ObjectivesTo explore the clinical value of subendometrial enhancement (SEE), irregular thin-layered peritumoral early enhancement (ITLPE) and focal irregular peritumoral early enhancement (FIPE) on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for myometrial invasion in patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma.MethodsSeventy-seven patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma who preoperatively underwent DCE-MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated and recorded the occurrences of SEE, ITLPE and FIPE on DCE-MRI in all patients. Interobserver agreement was calculated between the two radiologists, and the relationships between SEE, ITLPE, FIPE, and myometrial invasion were analyzed based on histologic findings. For statistically significant findings, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and the differences in myometrial invasion evaluations were analyzed. For those with no statistical significance, images were compared with the histopathologic sections.ResultsInter-observer agreement was good (k = 0.80; 95%CI, 0.577–0.955) for SEE, and very good (k = 0.88; 95%CI, 0.761–0.972) (k = 0.86; 95%CI, 0.739–0.973) for ITLPE and FIPE. After consensus, SEE was identified in 12/77 (15.6%) patients; ITLPE and FIPE were found in 53/77 (68.8%) and 30/77 (39.0%) patients, respectively. SEE and ITLPE were significantly correlated with myometrial infiltration (P = 0.000), but FIPE were not (P = 0.725).The sensitivity and specificity of SEE and ITLPE for myometrial invasion in patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma were 95.0 and 52.9%, and 85.0 and 88.0%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of SEE and ITLPE for myometrial invasion were 0.740 (95%CI, 0.584–0.896), and 0.866 (95%CI, 0.763–0.970), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were statistically different between SEE and ITLPE for the detection of myometrial invasion (P = 0.031, 0.016). According to the comparison between FIPE and histopathologic findings, the irregular endomyometrial junction was found in 30/77 (38.9%) cases, 24/30 (80.0%) with myometrial infiltration and 6/30 (20.0%) cases without myometrial infiltration.ConclusionsFIPE was the irregular endomyometrial junction. It can be found in patients with or without myometrial infiltration and may lead to the overestimation of myometrial invasion by SEE on DCE-MRI. ITLPE presented high diagnostic performance and specificity for myometrial invasion in patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma.
To validate the reliability and implementation of an objective diagnostic method for giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB). H3-3A gene mutation testing was performed using two different methods, Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. A total of 214 patients, including 120 with GCTB and 94 with other giant cell-rich bone lesions, participated in the study. Sanger sequencing and IHC with anti-histone H3.3 G34W and G34V antibodies were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, which were previously decalcified in EDTA if needed. The sensitivity and specificity of the molecular method was 100% (95% CI: 96.97–100%) and 100% (95% CI: 96.15–100%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of IHC was 94.32% (95% CI: 87.24–98.13%) and 100% (95% CI: 93.94–100.0%), respectively. P.G35 mutations were discovered in 2/9 (22.2%) secondary malignant GCTBs and 9/13 (69.2%) GCTB after denosumab treatment. We confirmed in a large series of patients that evaluation of H3-3A mutational status using direct sequencing is a reliable tool for diagnosing GCTB, and it should be incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm. Additionally, we discovered IHC can be used as a screening tool. Proper tissue processing and decalcification are necessary. The presence of the H3-3A mutation did not exclude malignant GCTB. Denosumab did not eradicate the neoplastic cell population of GCTB.
Non-contrast MRI is used for identifying patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially among high-risk patients with cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatitis. The accuracy of non-contrast MRI has been investigated with varying results. We performed this meta-analysis to consolidate the evidence on the accuracy of non-contrast MRI for the detection of HCC. We conducted a systematic search in the databases of PubMed Central, SCOPUS, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane from inception till November 2020. We used the STATA software “Midas” package for meta-analysis. We included 15 studies with 3,756 patients. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of non-contrast MRI for HCC detection were 84% (95%CI, 78%-88%) and 94% (95%CI, 91%-97%). The positive likelihood ratio was 14.9 (95% CI, 9.0-24.7) and the negative one 0.17 (0.12-0.23). The overall quality of the studies was high. We found significant heterogeneity based on chi-square test results and I2 statistic > 75%. Deek’s test showed the absence of publication bias. We found that non-contrast MRI has high sensitivity and specificity as a tool for detecting HCC. Studies exploring its accuracy in different ethnic populations are required to strengthen the evidence.
