climate changes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 277 ◽  
pp. 107297
Mary Robles ◽  
Odile Peyron ◽  
Elisabetta Brugiapaglia ◽  
Guillemette Ménot ◽  
Lucas Dugerdil ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-006
Abdulrazzaq Abdulhameed Al-Rawi

Food availability is the most important issue that takes the priority places in the policies of all countries all over the world. Recently, more attention has been paid to livestock because of their ability to produce meat and milk, as well as it has a significant source of income for small holders and an economic contributor to the gross domestic product. Climate changes induced physiological stress, which is one of the complex factors making livestock management and husbandry challenging in many geographical locations in the world. Increased body temperature or heat stress will cause production losses in livestock and impact on their ability to maintain normal function. There is considerable research evidence that showed significant decline in animal performance when subjected to heat stress. Heat stress inflicts heavy economic losses on livestock production. The effects of heat stress is evident in feed consumption, production efficiency in terms of milk yield or weight gain per unit of feed energy, growth rate, and reproductive efficiency. The aim of this article is to discuss increasing food production to ensure food security for nearly 8 billion people, without causing further environmental damage that can be achieved by transforming systems and adopting sustainable livestock practices within a changing climate.

2022 ◽  
Sintayehu Kare ◽  
Abera Alemu ◽  
Melese Mulugeta ◽  
Zerhun Ganewo

Abstract BackgroundBiomass is the most dominant source of energy for both food cooking and lighting in rural parts of Ethiopia. Energy conversions are carried out in open fires using inefficient traditional stoves, results in poor quality of life due to smoking-related health outcomes, and consume a large quantity of wood. This resulted in increased costs of health and cutting trees which facilities climate change. To change the situation, improved cooking stoves (ICS) have been introduced through youth cooperatives in the study area.Objective The study examined the major sources of energy for the rural households, evaluate the health and related benefits of using improved cook stove and assessing the determinants for its adoption.MethodData were collected from 344 households using a questionnaire in supplement with interview schedule. The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and econometric models.ResultsThe findings of the study showed that only 22.97% of the respondents adopted the ICS whereas the vast majority (67.03%) still rely on traditional stoves that are highly inefficient. The positive and significant variables in predicting the adoption of ICS were the educational level of household head (OR 1.23; CI at 95% 0.029-0.040), access to ICS (OR 5.88; CI at 95% 1.05-2.48), affordability (OR 2.31; CI at 95% 0.11-1.56) and demonstration about the stove (OR 6.74; CI at 95% 1.13-2.68). Family size (OR 0.74; CI at 95% -0.45-0.12) and Availability of firewood (OR 0.27; CI at 95% -2.00-.56) significantly and negatively affected the adoption of the ICS.ConclusionsLow adoption levels of ICS were found in the study area. This has been triggered by socio-economic, institutional, financial, and resource endowments. Therefore, it is recommended that increasing access to improved stoves, diversifying income sources, creating awareness about ICS health benefits, climate changes, and providing reasonable prices will facilitate its adoption.

2022 ◽  
N.C. Pepin ◽  
E. Arnone ◽  
A. Gobiet ◽  
K. Haslinger ◽  
S. Kotlarski ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Juan Pablo Corella ◽  
Niccolo Maffezzoli ◽  
Andrea Spolaor ◽  
Paul Vallelonga ◽  
Carlos A. Cuevas ◽  

