river system
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Yousaf ◽  
Z. Hasan ◽  
F. Zaidi ◽  
S. B. Rasheed

Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.

Geomorphology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 399 ◽  
pp. 108080
Loic Piret ◽  
Sebastien Bertrand ◽  
Nhut Nguyen ◽  
Jon Hawkings ◽  
Cristian Rodrigo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 747
Md. Yousuf Gazi ◽  
A. S. M. Maksud Kamal ◽  
Md. Nazim Uddin ◽  
Md. Anwar Hossain Bhuiyan ◽  
Md. Zillur Rahman

Assessing the dynamics of Bhasan Char is very crucial, as the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has recently selected the island as the accommodation of the FDMN. This article critically evaluates the spatiotemporal morphological variations due to erosion, accretion, and subsurface deformation of the island through multi-temporal geospatial and geophysical data analysis, groundwater quality-quantity, and also determines the nature and rate of changes from 2003 to 2020. This is the first study in this island on which multi-temporal Landsat Satellite Imagery and seismic data have been used with geospatial techniques with Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) and petrel platform, respectively. The analysis of satellite images suggests that the island first appeared in 2003 in the Bay of Bengal, then progressively evolved to the present stable condition. Significant changes have taken place in the morphological and geographical conditions of the island since its inception. Since 2012, the island has been constantly accreted by insignificant erosion. It receives tidally influenced fluvial sediments from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river system and the sedimentary accretion, in this case, is higher than the erosion due to relatively weaker wave action and longshore currents. It has gained approximately 68 km2 area, mostly in the northern part and because of erosion in the south. Although the migration of the Bhasan Char was ubiquitous during 2003–2012, it has been concentrated in a small area to the east since 2018. The net shoreline movements (NSM) suggest that the length of the shoreline enlarged significantly by around 39 km in 2020 from its first appearance. Seismic and GPS data clearly indicate that the island is located on the crest of a slowly uplifting low-amplitude anticline, which may result in a stable landform around the island. Based on the analysis of historical data, it has been assessed that the current configuration of Bhasan Char would not be severely affected by 10–15-foot-high cyclone. Therefore, FDMN rehabilitation here might be safer that would be a good example for future geo-environmental assessment for any areas around the world for rehabilitation of human in remote and vulnerable island. The findings of this research will facilitate the government’s decision to rehabilitate FDMN refugees to the island and also contribute to future research in this area.

AppliedMath ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Athanasios Fragkou ◽  
Avraam Charakopoulos ◽  
Theodoros Karakasidis ◽  
Antonios Liakopoulos

Understanding the underlying processes and extracting detailed characteristics of rivers is critical and has not yet been fully developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of non-linear time series methods on environmental data. Specifically, we performed an analysis of water level measurements, extracted from sensors, located on specified stations along the Nestos River (Greece), with Recurrence Plots (RP) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) methods. A more detailed inspection with the sliding windows (epoqs) method was applied on the Recurrence Rate, Average Diagonal Line and Trapping Time parameters, with results showing phase transitions providing useful information about the dynamics of the system. The suggested method seems to be promising for the detection of the dynamical transitions that can characterize distinct time windows of the time series and reveals information about the changes in state within the whole time series. The results will be useful for designing the energy policy investments of producers and also will be helpful for dam management assessment as well as government energy policy.

Muhammad Waseem Boota ◽  
Chaode Yan ◽  
Shan-e-hyder Soomro ◽  
Ziwei Li ◽  
Muhammad Zohaib ◽  

Abstract The riverine ecosystem is beholden by the freshwater; however, morphological changes and sediment load destabilize the natural river system which deteriorates the ecology and geomorphology of the river ecosystem. The Lower Indus River Estuary (LIRE) geomorphological response was synthesized using satellite imagery (1986–2020) and evaluated against the field measurements. The estuary sinuosity index has an increasing trend from 1.84 (1986) to 1.92 (2020) and the estuary water area is increased from 101.41 km2 (1986) to 110.24 km2 (2020). The sediment load investigation at Kotri barrage indicated that the median size of bed material samples during the low-flow period falls between 0.100 and 0.203 mm and the bed material after the high flow has clay and silt (<0.0623 mm) ranging from 17–95% of the total weight of samples. The vegetated land loss on the banks is positively correlated with the peak runoff at Kotri barrage (r2=0.92). The bank erosion was computed with high precision (r2=0.84) based on an improved connection of the coefficient of erodibility and excess shear stress technique. This study will be helpful for policymakers to estimate the ecological health of LIRE, and sediment fluxes play an essential role in the mega-delta system and coastal management.

2022 ◽  
Britta M. Voss ◽  
Timothy I. Eglinton ◽  
Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink ◽  
Valier Galy ◽  
Susan Q. Lang ◽  

Abstract Sources of dissolved and particulate carbon to the Fraser River system vary significantly in space and time. Tributaries in the northern interior of the basin consistently deliver higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the main stem than other tributaries. Based on samples collected near the Fraser River mouth throughout 2013, the radiocarbon age of DOC exported from the Fraser River does not change significantly across seasons despite a spike in DOC concentration during the freshet, suggesting modulation of heterogeneous upstream signals during transit through the river basin. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations are highest in the Rocky Mountain headwater region where carbonate weathering is evident, but also in tributaries with high DOC concentrations, suggesting that DOC respiration may be responsible for a significant portion of DIC in this basin. Using an isotope and major ion mass balance approach to constrain the contributions of carbonate and silicate weathering and DOC respiration, we estimate that up to 29% of DIC is derived from DOC respiration in some parts of the Fraser River basin. Overall, these results indicate close coupling between the cycling of DOC and DIC, and that carbon is actively processed and transformed during transport through the river network.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Hasan Albo-Salih ◽  
Larry W. Mays ◽  
Daniel Che

