Perinatal Asphyxia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 180-188
Silé Souam Nguélé ◽  
Adrienne Ngaringuem ◽  
Kounnezouné Patalet ◽  
Kanezouné Gongnet ◽  
Djaury Dadji-a ◽  

Introduction: Hypotrophy is a public health problem in developing countries. Its etiology is multifactorial and it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of hypotrophic newborns at term. Methodology: this was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the neonatology department of the MCUH of N'Djamena from 01/06/2018 to 31/05/2019. It involved 109 hypotrophic newborns at term hospitalized. Results: The frequency of hypotrophy was 7.8%, the risk factors were: housewife status (81.7%), low level of education (67%), poor pregnancy follow-up (59.7%), malaria (40.4%), urogenital infections (22%) and anemia (22%) during pregnancy. Hypotrophy was harmonious in 58.7% of cases, the sex ratio was 1.14 and visible congenital malformations were observed in 12.7% of cases. The main reasons for hospitalization were neonatal infections (64.2%), perinatal asphyxia (14.7%) and hypothermia (11.9%). Lethality was 16.5% and associated with multiparity, poor pregnancy follow-up, vaginal delivery, home delivery, pathological Apgar score, notion of resuscitation, existence of malformation, respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Better monitoring of pregnancy, use of family planning by couples, delivery in an institutionalized setting, and reinforcement of the technical platform of the neonatology department will reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality related to hypotrophy.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 214
Dimitra-Ifigeneia Matara ◽  
Abraham Pouliakis ◽  
Theodoros Xanthos ◽  
Rozeta Sokou ◽  
Georgios Kafalidis ◽  

The microbiome is vital for the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the maintenance of overall wellbeing. Gut ischemia may lead to disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation. In this systematic review, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, we constructed a search query using the PICOT (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) framework. Eligible studies reported in PubMed, up to April 2021 were selected, from which, 57 publications’ data were included. According to these, escape of intraluminal potentially harmful factors into the systemic circulation and their transmission to distant organs and tissues, in utero, at birth, or immediately after, can be caused by reduced blood oxygenation. Various factors are involved in this situation. The GIT is a target organ, with high sensitivity to ischemia–hypoxia, and even short periods of ischemia may cause significant local tissue damage. Fetal hypoxia and perinatal asphyxia reduce bowel motility, especially in preterm neonates. Despite the fact that microbiome arouse the interest of scientists in recent decades, the pathophysiologic patterns which mediate in perinatal hypoxia/asphyxia conditions and gut function have not yet been well understood.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262619
Seifu Awgchew Mamo ◽  
Girum Sebsibie Teshome ◽  
Tewodros Tesfaye ◽  
Abel Tibebu Goshu

Introduction Perinatal asphyxia continues to be a significant clinical concern around the world as the consequences can be devastating. World Health Organization data indicates perinatal asphyxia is encountered amongst 6–10 newborns per 1000 live full-term birth, and the figures are higher for low and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, studies on the prevalence of asphyxia and the extent of the problem in poorly resourced southern Ethiopian regions are limited. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of perinatal asphyxia and its associated factors. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used from March to April 2020. Data was collected from charts of neonates who were admitted to NICU from January 2016 to December 31, 2019. Result The review of 311 neonates’ medical records revealed that 41.2% of the neonates experienced perinatal asphyxia. Preeclampsia during pregnancy (AOR = 6.2, 95%CI:3.1–12.3), antepartum hemorrhage (AOR = 4.5, 95%CI:2.3–8.6), gestational diabetes mellitus (AOR = 4.2, 95%CI:1.9–9.2), premature rupture of membrane (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI:1.33–4.7) fetal distress (AOR = 3,95%CI:1.3–7.0) and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 3.1–19.3) were the associated factors. Conclusion Substantial percentages of neonates encounter perinatal asphyxia, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Focus on early identification and timely treatment of perinatal asphyxia in hospitals should, therefore, be given priority.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Gdiom Gebreheat ◽  
Hirut Teame

AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the predictors of preterm neonatal survival in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A cohort study was conducted retrospectively on 1017 preterm neonates using medical records from January 2014 through December 2018. The Kaplan–Meier model was used to estimate mean survival time and cumulative survival probability. Furthermore, Multivariable Cox regression analysis was run to identify predictors of preterm neonatal mortality using an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) at P < 0.05 and 95% confidence interval (CI). During the follow-up period in the NICU, the mean survival time of the preterm neonates was 47 (95% CI (43.19–48.95)) days. Compound presentation (AHR = 2.29, 95% CI (1.23–4.24)), perinatal asphyxia (AHR = 2.83, 95% CI (1.75–4.58)), respiratory distress syndrome (AHR = 3.01, 95% CI (1.80–5.01)), 1-min APGAR score (AHR = 0.78, 95% CI (0.62–0.98)), and birth weight (AHR = 0.32, 95% CI (0.17–0.58)) were found to be significant predictors of time to preterm neonatal mortality. In conclusion, the survival probability of preterm neonates showed a considerable decrement in the first week of life. Fetal presentation, gestational age, birth weight, 1-min APGAR score, perinatal asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome found as independent predictors of preterm neonatal mortality.