AbstractIodine has a significant impact on promoting the formation of new ultrafine aerosol particles and accelerating tropospheric ozone loss, thereby affecting radiative forcing and climate. Therefore, understanding the long-term natural evolution of iodine, and its coupling with climate variability, is key to adequately assess its effect on climate on centennial to millennial timescales. Here, using two Greenland ice cores (NEEM and RECAP), we report the Arctic iodine variability during the last 127,000 years. We find the highest and lowest iodine levels recorded during interglacial and glacial periods, respectively, modulated by ocean bioproductivity and sea ice dynamics. Our sub-decadal resolution measurements reveal that high frequency iodine emission variability occurred in pace with Dansgaard/Oeschger events, highlighting the rapid Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere iodine exchange response to abrupt climate changes. Finally, we discuss if iodine levels during past warmer-than-present climate phases can serve as analogues of future scenarios under an expected ice-free Arctic Ocean. We argue that the combination of natural biogenic ocean iodine release (boosted by ongoing Arctic warming and sea ice retreat) and anthropogenic ozone-induced iodine emissions may lead to a near future scenario with the highest iodine levels of the last 127,000 years.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 162
Feihe Kong ◽  
Wenjin Xu ◽  
Ruichen Mao ◽  
Dong Liang

The groundwater-dependent ecosystem in the Gnangara region is confronted with great threats due to the decline in groundwater level since the 1970s. The aim of this study is to apply multiple trend analysis methods at 351 monitoring bores to detect the trends in groundwater level using spatial, temporal and Hydrograph Analysis: Rainfall and Time Trend models, which were applied to evaluate the impacts of rainfall on the groundwater level in the Gnangara region, Western Australia. In the period of 1977–2017, the groundwater level decreased from the Gnangara’s edge to the central-north area, with a maximum trend magnitude of −0.28 m/year. The groundwater level in 1998–2017 exhibited an increasing trend in December–March and a decreasing trend in April–November with the exception of September when compared to 1978–1997. The rainfall + time model based on the cumulative annual residual rainfall technique with a one-month lag during 1990–2017 was determined as the best model. Rainfall had great impacts on the groundwater level in central Gnangara, with the highest impact coefficient being 0.00473, and the impacts reduced gradually from the central area to the boundary region. Other factors such as pine plantation, the topography and landforms, the Tamala Limestone formation, and aquifer groundwater abstraction also had important influences on the groundwater level.

2022 ◽  
pp. 540-577
Gustavo Marques da Costa ◽  
Darlan Daniel Alves ◽  
Danielle Paula Martins ◽  
Katiucia Nascimento Adam ◽  
Sabrina Antunes Vieira ◽  

The objective of this chapter is to present the central concepts, parameters, and methods for the monitoring of climate changes, with a focus on air pollution, and the possible global and regional impacts of climate changes as well. There are plant species used as bioindicators that have a high sensitivity or ability to accumulate environmental pollutants. Another method that this chapter will present is the use of receiver models that employ both mathematical and statistical approaches to quantify the individual contribution of a given number of emission sources in the composition of a sample. The data presented in this chapter will provide reliable bases and methodologies for environmental control, supporting the adoption of more restrictive policies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 276 ◽  
pp. 107301
Gabriel A. Gómez ◽  
Juan-Luis García ◽  
Carolina Villagrán ◽  
Christopher Lüthgens ◽  
Ana M. Abarzúa

2022 ◽  
pp. 154-175
Aleksandar Baumgertel ◽  
Sara Lukić ◽  
Milica Caković ◽  
Radovan Savić ◽  
Atila Bezdan ◽  

Wind erosion is a widespread phenomenon causing serious soil degradation. It is estimated that about 28% of the global land area suffers from this process. Global climate changes are expected to accelerate land degradation and significantly affect the intensity of wind erosion. Shelterbelts are linear multi-row planting strips of vegetation (trees or shrubs) established for numerous environmental purposes. Shelterbelts are a specific type of agroforestry system which could reduce soil degradation (soil erosion). Shelterbelts mitigate greenhouse gas through trees storing carbon (C) in their above- and below-ground biomass, wherefore they are highlighted as one of the potential ways to mitigate climate change. The purpose of this chapter is to present wind erosion as a land degradation problem, especially in line with climate changes and the present concept of vegetation establishment in the form of shelterbelts for long-term multi-functional provision of ecosystem services, in particular carbon sequestration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 134 ◽  
pp. 108483
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Ruyue Yuan ◽  
Vijay P. Singh ◽  
Chong-Yu Xu ◽  
Keke Fan ◽  

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