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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 551-557
Zhen Liu ◽  
Canfang Hu ◽  
Dingzhong Tang ◽  
Guojun Luo

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with memory loss and cognitive impairment. Short non-coding RNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AD. This study aims to investigate miR-129’s role in AD. miR-129 and amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression was measured by Q-PCR, and LC3, p62, ATG5, Bcl-2, p-Tau and Caspase3 protein was detected by Western blot. Hydrogenase kits and DCFH-DA detected cell apoptosis, cytotoxicity and ROS generation. The interaction between APP and miR-129 was assessed by luciferase report experiment. HE staining and TUNEL assay evaluated hippocampal neuron damage. In AD patient serum, AD transgenic (TG) mouse brain tissue, and AB1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells, miR-129 was downregulated but autophagy was increased. Overexpression of miR-129 reduced cell damage induced by AB1-42, and miR-129 can directly regulate APP expression by binding APP 3′-UTR. miR-129 inhibitors reversed the protective effect of shAPP on AB1-42-induced cell damage. In addition, miR-129 overexpression reduced neuronal damage through inhibiting autophagy in vivo. APP expression in AD patient and AD cell model was significantly increased compared to controls. Aβ-42 treatment caused up-regulation of APP expression, while APP knockdown inhibited neurons through autophagy. In conclusion, miR-129 overexpression can regulate autophagy by targeting APP5, thereby reducing neuronal damage in AD. These findings provide a new perspective for treating AD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 306-315
Jie Song ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  
Hui Zhang

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and inflammatory disease, leading to pain or even disability in severe cases. LncRNA PCGEM1 (PCGEM1) is reported to be dysregulated, serving as critical regulators in various human diseases, including OA. However, the biological role of PCGEM1 and its underlying mechanisms during OA remained unclear. In the present study, CHON-001 cells were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1β to construct the OA cell model. Expression of PCGEM1 and miR-152-3p in cells was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. Corresponding commercial kits were used to measure the expressions of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), inter-leukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Protein levels of apoptosis-related proteins, cleaved-Caspase3 and Caspase3, were detected by Western blotting. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometry assays were utilized for the determination of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The association between PCGEN1 and miR-152-3p was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. From the results, PCGEM1 expression was significantly increased while miR-152-3p was inhibited in CHON-001 cells after IL-1β treatment. In addition, silencing of PCGEM1 could promote proliferation, inhibit the apoptosis, suppress LDH level and alleviate inflammation response caused by IL-1β in CHON-001 cells by sponging miR-152-3p. In a word, PCGEM1 down-regulation suppressed OA progression by the regulation of miR-152-3p expression, functioning as a potential therapeutic target for OA clinical treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Hongfei Si ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  
Rui He ◽  
Xiuwen Yu ◽  
Shan Li ◽  

Mutated JAK3 has been considered a promising target for cancer therapy. Activating mutations of JAK3 are observed in 3.9%–10% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, but it is unclear whether AML cells are sensitive to JAK3 inhibitors, and no disease-related human AML cell model has been reported. We have identified U937 as the first human AML cell line expressing the JAK3M511I activated mutation and confirmed that JAK3 inhibitors sensitively suppress the proliferation of U937 AML cells.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 170
Panayiotis Vafeas ◽  
Eleftherios Protopapas ◽  
Maria Hadjinicolaou

Modern engineering technology often involves the physical application of heat and mass transfer. These processes are associated with the creeping motion of a relatively homogeneous swarm of small particles, where the spheroidal geometry represents the shape of the embedded particles within such aggregates. Here, the steady Stokes flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid through an assemblage of particles, at low Reynolds numbers, is studied by employing a particle-in-cell model. The mathematical formulation adopts the Kuwabara-type assumption, according to which each spheroidal particle is stationary and it is surrounded by a confocal spheroid that creates a fluid envelope, in which the Newtonian fluid moves with a constant velocity of arbitrary orientation. The boundary value problem in the fluid envelope is solved by imposing non-slip conditions on the surface of the spheroid, which is also considered as non-penetrable, while zero vorticity is assumed on the fictitious spheroidal boundary along with a uniform approaching velocity. The three-dimensional flow fields are calculated analytically for the first time, in the spheroidal geometry, by virtue of the Papkovich–Neuber representation. Through this, the velocity and the total pressure fields are provided in terms of a vector and the scalar spheroidal harmonic potentials, which enables the thorough study of the relevant physical characteristics of the flow fields. The newly obtained analytical expressions generalize to any direction with the existing results holding for the asymmetrical case, which were obtained with the aid of a stream function. These can be employed for the calculation of quantities of physical or engineering interest. Numerical implementation reveals the flow behavior within the fluid envelope for different geometrical cell characteristics and for the arbitrarily-assumed velocity field, thus reflecting the different flow/porous media situations. Sample calculations show the excellent agreement of the obtained results with those available for special geometrical cases. All of these findings demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method and the powerfulness of the obtained analytical expansions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 409-432
Young-Seob Lee ◽  
Seon Min Oh ◽  
Qian-Qian Li ◽  
Kwan-Woo Kim ◽  
Dahye Yoon ◽  