Alberto Chighine ◽  
Michele Porcu ◽  
Giulio Ferino ◽  
Nicola Lenigno ◽  
Claudia Trignano ◽  

AbstractA case report suspicious for a Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is here described. Pathological findings were consistent with an acute respiratory failure while toxicological analysis revealed an elevated blood methadone concentration. Death was then ascribed to an acute methadone intoxication. In addition to the routinary approach, the urinary sample collected at autopsy was investigated with a 1H NMR metabolomic approach and the identified metabolomic profile was challenged with the urinary metabolomic profiles previously obtained from 10 newborns who experienced perinatal asphyxia and 16 healthy control newborns. Intriguingly, the urinary profile of the methadone intoxicated infant was very similar to those belonging to the perinatal asphyxia newborns, especially to those belonging to the newborns characterised by the worst outcome. The results offer several hints on a shared metabolic derangement between different mechanisms of asphyxia/hypoxia. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a metabolomic approach in a pathological case, in which metabolomics offers useful additional information regarding the mechanism and the cause of death.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fabrizio Ferrari ◽  
Luca Bedetti ◽  
Natascia Bertoncelli ◽  
Maria Federica Roversi ◽  
Elisa Della Casa ◽  

Background: Few studies conducted to date have observed general movements in infants affected by hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who underwent therapeutic hypothermia. We investigated whether foot-to-foot contact (FF) could support the predictive value of fidgety movements (FMs) in infants affected by HIE and treated with brain cooling.Methods: Spontaneous motility was video recorded for 3–5 min at 12 weeks post-term age in 58 full-term newborn infants affected by perinatal asphyxia who were cooled due to moderate to severe HIE. FF and FMs were blindly scored by three independent observers. At 24 months, each patient underwent a neurological examination by Amiel-Tison and Grenier.Results: At 24 months, 47 infants had developed typically at neurological examination, eight had developed mild motor impairment, and three developed cerebral palsy (CP). At 12 weeks, 34 (58.6%) infants had shown normal FMs, four of whom developed mild motor impairment. Twenty-four infants (41.4%) exhibited abnormal or no FMs, four of whom developed mild motor impairment and three developed CP. FF was present in 20 infants (34.5%), two of whom developed mild motor impairment. FF was absent in 38 infants (65.5%), six of whom developed mild motor impairment and three developed CP. Both FMs and FF, considered separately, were 100% sensitive for predicting CP at 24 months, but only 61 and 36%, respectively, were specific. Summing the two patterns together, the specificity increases to 73%, considering only CP as an abnormal outcome, and increases to 74% when considering CP plus mild motor impairment. Unexpectedly, fidgety movements were absent in 24 infants with typical motor outcomes, 17 of whom showed a typical motor outcome.Conclusions: FF is already part of motor repertoire at 12 weeks and allows a comparison of spontaneous non-voluntary movements (FMs) to pre-voluntary movements (FF). FF supports FMs for both sensitivity and specificity. A second video recording at 16–18 weeks, when pedipulation is present in healthy infants, is suggested: it may better define the presence or absence of goal-directed motility.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 264-270
Asmaa M Lafta ◽  
Aida A Manther ◽  
Miami K Yousif

Background: Liver cell injury commonly occurs after perinatal asphyxia. This study aimed to identify the neonatal and maternal factors related to hepatic dysfunction associated with birth asphyxia. Methods: A case control study was carried out in Basra comprising 43 asphyxiated newborns, and 57 healthy full terms enrolled as control. Serum levels of liver enzymes [alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were measured and compared between the study and control groups. Levels beyond +2SD above the mean of control considered high. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS program version 20. Chi-Square test and ANOVA were used where appropriate, P-value <0.05 was considered as significant. Elevated levels of enzymes were studied in relation to selected neonatal and maternal variables. Results: Higher levels of liver enzymes were found related to gestational age > 40 weeks, newborn’s body weight > 4 Kg, mother’s age>35 years, parity > 4 children and maternal medical disease. The results were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, no statistical differences were detected regarding newborn’s gender and growth status, maternal education and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The study highlights the relationship between maternal and neonatal risk factors and perinatal asphyxia associated with hepatic dysfunction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. 3485-3487
Amber Naseer ◽  
Riffat Farrukh ◽  
Shaheen Masood ◽  
Sarwat Sultana ◽  
Qamar Rizvi

