tumor development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 953-957
Ting Ding ◽  
Qian Song ◽  
Yanjun Xu ◽  
Qiya Liu

Chemokines and immunomodulatory factors involve in tumor development. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is considered to start from dendritic cell infiltration and then produce immunomodulatory factors. In this study, CXCR4 and PD-L1 biomarkers were used to explore their prognostic role in PTC survival. Confocal microscopy detected the transfection efficiency in tumor cells. 42 PTC patients and thyroiditis patients (control) were enrolled to measure the expressions of CXCR4 and PD-L1. Multi-factor analysis analyzed the effect of combined CXCR4 and PD-L1 expression on ROC. The two groups had no differences in the baseline characteristics. CTXCR4 and PD-L1 level in PTC patients was significantly higher than control. CXCR4 was lowly expressed in thyroid cancer tissue and PD-L1 was highly expressed in serological samples. Compared with single measurement, the combined detection of CXCR4 and PD-L1 showed more ROC area. In conclusion, reduced CXCR4 and increased PD-L1 level is found in thyroid cancer and their level might be used as predictive markers for PTC to improve the curative effect.

Dan Wang ◽  
Dazhi Long ◽  
Jiegang Zhou ◽  
Ziqiang Dong ◽  
Guiming Huang

Background: Dexmedetomidine has been reported to induce anti-apoptotic effects and metastatic progression in lung cancer. In the current investigation, the effect of β-Caryophyllene on dexmedetomidine induced cell proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and tumor growth in mice was studied. Methods: A549 cell line was cultured with either dexmedetomidine alone or together with β-Caryophyllene for 24 h and analysed for cell proliferation with MTT assay. ELISA based kit was used to determine apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Western blotting was used to determine expression levels of target proteins. The induction of experimental lung tumor in rat model was achieved through the injection of A549 tumor cells subcutaneously into the middle left side of the mice after anesthetization with pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) at 2.8 × 106 cells in 400 μl of PBS. Result: We found that β-Caryophyllene exerts the anti-proliferative effects on A549 cells. Furthermore, β-Caryophyllene significantly prevents apoptotic cell death and causes up-regulation of PGC-1α and TFAM compared to dexmedetomidine treated cells. We observed that β-Caryophyllene suppressed tumor development in mice significantly compared to dexmedetomidine treated group without changing body weight.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Reza Hosseini ◽  
Hamzeh Sarvnaz ◽  
Maedeh Arabpour ◽  
Samira Molaei Ramshe ◽  
Leila Asef-Kabiri ◽  

AbstractTumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play pivotal roles in several aspects of cancer biology. It is now evident that TDEs also favor tumor growth by negatively affecting anti-tumor immunity. As important sentinels of immune surveillance system, natural killer (NK) cells can recognize malignant cells very early and counteract the tumor development and metastasis without a need for additional activation. Based on this rationale, adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded NK cells/NK cell lines, such as NK-92 cells, has attracted great attention and is widely studied as a promising immunotherapy for cancer treatment. However, by exploiting various strategies, including secretion of exosomes, cancer cells are able to subvert NK cell responses. This paper reviews the roles of TDEs in cancer-induced NK cells impairments with mechanistic insights. The clinical significance and potential approaches to nullify the effects of TDEs on NK cells in cancer immunotherapy are also discussed.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 196
Mosar Corrêa Rodrigues ◽  
Wellington Tavares de Sousa Júnior ◽  
Thayná Mundim ◽  
Camilla Lepesqueur Costa Vale ◽  
Jaqueline Vaz de Oliveira ◽  

