chemical elements
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
G. B. M. Santos ◽  
G. Boehs

Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.

Vladimir Zaichick

Background: Thyroid benign nodules (TBNs) are the most common diseases of this endocrine gland and are common worldwide. Among TBNs the colloid goiter (CG) and thyroid adenoma (TA) are very frequentdiseases. Evaluation of variant of TBNs is clinically important for subsequent therapeutic interventions, as well as for a clearer understanding the etiology of these disorders. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine differences in the content offifty trace elements (TE) in CG and TA tissues. Methods: Thyroid tissue levels of TE have prospectively evaluated in 46 patients with CG and 19 patients with TA. Measurements have performed using a combination of non-destructive and destructive methods: instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides (INAA-LLR) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), respectively. Tissue samples were divided into two portions. One was used for morphological study while the other was intended for TE analysis. Results: It was observed that in both CG and TA tissues the contents of Ag, Al, Cr, Hg, Mn, Th, and Zn increased, whereas the levels of Au, Be, Cs, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, Yb, and Zr were unchanged in comparison with normal thyroid tissue. No differences were found between the TE contents of CG and TA. Conclusions: From results obtained, it was possible to conclude that the common characteristics of CG and TA tissue samples were of a high level of Ag, Al, Cr, Hg, Mn, Th, and Zn in comparison with normal thyroid and, therefore, these TE could be involved in etiology and pathogenesis of thyroid disorders such as CG and TA.                    Peer Review History: Received: 12 November 2021; Revised: 15 December; Accepted: 31 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Ahmad Najib, Universitas Muslim Indonesia,  Indonesia, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10 Reviewers: Prof. Dr. Hassan A.H. Al-Shamahy, Sana'a University, Yemen, [email protected] Rima Benatoui, Laboratory of Applied Neuroendocrinology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar University Annaba, BP12 E L Hadjar–Algeria, [email protected] Similar Articles: COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF TWENTY CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN NORMAL THYROID TISSUE AND HYPERTROPHIC THYROID TISSUE

2022 ◽  
Liliya Kh. Kotelnikova ◽  
Antonina V. Podkorytova ◽  
Anna N. Roshchina ◽  
I.A. Shashkina

In this research, recipes were developed for beverages and desserts based on ”Vitalgar Cardio”, abiogelthat contains alginate, has therapeutic and prophylactic properties, and was produced from laminaria at the SPC ”Vita-Li” LLC. ”Vitalgar Cardio”, in its liquid form, as well as desserts based on it, is a source of soluble dietary fiber (alginates) and chemical elements such as potassium, magnesium and iodine, and is an adsorbent of various toxins, including radionuclides and heavy metals. The developed products have traditional appeal, with a focus on healthy nutrition, which is currently being promoted among the population. Keywords: Lamibaria, Alginate, Fucoidan

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 802
Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara ◽  
Marzena Suder ◽  
Agnieszka Dołhańczuk-Śródka ◽  
Małgorzata Rajfur ◽  
Katarzyna Grata ◽  

Innovative engineering design for biologically active hydroxyapatites requires enhancing both mechanical and physical properties, along with biocompatibility, by doping with appropriate chemical elements. Herein, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate and elucidate the model of naturally occurring hydroxyapatite and the effects of doped trace elements on the function of normal human fibroblasts, representing the main cells of connective tissues. The substrates applied (geological apatites with hexagonal prismatic crystal habit originated from Slyudyanka, Lake Baikal, Russia (GAp) and from Imilchil, The Atlas Mountains, Morocco (YAp)) were prepared from mineral natural apatite with a chemical composition consistent with the building blocks of enamel and enriched with a significant F− content. Materials in the form of powders, extracts and single-crystal plates have been investigated. Moreover, the effects on the function of fibroblasts cultured on the analyzed surfaces in the form of changes in metabolic activity, proliferation and cell morphology were evaluated. Apatite plates were also evaluated for cytotoxicity and immune cell activation capacity. The results suggest that a moderate amount of F− has a positive effect on cell proliferation, whereas an inhibitory effect was attributed to the Cl− concentration. It was found that for (100) GAp plate, fibroblast proliferation was significantly increased, whereas for (001) YAp plate, it was significantly reduced, with no cytotoxic effect and no immune response from macrophages exposed to these materials. The study of the interaction of fibroblasts with apatite crystal surfaces provides a characterization relevant to medical applications and may contribute to the design of biomaterials suitable for medical applications and the evaluation of their bioavailability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 799
Rita Petlickaitė ◽  
Algirdas Jasinskas ◽  
Ramūnas Mieldažys ◽  
Kęstutis Romaneckas ◽  
Marius Praspaliauskas ◽  

The paper presents the preparation and use of pressed solid biofuel of multi-crop plants (fibrous hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.)) as mono, binary and trinomial crops. The results of the investigation show that three main chemical elements (carbon, oxygen and hydrogen) accounted for 93.1 to 94.9% of the biomass pellet content. The moisture content varied from 3.9 to 8.8%, ash content from 4.5 to 6.8% and calorific value from 16.8 to 17.1 MJ·kg−1. It was found that the density (DM) of all variants of pellets was very similar; the faba bean biomass pellets had the highest density of 1195.8 kg·m−3 DM. The initial ash deformation temperature (DT) of burning biomass pellets was detected, which varied from 976 to 1322 °C. High potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were found in all types of biomass ash. The quantities of heavy metals in pellet ash were not large and did not exceed the permissible values according to Lithuanian legislation. These chemical properties of multi-crop biomass ash allow them to be used in agriculture for plant fertilization.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 165
Alexander I. Malov ◽  
Evgeniya S. Sidkina ◽  
Mikhail V. Mironenko ◽  
Alexey S. Tyshov ◽  
Elena V. Cherkasova