An application is presented of a new methodology for the real-time operations of river-reservoir systems. The methodology is based upon an optimization/simulation modeling approach that interfaces optimization with a one and/or two-dimensional unsteady flow simulation model (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS). The approach also includes a model for short-term rainfall forecasting, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-HMS model for rainfall-runoff modeling. Both short-term forecasted rainfall in addition to gaged streamflow data and/or NEXRAD (Next-Generation Radar) can be implemented in the modeling approach. The optimization solution methodology is based upon a genetic algorithm implemented through MATLAB. The application is based upon the May 2010 flood event on the Cumberland River system in the USA, during which releases from Old Hickory dam caused major flooding in the downstream area of Nashville, TN, USA, and allowed the dam to be placed in an emergency operational situation. One of the major features of the modeling effort and the application presented was to investigate the use of different unsteady flow modeling approaches available in the HEC-RAS, including one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and the combined (1D/2D) approach. One of the major results of the application was to investigate the use the different unsteady flow approaches in the modeling approach. The 2D unsteady flow modeling, based upon the diffusion wave approach, was found to be superior for the application to the Cumberland River system. The model application successfully determined real-time operations that would have maintained the flood water surface elevations at the downstream control point in Nashville below the 100-year return period river water surface and maintaining the gate openings at the Old Hickory Dam from reaching an emergency operational situation, which could have caused major losses at the dam.

2022 ◽  
Frances O'Leary

South American wetlands are of global importance, yet limited delineation and monitoring restricts informed decision-making around the drivers of wetland loss. A growing human population and increasing demand for agricultural products has driven wetland loss and degradation in the Neotropics. Understanding of wetland dynamics and land use change can be gained through wetland monitoring. The Ñeembucú Wetlands Complex is the largest wetland in Paraguay, lying within the Paraguay-Paraná-La Plata River system. This study aims to use remotely sensed data to map land cover between 2006 and 2021, quantify wetland change over the 15-year study period and thus identify land cover types vulnerable to change in the Ñeembucú Wetlands Complex. Forest, dryland vegetation, vegetated wetland and open water were identified using Random Forest supervised classifications trained on visual inspection data and field data. Annual change of -0.34, 4.95, -1.65, 0.40 was observed for forest, dryland, vegetated wetland and open water, respectively. Wetland and forest conversion is attributed to agricultural and urban expansion. With ongoing pressures on wetlands, monitoring will be a key tool for addressing change and advising decision-making around development and conservation of valuable ecosystem goods and services in the Ñeembucú Wetlands Complex.

Netsanet Muluneh Gebreyohannes ◽  
Mwemezi J. Rwiza ◽  
Wilson Leonidas Mahene ◽  
Revocatus L. Machunda

Abstract The quality of water and sediments from a marginally-studied river was investigated with respect to As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn including their fractionation behavior and environmental risk. Samples were collected along the Kou River that flows across two districts in the Manyara region of Tanzania. The leaching behavior of Fe was studied using sequential extraction fractionation and kinetics approach. The Kou water failed to meet the irrigation, aquatic, and biological life standards with respect to one of more trace metallic elements (TMEs). Fe concentration in the river water ranged from 4.1 to 5.38 mg/L exceeding all the three standards. Six pollution indices were applied to assess the contamination and ecological risks of the nine trace metallic elements in the sediments. Overall, the metals were found to moderately contaminate the sediments. Cr, Fe, and Mn fell under the ‘severely polluted’ sediment quality class. Fe was the only metal that was found to significantly pollute both the river water and sediments. The Fe fractions in the sediments were in the order of residuals>Fe-Mn bound>organic bound>carbonate bound>water soluble>ion exchangeable. 7.8% of the total Fe content was bioavailable with a low potential to leach from the sediments. Under natural conditions, the sharpest release of the non-residual mobile fractions of Fe were identified to occur within the first 24 hours with the maximum Fe leached being 0.14% on the 12th day. None of the metals in the sediments were found with a potential to pose ecological risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
M. I. Khan ◽  
S. Hussain ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
M. Shadman ◽  

Abstract Cyprinus carpio is the member of family cyprinidae commonly called common carp. This study was aimed to find out the comparison of brain of wild (river system) and captive (hatchery reared) population of common carp. A total of thirty samples (15 from hatchery and 15 from river Swat) were collected. All the specimens were examined in Laboratory of Parasitoloy, Zoology Department, University of Malakand. Findings indicated that wild population were greater in brain size and weight as compared to hatchery reared population. The fish samples collected from captive environment (hatchery) were showing more weight and length as compared to wild population of common carps. The mean value of total weight of hatchery fishes 345±48.68 and the mean value of brain weight of hatchery reared fishes 0.28±0.047. The mean value of wild fish’s total body weight 195.16±52.58 and the mean value of brain weight of wild fishes are 0.45±0.14. Present research calls for the fact that fish in dependent environmental conditions possess brain larger in size as compared to its captive population, it is due to use and disuse of brain in their environmental requirements.

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