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been clinically employed to treat mainly superficial cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma. This approach can eliminate tumors by direct cytotoxicity, tumor ischemia, or by triggering an immune response against tumor cells. Among the immune-related mechanisms of PDT, the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in target cells is to be cited. ICD is an apoptosis modality distinguished by the emission of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP). Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the immunogenicity of CT26 and 4T1 treated with PDT mediated by aluminum-phthalocyanine in nanoemulsion (PDT-AlPc-NE). Different PDT-AlPc-NE protocols with varying doses of energy and AlPc concentrations were tested. The death mechanism and the emission of DAMPs–CRT, HSP70, HSP90, HMGB1, and IL-1β–were analyzed in cells treated in vitro with PDT. Then, the immunogenicity of these cells was assessed in an in vivo vaccination-challenge model with BALB/c mice. CT26 and 4T1 cells treated in vitro with PDT mediated by AlPc IC50 and a light dose of 25 J/cm² exhibited the hallmarks of ICD, i.e., these cells died by apoptosis and exposed DAMPs. Mice injected with these IC50 PDT-treated cells showed, in comparison to the control, increased resistance to the development of tumors in a subsequent challenge with viable cells. Mice injected with 4T1 and CT26 cells treated with higher or lower concentrations of photosensitizer and light doses exhibited a significantly lower resistance to tumor development than those injected with IC50 PDT-treated cells. The results presented in this study suggest that both the photosensitizer concentration and light dose affect the immunogenicity of the PDT-treated cells. This event can affect the therapy outcomes in vivo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shihong Zhao ◽  
Boya Xu ◽  
Wenbin Ma ◽  
Hao Chen ◽  
Chuanlu Jiang ◽  

With the gradual understanding of tumor development, many tumor therapies have been invented and applied in clinical work, and immunotherapy has been widely concerned as an emerging hot topic in the last decade. It is worth noting that immunotherapy is nowadays applied under too harsh conditions, and many tumors are defined as “cold tumors” that are not sensitive to immunotherapy, and brain tumors are typical of them. However, there is much evidence that suggests a link between DNA damage repair mechanisms and immunotherapy. This may be a breakthrough for the application of immunotherapy in brain tumors. Therefore, in this review, first, we will describe the common pathways of DNA damage repair. Second, we will focus on immunotherapy and analyze the mechanisms of DNA damage repair involved in the immune process. Third, we will review biomarkers that have been or may be used to evaluate immunotherapy for brain tumors, such as TAMs, RPA, and other molecules that may provide a precursor assessment for the rational implementation of immunotherapy for brain tumors. Finally, we will discuss the rational combination of immunotherapy with other therapeutic approaches that have an impact on the DNA damage repair process in order to open new pathways for the application of immunotherapy in brain tumors, to maximize the effect of immunotherapy on DNA damage repair mechanisms, and to provide ideas and guidance for immunotherapy in brain tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 359-364
Zhen You ◽  
Bei Li ◽  
Jun Gao ◽  
Jiong Lu ◽  
Ruihua Xu

Purpose: To investigate the effect of azaindole on proliferation of liver cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. Methods: Colony forming and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to determine the effect of azaindole on cell proliferation. A tumor model was established through subcutaneous administration of HEPG2 cells to rats. Thereafter, in vivo tumor development was measured using Vernier caliper. Results: The proliferation potential of HEPG2 and SNU-398 cells was markedly and dose-dependently suppressed by treatment with azaindole at doses of 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 μM (p < 0.05). The expression levels of Ki67 and PCNA levels were significantly down-regulated in HEPG2 and SNU-398 cells on treatment with 20 μM azaindole. Moreover, azaindole significantly suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of KIFC1 in HEPG2 and SNU-398 cells (p < 0.05). Tumor volume in azaindole-treated rats on day 21 was greatly reduced, while KIFC1 expression in azaindole-treated rat tumor tissue was significantly down-regulated, when compared to the model group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Azaindole targets proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo through a mechanism involving down-regulation of KIFCI expression. Thus, azaindole is a potential therapeutic candidate for liver cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. e433
B. Agame-Lagunes ◽  
M. Alegria-Rivadeneyra ◽  
A. Alexander-Aguilera ◽  
R. Quintana-Castro ◽  
C. Torres-Palacios ◽  

Alternative therapies for cancer treatment have been developed using bioactive compounds such as betulinic acid (BA). The objective of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of BA in its free form and compare it with its nano-encapsulated form under a skin carcinogenesis protocol in a genetically modified murine model. K14E6 and FVB mice were divided into four groups to be treated with free BA and with betulinic acid nanoemulsion (BANE). Lecithin enriched with medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was employed as an emulsifier to prepare the nanoemulsions with a mean droplet size of 40 nm. Skin tumors were induced by exposure to DMBA and TPA directly to the transgenic mice. Tumor development was completely inhibited by BANE and by 70% with free BA. This was validated by histological sections and the gene expression of the Cdk4 and Casp8 genes.

