The aquatic environment represents an adequate and safe alternative for children with overweight to exercise. However, the magnitude of the vertical ground reaction force (Fz) during these exercises is unknown in this population. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the Fz during the stationary running exercise between the aquatic and land environments in children with overweight or obesity. The study is characterized as a cross-over study. Seven children, two with overweight and five with obesity (4 boys and 3 girls; 9.7 ± 0.8 years), performed two experimental sessions, one on land and another in the aquatic environment. In both conditions, each participant performed 15 repetitions of the stationary running exercise at three different cadences (60, 80, and 100 b min−1) in a randomized order. Their apparent weight was reduced by 72.1 ± 10.4% on average at the xiphoid process depth. The peak Fz, impulse, and loading rate were lower in the aquatic environment than on land (p < 0.001). Peak Fz was also lower at 80 b min−1 compared to 100 b min−1 (p = 0.005) and loading rate was higher at 100 b min−1 compared to 80 b min−1 (p = 0.003) and 60 b min−1 (p < 0.001) in the aquatic environment, whereas impulse was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) with the increasing cadence in both environments. It can be concluded that the aquatic environment reduces all the Fz outcomes investigated during stationary running and that exercise intensity seems to influence all these outcomes in the aquatic environment.
Introduction. This study finds the lower limbs’ reactive strength index and biomechanical parameters on variable heights. Objective. This research aims to reveal the effects of drop height on lower limbs’ reactive strength index and biomechanical parameters. Methods. Two AMTI force platforms and Vicon motion capture system were used to collect kinematic and dynamic signals of the lower limbs. Results. The drop height had significant effects on peak vertical ground reaction force and peak vertical ground reaction force in the extension phase, lower limbs’ support moment, eccentric power of the hip joint, eccentric power of the knee joint, eccentric power of the ankle joint, and concentric power of the hip joint. The drop height had no significant effects on the reactive strength index. Reactive strength index (RSI) had no significant correlations with the personal best of high jumpers. The optimal loading height for the maximum reactive strength index was 0.45 m. Conclusion. The optimal loading height for the reactive strength index can be used for explosive power training and lower extremity injury prevention.