Sensitivity And Specificity
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yifei Chen ◽  
Rongfei Xia ◽  
Yongjian Feng

In order to solve the problem of existing diagnostic methods for chronic gastritis which are complex and traumatic, a novel noninvasive method for diagnosis of chronic gastric based on e-nose and deep convolutional neural network is proposed. Firstly, in order to collect samples, a respiratory gas sampling device was established and the response curve of respiratory gas is generated. Then, a deep convolutional neural network for the diagnosis of chronic gastritis is proposed to recognize and classify the respiratory gas response curve. The DCNN model attained good results with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 85.00%, 90.00%, and 80.00%, respectively, for chronic gastric prediction. The proposed method provides a new way for the clinical auxiliary diagnoses of chronic gastric.

2021 ◽  
pp. 028418512110553
Liangjin Liu ◽  
Gang Wu

Background Data regarding controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration (CAIPIRINHA) T2-weighted sampling perfection with application optimized contrast evolution (SPACE) with fourfold acceleration factor for assessing long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) disorder is lacking. Purpose To investigate the feasibility of 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE with fourfold acceleration in assessing LHBT disorder. Material and Methods A total of 42 consecutive patients underwent shoulder magnetic resonance (MR) examinations including CAIPIRINHA SPACE with fourfold acceleration, and non-CAIPIRINHA SPACE with twofold acceleration, and 2D fast spin echo (FSE). A subjective score of depiction of LHBT was given to 3D sequence according to a 4-point scale (0–3, “poor” to “excellent”). The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare depiction scores between 3D sequences. Three statuses of LHBT were defined in the study: normal, tendonitis, and tear. McNemar’s test was used compare diagnostic accuracy. Results LHBT was better depicted with CAIPIRINHA SPACE versus non-CAIPIRINHA SPACE (2.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.4; P < 0.001). Inter-modality agreement between CAIPIRINHA SPACE and 2D FSE was almost perfect (kappa = 0.884 ± 0.064). The sensitivity and specificity in detecting LHBT disorder were 95% (20/21) and 95% (20/21), respectively, for CAIPIRINHA SPACE, and 71% (15/21) and 76% (16/21), respectively, for non-CAIPIRINHA SPACE ( P = 0.039). Conclusion Fourfold acceleration CAIPIRINHA is feasible in reducing the acquisition time of SPACE MR in the shoulder. 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE with fourfold acceleration is highly accurate in detecting LHBT disorder.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (suplemento) ◽  
L Bravo Araya

Anaplasma platys is a Gram-negative, intracellular obligate bacterium that is transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and has been identified in most of the country. It is the causative agent of canine infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia. The objective of this work is to report the finding of morulae compatible with A. platys in the blood smear of a 10-year-old male Weimaraner canine who was treated at the Hospital de Salud Animal of the Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral, in the city of Esperanza. The case could not be followed up, because the patient died a few days after his first consultation. The detection of obligate intracellular pathogens in blood smears has low sensitivity and specificity, therefore confirmation of the causative agent must be performed using PCR. Due to the severity of the condition presented in this case, it is necessary to differentiate the presence of Ehrliquia canis and confirm the finding of A. platys using PCR. Current scientific evidence reveals that the zoonotic potential of A. platys is very low or nil.

2021 ◽  
pp. 036354652110538
David A. Bloom ◽  
Daniel J. Kaplan ◽  
Edward Mojica ◽  
Eric J. Strauss ◽  
Guillem Gonzalez-Lomas ◽  

Background: The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is a term synonymous with orthopaedic clinical research over the past decade. The term represents the smallest change in a patient-reported outcome measure that is of genuine clinical value to patients. It has been derived in a myriad of ways in existing orthopaedic literature. Purpose: To describe the various modalities for deriving the MCID. Study Design: Narrative review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The definitions of common MCID determinations were first identified. These were then evaluated by their clinical and statistical merits and limitations. Results: There are 3 primary ways for determining the MCID: anchor-based analysis, distribution-based analysis, and sensitivity- and specificity-based analysis. Each has unique strengths and weaknesses with respect to its ability to evaluate the patient’s clinical status change from baseline to posttreatment. Anchor-based analyses are inherently tied to clinical status yet lack standardization. Distribution-based analyses are the opposite, with strong foundations in statistics, yet they fail to adequately address the clinical status change. Sensitivity and specificity analyses offer a compromise of the other methodologies but still rely on a somewhat arbitrarily defined global transition question. Conclusion: This current concepts review demonstrates the need for (1) better standardization in the establishment of MCIDs for orthopaedic patient-reported outcome measures and (2) better study design—namely, until a universally accepted MCID derivation exists, studies attempting to derive the MCID should utilize the anchor-based within-cohort design based on Food and Drug Administration recommendations. Ideally, large studies reporting the MCID as an outcome will also derive the value for their populations. It is important to consider that there may be reasonable replacements for current derivations of the MCID. As such, future research should consider an alternative threshold score with a more universal method of derivation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 028418512110558
Pan Yang ◽  
Yajie Tang ◽  
Hongying Wang ◽  
Xiangxiang Zhang ◽  
Boyang Yang