Wu Yin ◽  
zhirui zhang ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Hao Jiao ◽  
Yuzhong Chen ◽  

Background and Purpose Squalene epoxidase (SQLE) is a key enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, but increasing evidence reveals that SQLE is abnormally expressed in some types of malignant tumors, and the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Experimental Approach Bioinformatics analysis and RNA sequencing were applied to detect to differentially expressed genes in clinical HCC tumors. AnnexinV-FITC/PI, EdU assay, transwell, IHC staining, cytoskeleton F-actin filaments assay, RNA sequencing, dual-luciferase reporters and HE staining were evaluated to investigate the pharmacological effects and possible mechanisms of SQLE. Key Results We found that SQLE expression is specifically elevated in HCC tumors, correlating with poor clinical outcomes. SQLE promoted HCC growth, EMT, and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, silencing of SQLE expression prevented HCC development. Both RNA-seq and functional experiments revealed that the protumorigenic effect of SQLE on HCC is closely related to the activation of cellular TGF-β/SMAD signaling, but interestingly, the stimulatory effect of SQLE on TGF-β/SMAD signaling and HCC development is also critically dependent on STRAP, a serine and threonine kinase. SQLE expression is well correlated with STRAP in HCC, and further, to amplify TGF-β/SMAD signaling, SQLE even transcriptionally increased STRAP gene expression mediated by the trans-acting factor AP-2α. Finally, as a chemical inhibitor of SQLE, NB-598 markedly inhibited HCC cell growth and tumor development in mouse models. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, SQLE serves as an oncogene in HCC development by activating TGF-β/SMAD signaling, and targeting SQLE could be useful in drug development and therapy for HCC.

Wenqi Ti ◽  
Jianbo Wang ◽  
Yufeng Cheng

Despite great advances in research and treatment, lung cancer is still one of the most leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Evidence is mounting that dynamic communication network in the tumor microenvironment (TME) play an integral role in tumor initiation and development. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which promote tumor growth and metastasis, are the most important stroma component in the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, in-depth identification of relevant molecular mechanisms and biomarkers related to CAFs will increase understanding of tumor development process, which is of great significance for precise treatment of lung cancer. With the development of sequencing technologies such as microarray and next-generation sequencing, lncRNAs without protein-coding ability have been found to act as communicators between tumor cells and CAFs. LncRNAs participate in the activation of normal fibroblasts (NFs) to CAFs. Moreover, activated CAFs can influence the gene expression and secretion characteristics of cells through lncRNAs, enhancing the malignant biological process in tumor cells. In addition, lncRNA-loaded exosomes are considered to be another important form of crosstalk between tumor cells and CAFs. In this review, we focus on the interaction between tumor cells and CAFs mediated by lncRNAs in the lung cancer microenvironment, and discuss the analysis of biological function and molecular mechanism. Furthermore, it contributes to paving a novel direction for the clinical treatment of lung cancer.

2022 ◽  
Aurora Campo ◽  
Francisco Fernandez-Flores ◽  
Marti Pumarola

Background and objective: Glial fibrillar acid protein is a common marker for brain tumor because of its particular rearrangement during tumor development. It is commonly used in manually histological glioma detection and grading. An automatic pipeline for tumor diagnosis based on GFAP is proposed in the present manuscript for detecting and grading canine brain glioma in stages III and IV. Methods: The study was performed on canine brain tumor stages III and IV as well as healthy tissue immunohistochemically stained for gliofibrillar astroglial protein. Four stereological indexes were developed using the area of the image as reference unit: density of glioma protein, density of neuropil, density of astrocytes and the glioma nuclei number density. Images of the slides were subset for image analysis (n=1415) and indexed. The stereological indexes of each subset constituted an array of data describing the tumor phase of the subset. A 5% of these arrays were used as training set for decision tree classification with PCA. The other arrays were further classified in a supervised approach. ANOVA and PCA analysis were applied to the indexes. Results: The final pipeline is able to detect brain tumor and to grade it automatically. Added to it, the role the neuropil during tumor development has been quantified for the first time. While astroglial cells tend to disappear, glioma cells invade all the tumor area almost to a saturation in stage III before reducing the density in stage IV. The density of the neuropil is reduced during the tumour growth. Conclusions: The method validated ere allows the automated diagnosis and grading of glioma in dogs. This method opens the research of the role of the neuropil in tumor development.

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