How to cite this:Lu L, Pan X. Accuracy of Non-Contrast MRI for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5142
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
To compare two artificial intelligence software packages performing normative brain volumetry and explore whether they could differently impact dementia diagnostics in a clinical context.
Sixty patients (20 Alzheimer’s disease, 20 frontotemporal dementia, 20 mild cognitive impairment) and 20 controls were included retrospectively. One MRI per subject was processed by software packages from two proprietary manufacturers, producing two quantitative reports per subject. Two neuroradiologists assigned forced-choice diagnoses using only the normative volumetry data in these reports. They classified the volumetric profile as “normal,” or “abnormal”, and if “abnormal,” they specified the most likely dementia subtype. Differences between the packages’ clinical impact were assessed by comparing (1) agreement between diagnoses based on software output; (2) diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity; and (3) diagnostic confidence. Quantitative outputs were also compared to provide context to any diagnostic differences.
Diagnostic agreement between packages was moderate, for distinguishing normal and abnormal volumetry (K = .41–.43) and for specific diagnoses (K = .36–.38). However, each package yielded high inter-observer agreement when distinguishing normal and abnormal profiles (K = .73–.82). Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were not different between packages. Diagnostic confidence was different between packages for one rater. Whole brain intracranial volume output differed between software packages (10.73%, p < .001), and normative regional data interpreted for diagnosis correlated weakly to moderately (rs = .12–.80).
Different artificial intelligence software packages for quantitative normative assessment of brain MRI can produce distinct effects at the level of clinical interpretation. Clinics should not assume that different packages are interchangeable, thus recommending internal evaluation of packages before adoption.
As China is moving onto schistosomiasis elimination/eradication, diagnostic methods with both high sensitivity and specificity for Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans are urgently needed. Microscopic identification of eggs in stool is proven to have poor sensitivity in low endemic regions, and antibody tests are unable to distinguish between current and previous infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies for the detection of parasite DNA have been theoretically assumed to show high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. However, the reported performance of PCR for detecting S. japonicum infection varied greatly among studies. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall diagnostic performance of variable-temperature PCR technologies, based on stool or blood, for detecting S. japonicum infections in humans from endemic areas.
We searched literatures in eight electronic databases, published up to 20 January 2021. The heterogeneity and publication bias of included studies were assessed statistically. The risk of bias and applicability of each eligible study were assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2). The bivariate mixed-effects model was applied to obtain the summary estimates of diagnostic performance. The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve was applied to visually display the results. Subgroup analyses and multivariate regression were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. This research was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered prospectively in PROSPERO (CRD42021233165).
A total of 2791 papers were retrieved. After assessing for duplications and eligilibity a total of thirteen publications were retained for inclusion. These included eligible data from 4268 participants across sixteen studies. High heterogeneity existed among studies, but no publication bias was found. The pooled analyses of PCR data from all included studies resulted in a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83 to 0.96), specificity of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94), positive likelihood ratio of 5.90 (95% CI: 2.40 to 14.60), negative likelihood ratio of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.20) and a diagnostics odds ratio of 58 (95% CI: 19 to 179). Case-control studies showed significantly better performances for PCR diagnostics than cross-sectional studies. This was further evidenced by multivariate analyses. The four types of PCR approaches identified (convention PCR, qPCR, Digital droplet PCR and nested PCR) differed significantly, with nested PCRs showing the best performance.
Variable-temperature PCR has a satisfactory performance for diagnosing S. japonicum infections in humans in endemic areas. More high quality studies on S. japonicum diagnostic techniques, especially in low endemic areas and for the detection of dual-sex and single-sex infections are required. These will likely need to optimise a nested PCR alongside a highly sensitive gene target. They will contribute to successfully monitoring endemic areas as they move towards the WHO 2030 targets, as well as ultimately helping areas to achieve these goals.
Backgroundamong the manifestations of COVID-19 are Taste and Smell Disorders (TSDs).AimThe aim of the study is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of TSDs and other associated symptoms to estimate predictive values for determining SARS-CoV-2 infection.Design and settingRetrospective observational study.Methodsa study of the sensitivity and specificity of TSDs has been carried out using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 as the Gold Standard value. Logistic regressions adjusted for age and sex were performed to identify additional symptoms that might be associated with COVID-19.Resultsthe results are based on 226 healthcare workers with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, 116 with positive PCR and 111 with negative PCR. TSDs had an OR of 12.43 (CI 0.95 6.33–26.19), sensitivity 60.34% and specificity 89.09%. In the logistic regression model, the association of TSD, fever or low-grade fever, shivering, dyspnoea, arthralgia and myalgia obtained an area under the curve of 85.7% (CI 0.95: 80.7 % - 90.7 %), sensitivity 82.8 %, specificity 80% and positive predictive values 81.4% and negative 81.5%.ConclusionsTSDs are a strong predictor of COVID-19. The association of TSD, fever, low-grade fever or shivering, dyspnoea, arthralgia and myalgia correctly predicts 85.7% of the results of the COVID-19 test.