The technogenic impact of the development of the Lomonosov diamond deposit is associated with the discharge of quarry and drainage water into the river, which has a special conservation status. Earlier studies on the composition of bottom sediments showed that there are signs of increased accumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides at wastewater discharge sites. The purpose of this work was to predict changes in the composition of surface water and bottom sediment in the river during the further development of mining operations with brackish and salty water captured by drainage systems, the presence of which was established in the zone of their future influence. For this, a simulation of changes in the composition of the water in the river was carried out using the GEOCHEQ software package by minimizing the free energy of the system using a convex simplex algorithm. It was found that the maximum salinity of surface water can reach 1.51 g/L. In this case, the MPC of Cl−, Na+, SO42−, Mg2+, Sr, V, and U can be exceeded for fishery watercourses. The genetic basis of the accumulation of these components in solutions for mixing was considered. According to the calculations, when about 5000 m3/h of drainage water is discharge d into the river, the mass of precipitated chemical elements will be 56–191 t/h, including up to 2.1 t/h of iron; therefore, accumulation in the discharge zone must be controlled.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 458-465
Olivier Florent Essouli ◽  
Edmond NICAISE Malanda Nimy ◽  
Timothée Miyouna ◽  
Sophie Aïssatou Gladima-Siby ◽  
Laurent Matini ◽  

To determine the origin and the processes of groundwater mineralization in the Mbeubeuss lake area, the major ion concentrations of the groundwater were compared to those of the rainwaters which constitute the input function of the aquifer of the Quaternary sands in the area of lake Mbeubeuss. The physico-chemistry of groundwater near the public discharge and its surroundings, has shown that the true value of the electrical conductivity of waters are around 2000 µS/cm. Values of electrical conductivity greater than 2000 µS/cm would represent the particular mineralization of ground waters by the public discharge of lake Mbeubeuss. The chemical facies of ground waters are dominated by the sodium and potassium chloride and calcium chloride facies. The study of the relationship between the major chemical elements and the chloride ion and the representation in the modified Chadha diagram of the chemical analyzes of ground waters from the campaigns of July 1998, July 2002 and March 2003, made it possible to highlight the different sources and processes controlling the mineralization of ground waters in the Mbeubeuss Lake area. Despite the proximity to the sea which suggests a considerable contribution of salts by aerosols and sea spray, the mineralization of ground waters in the area of lake Mbeubeuss is largely due to leachate from household waste and the influence of old sediments of the dry lake Mbeubeuss. The main processes controlling the mineralization of ground waters are marine contributions (aerosols and sea spray), dissolution-precipitation of minerals from the aquifer matrix, atmospheric CO2 diffusion, base exchanges, dilution-concentration and anthropogenic pollution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Richard Monier

Abstract The abundances of elements lighter than scandium in the atmosphere of the A0 III giant, α Sex, are derived using archival ultraviolet and optical spectra. Most of the strongest lines present in the far-ultraviolet spectrum of α Sex can be attributed to chemical elements lighter than calcium. The synthesis of selected lines in the optical and ultraviolet yields new abundances, in particular for elements which have few lines in the optical range. Helium, oxygen, silicon and sulfur are found to have solar abundances, most other elements are underabundant. Aluminium may be marginally overabundant. The lines of chlorine are probably present in the FUV but they are too blended to derive the abundance of chlorine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 423-428
Heber Nehemias Chui-Betancur ◽  
Dwight R. Acosta ◽  
German Belizario-Quispe ◽  
Roberto Alfaro-Alejo

Geophagists are generally defined by culture, social status and gender, and this paper is to identify the chemical elements of the geophagic material called Machu Rumi. The sample was extracted from the center of the geophagic material. Two micrographs were observed, the 1c micrograph contains: O (8.63%), Al (14.85%), SiO2 (33.07%), Fe (5.93%), K (5.36%), Mg (1.37 %) and Ca (0.81%), these elements are characteristics of the clay minerals, the 1d micrograph, contains: oxygen 62.14%, Silicon 37.80% and Aluminum 0.06%, these elements are present in the clay minerals soils. The results of elemental composition and micromorphology reveals the presence of phyllosilicates, SiO2, Fe, K, Mg, Ca, and Al so the consumption of Machu Rumi would contribute to the benefic geophagy.

Sayyed Mohammad Ali Noori ◽  
Mohammad Hashemi ◽  
Sajjad Ghasemi

Abstract: Saffron is one of the most expensive spices in the world, and its popularity as a tasty food additive is spreading rapidly through many cultures and cuisines. Minerals and heavy metals are minor components found in saffron, which play a key role in the identification of the geographical origin, quality control, and food traceability, while they also affect human health. The chemical elements in saffron are measured using various analytical methods, such as techniques based on spectrometry or spectroscopy, including atomic emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study aimed to review the published articles about heavy metals and minerals in saffron across the world. To date, 64 chemical elements have been found in different types of saffron, which could be divided into three groups of macro-elements, trace elements, and heavy metals (trace elements with a lower gravity/greater than five times that of water and other inorganic sources). Furthermore, the chemical elements in the saffron samples of different countries have a wide range of concentrations. These differences may be affected by geographical condition such as physicochemical properties of the soil, weather and other environmental conditions like saffron cultivation and its genotype.

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