Curcumin (CM), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are major curcumin derivatives found in the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and have yielded impressive properties to halt various diseases. In the present study, we carried out a method validation for curcumin derivatives and analyzed the contents simultaneously using HPLC with UV detection. For validation, HPLC was used to estimate linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). Results showed a high linearity of the calibration curve, with a coefficient of correlation (R2) for CM, DMC, and BDMC of 0.9999, 0.9999, and 0.9997, respectively. The LOD values for CM, DMC, and BDMC were 1.16, 1.03, and 2.53 ng/μL and LOQ values were 3.50, 3.11, and 7.67 ng/μL, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the ability of curcumin derivatives to reduce liver lipogenesis and compare curcumin derivatives’ therapeutic effects, a HepG2 cell model was established to analyze their hepatoprotective properties. Regarding the in vivo study, we investigated the effect of DMC, CM, and BDMC on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) caused by a methionine choline deficient (MCD)-diet in the C57BL/6J mice model. From the in vitro and in vivo results, curcumin derivatives alleviated MCD-diet-induced lipid accumulation as well as high triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and the protein and gene expression of the transcription factors related to liver adipogenesis were suppressed. Furthermore, in MCD-diet mice, curcumin derivatives suppressed the upregulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, our findings indicated that all of the three curcuminoids exerted a hepatoprotective effect in the HepG2 cell model and the MCD-diet-induced NAFLD model, suggesting a potential for curcuminoids derived from turmeric as novel therapeutic agents for NAFLD.

Lucy Y. Tao ◽  
Katarzyna B. Łagosz-Ćwik ◽  
Jolanda M.A. Hogervorst ◽  
Ton Schoenmaker ◽  
Aleksander M. Grabiec ◽  

Diabetes and periodontitis are comorbidities and may share common pathways. Several reports indicate that diabetes medication metformin may be beneficial for the periodontal status of periodontitis patients. Further research using appropriate cell systems of the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds teeth may reveal the possible mechanism. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts anchor teeth in bone and play a role in the onset of both alveolar bone formation and degradation, the latter by inducing osteoclast formation from adherent precursor cells. Therefore, a cell model including this type of cells is ideal to study the influence of metformin on both processes. We hypothesize that metformin will enhance bone formation, as described for osteoblasts, whereas the effects of metformin on osteoclast formation is yet undetermined. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of osteogenic medium and 0.2 or 1 mM metformin. The influence of metformin on osteoclast formation was first studied in PDLF cultures supplemented with peripheral blood leukocytes, containing osteoclast precursors. Finally, the effect of metformin on osteoclast precursors was studied in cultures of CD14+ monocytes that were stimulated with M-CSF and receptor activator of Nf-κB ligand (RANKL). No effects of metformin were observed on osteogenesis: not on alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin red deposition, nor on the expression of osteogenic markers RUNX-2, Collagen I and Osteonectin. Metformin inhibited osteoclast formation and accordingly downregulated the genes involved in osteoclastogenesis: RANKL, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and osteoclast fusion gene DC-STAMP. Osteoclast formation on both plastic and bone as well as bone resorption was inhibited by metformin in M-CSF and RANKL stimulated monocyte cultures, probably by reduction of RANK expression. The present study unraveling the positive effect of metformin in periodontitis patients at the cellular level, indicates that metformin inhibits osteoclast formation and activity, both when orchestrated by periodontal ligament fibroblasts and in cytokine driven osteoclast formation assays. The results indicate that metformin could have a systemic beneficiary effect on bone by inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Ying Wang ◽  
Shanshan Zhao ◽  
Guohua Li ◽  
Dawei Wang ◽  
Yanwu Jin

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> This article purposed to detect the function of the HOTAIR and HOTAIR/microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) axis on the isoflurane (ISO)-injured cells and rat, and propounded a novel perspective in exploring the molecular pathogenesis of ISO damage. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The expression of HOTAIR and miR-129-5p was tested by quantitative real-time PCR. The viable cells were identified using MMT, and the apoptotic cells were provided by flow cytometry. The concentration of proinflammatory indicators was revealed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The function of HOTAIR on oxidative stress was detected by commercial kits. A luciferase assay was performed to confirm the relationship between miR-129-5p and HOTAIR. The Morris water maze test was conducted to elucidate the cognition of SD rats. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The expression of HOTAIR was enhanced and the expression of miR-129-5p was lessened in the ISO-evoked SD rats and HT22 cells. The interference of HOTAIR reversed the injury of ISO on cell viability, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Besides, HOTAIR might be a target ceRNA of miR-129-5p. MiR-129-5p abrogated the function of silenced HOTAIR on cell viability, cell apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Moreover, in vivo, the intervention of HOTAIR reversed the influence of ISO on cognition and oxidative stress by binding miR-129-5p. <b><i>Discussion/Conclusion:</i></b> Lowly expressed HOTAIR contributed to the recovery of the ISO-injured HT22 cell model from the abnormal viability, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress by regulating miR-129-5p. miR-129-5p mediated the function of HOTAIR on cognition and oxidative balance in the ISO-managed SD rat model.

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