AbstractUnbiased genetic forward screening using retroviral insertional mutagenesis in a genetically engineered mouse model of human multiple myeloma may further our understanding of the genetic pathways that govern neoplastic plasma cell development. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed a tumor induction study in MYC-transgenic mice infected as neonates with the Moloney-derived murine leukemia virus, MOL4070LTR. Next-generation DNA sequencing of proviral genomic integration sites yielded rank-ordered candidate tumor progression genes that accelerated plasma cell neoplasia in mice. Rigorous clinical and biological validation of these genes led to the discovery of two novel myeloma genes: WDR26 (WD repeat-containing protein 26) and MTF2 (metal response element binding transcription factor 2). WDR26, a core component of the carboxy-terminal to LisH (CTLH) complex, is overexpressed or mutated in solid cancers. MTF2, an ancillary subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is a close functional relative of PHD finger protein 19 (PHF19) which is currently emerging as an important driver of myeloma. These findings underline the utility of genetic forward screens in mice for uncovering novel blood cancer genes and suggest that WDR26-CTLH and MTF2-PRC2 are promising molecular targets for new approaches to myeloma treatment and prevention.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite novel therapies, MM still remains an incurable cancer and new strategies are needed. Increased expression of the transcription factor Sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility-group box transcription factor 4 (SOX4) has been correlated with tumor development and progression through a variety of distinct processes, including inhibition of apoptosis, increased cell invasion and metastasis, and induction and maintenance of cancer-initiating cells. The role of SOX4 in MM is largely unknown. Since SOX4 is a known target of miR-335, we used miR-335 to assess whether SOX4 modulation could promote apoptosis in MM cells. Using an MM cell model we show that miR-335 acts both on SOX4-related genes (AKT, PI3K) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (Hif1-α). In addition, we show miR-335-laden extracellular vesicles induced in B cells (iEVs) are also effective in targeting SOX4, causing apoptosis. Collectively, we propose that miR-335-laden iEVs could be developed as a novel form of gene therapy in MM.
Multiple myeloma (MM), a tumor of germinal center (GC)-experienced plasma cells, comprises distinct genetic subgroups, such as the t(11;14)/CCND1 and the t(4;14)/MMSET subtype. We have generated subgroup-specific MM models by the GC B cell-specific co-activation of Ccnd1 or MMSET with a constitutively active Ikk2 mutant, mimicking the secondary NFκB activation frequently seen in human MM. Ccnd1/Ikk2ca and MMSET/Ikk2ca mice developed a pronounced, clonally restricted plasma cell outgrowth with age, accompanied by serum M spikes, bone marrow insufficiency and bone lesions. The transgenic plasma cells could be propagated in vivo and showed transcriptional profiles resembling their human counterparts. Thus, we show that Ccnd1 and MMSET cooperate with NFκB in MM pathogenesis, considering for the first time the genetic heterogeneity of MM for the generation of preclinical models.