Oxygen Species
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 041301
Hudson A. Bicalho ◽  
Victor Quezada-Novoa ◽  
Ashlee J. Howarth

Ming Cai ◽  
Ziqing Wang ◽  
Thi Thu Trang Luu ◽  
Dakai Zhang ◽  
Brian Finke ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 106900
Hanne Friis Berntsen ◽  
Johanna Bodin ◽  
Johan Øvrevik ◽  
Christopher Friis Berntsen ◽  
Gunn C. Østby ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 268 ◽  
pp. 118782
Tian Zhang ◽  
Shasha Huang ◽  
Diwei Wang ◽  
Jian Sun ◽  
Qian Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
liang xu ◽  
Jia-Qian Song ◽  
yuelin wang ◽  
Xiao-Han Liu ◽  
Xue-Li Li ◽  

Abstract Plants have evolved a lot of strategies to improve salt tolerance to cope with salt stress. Recent studies have suggested that thymol (a nature medicine) enhances the plant tolerance against abiotic stresses, but the mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we found that thymol played an important role in maintaining root growth under salt stress. Thymol rescued root growth from salt stress via ameliorating ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. In addition, thymol enhanced the level of NO (nitric oxide) and GSH (glutathione) to repress ROS accumulation, further protecting the stability of cell membrane. Thymol-induced Na+ efflux in roots and leaves under salt stress may depend on the upregulation of SOS1, HKT1 and NHX1. Consequently, all of these evidences suggested that thymol improved tobacco salt tolerance via enhancing NO and GSH content as well as inducing Na+ efflux.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hawa Nordin Siti ◽  
Juriyati Jalil ◽  
Ahmad Yusof Asmadi ◽  
Yusof Kamisah

Cardiac hypertrophy is characteristic of heart failure in patients who have experienced cardiac remodeling. Many medicinal plants, including Parkia speciosa Hassk., have documented cardioprotective effects against such pathologies. This study investigated the activity of P. speciosa empty pod extract against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II). In particular, its role in modulating the Ang II/reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide (Ang II/ROS/NO) axis and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was examined. Treatment with the extract (12.5, 25, and 50 μg/ml) prevented Ang II-induced increases in cell size, NADPH oxidase activity, B-type natriuretic peptide levels, and reactive oxygen species and reductions in superoxide dismutase activity. These were comparable to the effects of the valsartan positive control. However, the extract did not significantly ameliorate the effects of Ang II on inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels, while valsartan did confer such protection. Although the extract decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, valsartan only decreased phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase expression. Phytochemical screening identified the flavonoids rutin (1) and quercetin (2) in the extract. These findings suggest that P. speciosa empty pod extract protects against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, possibly by modulating the Ang II/ROS/NO axis and MAPK signaling pathway via a mechanism distinct from valsartan.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2752
Suresh Kumar ◽  
Miguel Sánchez-Álvarez ◽  
Fidel-Nicolás Lolo ◽  
Flavia Trionfetti ◽  
Raffaele Strippoli ◽  

Autophagy and the lysosomal system, together referred to as the autophagolysosomal system, is a cellular quality control network which maintains cellular health and homeostasis by removing cellular waste including protein aggregates, damaged organelles, and invading pathogens. As such, the autophagolysosomal system has roles in a variety of pathophysiological disorders, including cancer, neurological disorders, immune- and inflammation-related diseases, and metabolic alterations, among others. The autophagolysosomal system is controlled by TFEB, a master transcriptional regulator driving the expression of multiple genes, including autophagoly sosomal components. Importantly, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and control are key aspects of the physiopathological roles of the autophagolysosomal system, and may hold a key for synergistic therapeutic interventions. In this study, we reviewed our current knowledge on the biology and physiopathology of the autophagolysosomal system, and its potential for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
Bence Hegyi ◽  
Risto-Pekka Pölönen ◽  
Kim T. Hellgren ◽  
Christopher Y. Ko ◽  
Kenneth S. Ginsburg ◽  

AbstractCardiomyocyte Na+ and Ca2+ mishandling, upregulated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are characteristics of various heart diseases, including heart failure (HF), long QT (LQT) syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). These changes may form a vicious cycle of positive feedback to promote cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. In HF rabbit cardiomyocytes investigated in this study, the inhibition of CaMKII, late Na+ current (INaL), and leaky ryanodine receptors (RyRs) all attenuated the prolongation and increased short-term variability (STV) of action potential duration (APD), but in age-matched controls these inhibitors had no or minimal effects. In control cardiomyocytes, we enhanced RyR leak (by low [caffeine] plus isoproterenol mimicking CPVT) which markedly increased STV and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). These proarrhythmic changes were significantly attenuated by both CaMKII inhibition and mitochondrial ROS scavenging, with a slight synergy with INaL inhibition. Inducing LQT by elevating INaL (by Anemone toxin II, ATX-II) caused markedly prolonged APD, increased STV, and early afterdepolarizations (EADs). Those proarrhythmic ATX-II effects were largely attenuated by mitochondrial ROS scavenging, and partially reduced by inhibition of CaMKII and pathological leaky RyRs using dantrolene. In human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) bearing LQT3 mutation SCN5A N406K, dantrolene significantly attenuated cell arrhythmias and APD prolongation. Targeting critical components of the Na+–Ca2+–CaMKII–ROS–INaL arrhythmogenic vicious cycle may exhibit important on-target and also trans-target effects (e.g., INaL and RyR inhibition can alter INaL-mediated LQT3 effects). Incorporating this vicious cycle into therapeutic strategies provides novel integrated insight for treating cardiac arrhythmias and diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 862
Gumer Pérez ◽  
Federico Lopez-Moya ◽  
Emilia Chuina ◽  
María Ibañez-Vea ◽  
Edurne Garde ◽  

Strain degeneration has been defined as a decrease or loss in the yield of important commercial traits resulting from subsequent culture, which ultimately leads to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. Pleurotus ostreatus is a lignin-producing nematophagous edible mushroom. Mycelia for mushroom production are usually maintained in subsequent culture in solid media and frequently show symptoms of strain degeneration. The dikaryotic strain P. ostreatus (DkN001) has been used in our lab as a model organism for different purposes. Hence, different tools have been developed to uncover genetic and molecular aspects of this fungus. In this work, strain degeneration was studied in a full-sib monokaryotic progeny of the DkN001 strain with fast (F) and slow (S) growth rates by using different experimental approaches (light microscopy, malondialdehyde levels, whole-genome transcriptome analysis, and chitosan effect on monokaryotic mycelia). The results obtained showed that: (i) strain degeneration in P. ostreatus is linked to oxidative stress, (ii) the oxidative stress response in monokaryons is genotype dependent, (iii) stress and detoxifying genes are highly expressed in S monokaryons with symptoms of strain degeneration, (iv) chitosan addition to F and S monokaryons uncovered the constitutive expression of both oxidative stress and cellular detoxifying genes in S monokaryon strains which suggest their adaptation to oxidative stress, and (v) the overexpression of the cell wall genes, Uap1 and Cda1, in S monokaryons with strain degeneration phenotype indicates cell wall reshaping and the activation of High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) and Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathways. These results could constitute a hallmark for mushroom producers to distinguish strain degeneration in commercial mushrooms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (6) ◽  
Mingtai Gui ◽  
Lei Yao ◽  
Bo Lu ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Xunjie Zhou ◽  

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