for 3 months. Follow-up visits were performed at 3 and 12 months to collect the diet composition using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. There were decreases in the intake of total calories, fat, protein and carbohydrates in both groups throughout the study, without significant differences between them. The intervention group reduced the intake of cholesterol (−30.8; 95% CI −59.9, −1.7) and full-fat dairies (−23.3; 95% CI −42.8, −3.8) and increased the intake of wholemeal bread (3.3; 95% CI −6.7, 13.3) and whole-grain cereals (3.4; 95% CI −6.8, 13.7) with respect to the control group. No differences were found in the rest of the nutritional parameters. The brief advice is useful to promote a healthier diet, and the app can be a support tool to obtain changes in relevant foods, such as integral foods, and the intake of cholesterol. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT03175614.

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