The Amur River
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Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1560
Author(s):  
Ke Wen ◽  
Bing Gao ◽  
Mingliang Li

The Amur River is one of the top ten longest rivers in the world, and its hydrological response to future climate change has been rarely investigated. In this study, the outputs of four GCMs in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) were corrected and downscaled to drive a distributed hydrological model. Then, the spatial variations of runoff changes under the future climate conditions in the Amur River Basin were quantified. The results suggest that runoffs will tend to increase in the future period (2021–2070) compared with the baseline period (1961–2010), particularly in August and September. Differences were also found among different GCMs and scenarios. The ensemble mean of the GCMs suggests that the basin-averaged annual precipitation will increase by 14.6% and 15.2% under the SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. The increase in the annual runoff under the SSP2-4.5 scenario (22.5%) is projected to be larger than that under the SSP5-8.5 scenario (19.2%) at the lower reach of the main channel. Future climate changes also tend to enhance the flood peak and flood volume. The findings of this study bring new understandings of the hydrological response to future climate changes and are helpful for water resource management in Eurasia.


2021 ◽  
Vol 895 (1) ◽  
pp. 012025
Author(s):  
A N Makhinov ◽  
A F Makhinova ◽  
Sh Liu

Abstract Inhomogeneity of the concentrations of chemical elements in the cross-section of the Amur River is considered as a function of the state of their soluble and suspended forms. Flooding of wetlands and urbanized areas contributes to the removal of pollutants into the river channel. The wide spread of fens on the left bank contributes to the concentration of organic matter along the left bank of the river. Terrigenous material mostly comes from the right bank, where agricultural fields are concentrated. The ratio of their concentrations is maintained by the duration of the flood. The mechanisms of redistribution of elements between their suspended and soluble forms have been studied. The mechanisms of sorption of chemical compounds on mineral and organic colloids are described. It was found that mineral colloids with a negative charge due to electrostatic attraction sorb electrically neutral compounds (hydroxoaqua complexes [Mn(OH)2(OH2]0, ammonia [Cu(NH3)4(OH)2]0. The role of organic material in the redistribution of chemical compounds between soluble and suspended forms is shown. Organic colloids with molecular mass > 5.0 kDa precipitate complex cations – [FeHSO4]+, [FeHSO4]2+, [CuHSO4]+. An organic substance with a molecular mass of <2.0 kDa has a greater complexing ability for Fe(2)3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ ions. They bind metals to organo-mineral complexes by chemical interaction and form mobile organo-mineral complexes and heteropolar salts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 895 (1) ◽  
pp. 012039
Author(s):  
V P Shesterkin ◽  
N M Shesterkina

Abstract The spatial and temporal variability of water salinity and salt composition of the Amur River near Khabarovsk in 2017-2021 was considered. An uneven distribution of water salinity over the river width was established, the greatest differences were observed in the winter low-water period, the lowest in the period of spring floods and floods. The maximum value of salinity was noted in winter, in the period of open channel – after very strong floods.


2021 ◽  
Vol 895 (1) ◽  
pp. 012008
Author(s):  
B B Bazarova ◽  
A P Kuklin ◽  
I E Mikheev ◽  
E Yu Afonina ◽  
N A Tashlykova ◽  
...  

Abstract In 2017, for the purposes of the Pulp and Saw Mill (PSM) “Polyarnaya”, the spillover dam was constructed on the Amazar River, a left tributary of the Amur River. Upon completion of the dam construction, the waters of the river formed a small river reservoir PSM “Polyarnaya”. This work covers findings on components and quantities of the newly formed reservoir at its initial stage and the data on biodiversity of its feeding flows. At this stage, the species composition of the flora and fauna in the reservoir falls in between the lacustrine and the riverine ones. The riverine conditions are observed in the upstream area of the reservoir; the middle area bears an intermediate status; while the limnetic zone near the dam features transformation of the river system into a lake-like running-water ecosystem. Seasonally, in the period from spring to autumn, phytoplankton showed a decreasing trend of the quantitative values; whereas the total abundance and biomass of zooplankton were increasing; zoobenthos featured lack of trends; macrophytes contents were different from season to season being abundant in the Amazar River near the urban settlement in spring and in the Amazar River downstream from the dam in autumn. Consequently, the initial stage of the formation of the reservoir is rather similar to original watercourses in the physical and chemical parameters and in the composition of flora and fauna as well.


2021 ◽  
Vol 895 (1) ◽  
pp. 012003
Author(s):  
D V Andreeva

Abstract The results of the layer-by-layer research of a river ice cores by using spectral and microbiological methods were presented. The impact of the mercury on sulfate-reducing bacteria activity from different layers of ice that had been sampled in March 2016 in the lower Amur River in Khabarovsk city was found. It was found that mercury concentration range of 0.0005-0.001 mg/l stimulated the sulfate-reducing bacteria activity, which were into the ice throughout the study area of the Amur River. To a large extent, this effect was typical for the ice that was sampled in the right bank of the Amur River near Khabarovsk city, where mercury pollution of the aquatic environment had been detected repeatedly. The activity of biogeochemical processes into the ice determined by high concentrations of organic substances, by the pollution of the aquatic environment with mercury during the ice cover formation, and by the abundance of cultivated heterotrophic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. During the ice drift and ice melting, the secondary pollution with toxic substances of various genesis of the aquatic environment occurs, which can have a negative impact on a hydrobionts.


2021 ◽  
pp. 180-181
Author(s):  
Article Editorial

Dear readers, on page 111 in Volume 106 of Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin, 2021, (2021;(106):105-129) the caption to figure 1:“Fig. 1. Scheme of the structure of floodplain deposits of the Amur River within the Middle-Amur Lowland, formed over a long period of time under the conditions of directed sediment accumulation. Deposits of facies: 1 – channel sand (sand with gravel); 2 – levee (fine sand); 3 – floodplain (sandy loam and loam); 4 – old riverbed (loam with silty interlayers); 5 – eolian riolkas (relatively high fine sand ridges) (Sokhina, 1973)”should read:“Fig. 1. Scheme of the structure of floodplain deposits of the Amur River within the Middle-Amur Lowland, formed over a long period of time under the conditions of directed sediment accumulation. Deposits of facies: 1 – channel sand (sand with gravel); 2 – levee (fine sand); 3 – floodplain (sandy loam and loam); 4 – old riverbed (loam with silty interlayers); 5 – eolian riolkas (relatively high fine sand ridges) (Makhinov, 2006)”. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 201 (2) ◽  
pp. 516-526
Author(s):  
A. I. Chepkasova ◽  
T. N. Slutskaya ◽  
E. I. Barabanshchikov

Chemical composition and nutritional and biological value of roe are investigated for autumn chum salmon from the Amur River sampled during their run for spawning from the estuary to the area of Khabarovsk city. Color and strength of roe were examined, content of proteins, lipids and minerals was measured, amino acid and fatty acid composition was determined. Caloric capacity and biological value of the samples were usual for this species. Physical properties of the roe (strength, color intensity) practically did not change in dependence on distance from the river mouth. Stable quality of roe in the run of spawning migration in the lower Amur is concluded.


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