Background: Assisted ventilation has turn out to be an essential part of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It is one of the main methods of support in the ICU and undoubtedly influences the survival of sick newborns. Aims: 1. To investigate common indications for mechanical ventilation in newborns 2. To investigate factors influencing the outcome. Method: It is a descriptive study of 60 infants admitted to the Department of Pediatric Medicine in the ICU over a one-year period in the department of Paediatrics, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital. The information was gathered and analysed in a pre-designed format. Results: Of a total of 60 infants, 46 survived, 14 died, and one infant was discharged despite medical advice. 36 children were born vaginally, 20 were born via LSCS, and 4 via assisted delivery. Postnatal asphyxia was the most common ventilation indication in full-term newborns, while HMD was present in preterm infants. The best results were obtained in ventilated infants with MAS, with 100% survival, followed by apnoea in premature infants, perinatal asphyxia, and HMD. Pulmonary haemorrhage (48.3%) was the most common complication among deceased infants, followed by sepsis (28.3%) and shock (23.4%) with a significant p <0.05. There were no complications in 76.7% of the surviving infants. Conclusions: Among the many widely available variables studied in this study, maximum and mean peak inspiratory pressure (PIP or (PEEP), maximum respiratory rate, maximum mean airway pressure (MAP) and average ventilation demand was much greater among non-survivals in comparison to the survivors. Bicarbonate, PH and excess base have been found to be important determinants of mortality in ventilated newborns. Keywords: Indications, mechanical ventilation and Results

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Carolyne Lespay-Rebolledo ◽  
Andrea Tapia-Bustos ◽  
Ronald Perez-Lobos ◽  
Valentina Vio ◽  
Emmanuel Casanova-Ortiz ◽  

Labor and delivery entail a complex and sequential metabolic and physiologic cascade, culminating in most circumstances in successful childbirth, although delivery can be a risky episode if oxygen supply is interrupted, resulting in perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA causes an energy failure, leading to cell dysfunction and death if re-oxygenation is not promptly restored. PA is associated with long-term effects, challenging the ability of the brain to cope with stressors occurring along with life. We review here relevant targets responsible for metabolic cascades linked to neurodevelopmental impairments, that we have identified with a model of global PA in rats. Severe PA induces a sustained effect on redox homeostasis, increasing oxidative stress, decreasing metabolic and tissue antioxidant capacity in vulnerable brain regions, which remains weeks after the insult. Catalase activity is decreased in mesencephalon and hippocampus from PA-exposed (AS), compared to control neonates (CS), in parallel with increased cleaved caspase-3 levels, associated with decreased glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity, a shift towards the TIGAR-dependent pentose phosphate pathway, and delayed calpain-dependent cell death. The brain damage continues long after the re-oxygenation period, extending for weeks after PA, affecting neurons and glial cells, including myelination in grey and white matter. The resulting vulnerability was investigated with organotypic cultures built from AS and CS rat newborns, showing that substantia nigra TH-dopamine-positive cells from AS were more vulnerable to 1 mM of H2O2 than those from CS animals. Several therapeutic strategies are discussed, including hypothermia; N-acetylcysteine; memantine; nicotinamide, and intranasally administered mesenchymal stem cell secretomes, promising clinical translation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 1380-1392
Ni Made Dyah Gayatri ◽  
Peby Maulina Lestari ◽  
Abarham Martadiansyah ◽  
Rizky Agustria ◽  
Muwarni Emasrissa Latifah

Background: Impaired maternal and uteroplacental perfusion can occur in pregnancy with cardiac disease leading to maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity due to increased cardiac load and ventricular dysfunction. This research aims to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies with cardiac disease. Method: This research was a descriptive observational study conducted by a total sampling method and a cross-sectional design. This research used medical records of pregnant women with cardiac disease who gave birth in RSUP Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang in January 2018-December 2020 as study samples. Result: Among 68 pregnancies with cardiac disease, there were 4 cases (0.87%) found in 2018, 37 cases (2.47%) found in 2019, and 27 cases (1.48%) found in 2020. The highest distribution of pregnancies with cardiac disease was found at 64.7% in the range of 20-35 years old age group; 57.4% in the multiparity group; 38.2% in the range of ≥34 – <37 weeks gestational age group; 86.8% in the high school educational level group; 66.2% in the high-risk cardiac functional status group; 54.4% in the peripartum cardiomyopathy group; and 36.8% with preeclampsia/eclampsia as a comorbid. In this study, maternal outcomes found were maternal mortality at 11.8%; cardiac failure at 70.6%; arrhythmia at 1.5%; and stroke at 1.5%, while perinatal outcomes found were prematurity at 60.3%; low birth weight at 64.4%; IUGR at 37.0%; IUFD at 1.4%; stillbirth at 6.8%; neonatal death at 9.6%; and perinatal asphyxia at 42.5%. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of pregnancies with cardiac disease in RSUP Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang was 0.87% in 2018, 2.47% in 2019, and 1.48% in 2020. The most common maternal outcome in this study was cardiac failure, with most in the peripartum cardiomyopathy group, while the most common perinatal outcome was low birth weight, with most in the hypertensive heart disease group.

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