Sepsis, the dysregulated host response to infection, triggers abnormal pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory host responses. Limitations in early disease intervention highlight the need for effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Protein C’s role as an anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory molecule makes it an appealing target for sepsis biomarker studies. This meta-analysis aims to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of protein C (PC) as a biomarker for adult sepsis.
We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library from database inception to September 12, 2021. We included prospective observational studies of (1) adult patients (> 17) with sepsis or suspicion of sepsis that; (2) measured PC levels with 24 h of study admission with; and (3) the goal of examining PC as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker. Two authors screened articles and conducted risk of bias (RoB) assessment, using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) and the Quality Assessment in Diagnostic Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tools. If sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD) between patient populations.
Twelve studies were included, and 8 were synthesized for meta-analysis. Pooled analysis demonstrated moderate certainty of evidence that PC levels were less reduced in sepsis survivors compared to non-survivors (6 studies, 741 patients, SMD = 0.52, 95% CI 0.24–0.81, p = 0.0003, I2 = 55%), and low certainty of evidence that PC levels were less reduced in septic patients without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) compared to those with DIC (3 studies, 644 patients, SMD = 0.97, 95% CI 0.62–1.32, p < 0.00001, I2 = 67%). PC could not be evaluated as a diagnostic tool due to heterogeneous control populations between studies.
Conclusion and relevance
Our review demonstrates that PC levels were significantly higher in sepsis survivors compared to non-survivors and patients with sepsis but not disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Our evaluation is limited by high RoB in included studies and poor reporting of the sensitivity and specificity of PC as a sepsis biomarker. Future studies are needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of PC to identify its clinical significance as a biomarker for early sepsis recognition.
Trial Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021229786. The study protocol was published in BMJ Open.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test Kit, a rapid immunochromatographic assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Moreover, we sought to point out the strategy adopted by a local company to lift the lockdown without leading to an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, by performing a precise and timely health surveillance.
The rapid Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test was performed immediately after sampling following the manufacturer’s instructions. RT-PCRs were performed within 24 hours of specimen collection. A total amount of 253 nasopharyngeal samples from 121 individuals were collected between March 16 and April 2, 2021 and tested.
Of 253 nasopharyngeal samples, 11 (9.1%) were positive and 242 (90.9%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR assays. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test’s mean sensitivity and specificity were 84,6% (95% CI, 54.6–98.1%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.6–100%), respectively. Two false negative test results were obtained from samples with high RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct).
Our study suggested that Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test can be introduced into daily diagnostic practice, as its mean sensitivity and specificity follow the standards recommended by WHO and IFCC Task Force. In addition, we underlined how the strategy adopted by a local company to risk assessment and health surveillance was appropriate for infection containment. This real-life scenario gave us the possibility to experience potential approaches aimed to preserve public health and work activities.
It is crucial to find new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. A total of 80 patients were enrolled in the study. The study group consisted of 37 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, and the control group consisted of 43 patients with benign ovarian cystic lesions. Three proteins involved in the immune response were studied: PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. The study material was serum and peritoneal fluid. The ROC curve was plotted, and the area under the curve was calculated to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of the studied parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed simultaneously using the Cox regression model. The cut-off level of CTLA-4 was 0.595 pg/mL, with the sensitivity and specificity of 70.3% and 90.7% (p = 0.000004). Unfavorable prognostic factors determined in serum were: PD-L1 (for PFS: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11–1.21, p = 0.016; for OS: HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14–1.19, p = 0.048) and PD-1 (for PFS: HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91–1.06, p = 0.035). Unfavorable prognostic factors determined in peritoneal fluid were: PD-L1 (for PFS: HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.11, p = 0.049; for OS: HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.17, p = 0.045) and PD-1 (for PFS: HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.19–1.26, p = 0.044). We conclude that CTLA-4 should be considered as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. PD-L1 and PD-1 concentrations are unfavorable prognostic factors for ovarian cancer.