Background Early diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA) is an important clinical challenge. Purpose To summarize the latest diagnostic performance of different ultrasonic (US) features for BA. Material and Methods MeSH terms “biliary atresia” and “ultrasonography” and related hyponyms were used to search PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible articles were included and data were retrieved. The methodologic quality was assessed by version 2 of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Estimated sensitivity and specificity of each US feature were calculated by Stata 14.0. Results Fifty eligible studies on 5622 patients were included. Respective summary sensitivity and specificity were 77% (95% CI=69–84) and 98% (95% CI=96–99) for triangular cord sign (TCS) in 32 studies, 86% (95% CI=78–92) and 86% (95% CI=72–94) for shear wave elastography (SWE) in seven studies, 75% (95% CI=65–83) and 92% (95% CI=86–95) for gallbladder and biliary system abnormality (GBA) in 25 studies, and 81% (95% CI=69–90) and 79% (95% CI=67–87) for hepatic artery (HA) enlargement in seven studies. The overall US features from 11 studies yielded a summary sensitivity of 84% (95% CI=72–92) and specificity of 86% (95% CI=77–92). Conclusion TCS and GBA were the two most widely accepted US features currently used for differential diagnosis of BA. The newly developed SWE was an objective and convenient method with good diagnostic performance. HA enlargement can be used as an auxiliary sign.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11398
Salvador Castro-Tapia ◽  
Celina Lizeth Castañeda-Miranda ◽  
Carlos Alberto Olvera-Olvera ◽  
Héctor A. Guerrero-Osuna ◽  
José Manuel Ortiz-Rodriguez ◽  

Breast cancer is one of the diseases of most profound concern, with the most prevalence worldwide, where early detections and diagnoses play the leading role against this disease achieved through imaging techniques such as mammography. Radiologists tend to have a high false positive rate for mammography diagnoses and an accuracy of around 82%. Currently, deep learning (DL) techniques have shown promising results in the early detection of breast cancer by generating computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems implementing convolutional neural networks (CNNs). This work focuses on applying, evaluating, and comparing the architectures: AlexNet, GoogLeNet, Resnet50, and Vgg19 to classify breast lesions after using transfer learning with fine-tuning and training the CNN with regions extracted from the MIAS and INbreast databases. We analyzed 14 classifiers, involving 4 classes as several researches have done it before, corresponding to benign and malignant microcalcifications and masses, and as our main contribution, we also added a 5th class for the normal tissue of the mammary parenchyma increasing the correct detection; in order to evaluate the architectures with a statistical analysis based on the received operational characteristics (ROC), the area under the curve (AUC), F1 Score, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. We generate the best results with the CNN GoogLeNet trained with five classes on a balanced database with an AUC of 99.29%, F1 Score of 91.92%, the accuracy of 91.92%, precision of 92.15%, sensitivity of 91.70%, and specificity of 97.66%, concluding that GoogLeNet is optimal as a classifier in a CAD system to deal with breast cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Vanegas David ◽  
Abril-Novillo Andrea ◽  
Khachatryan Aleksandr ◽  
Jerves-Andrade Lourdes ◽  
Peñaherrera Eugenia ◽  

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to adapt and optimize a broth microdilution method and compare it to the agar dilution method for the evaluation of activity of essential oils from medicinal plants against Gram-negative bacteria. Based on bibliographic research, active and not active oils were selected. The sensitivity and specificity were established as parameters for validation. The comparison between both methods was made using contingency analysis tables, based on the observed frequencies. For both methods, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against Escherichiacoli strains, in an essential oil concentration range between 0.03 and 0.48% (v/v). Results A stable emulsion formation was achieved with the addition of Tween 80 and constant agitation, guaranteeing the continuous contact of oil with bacteria (critical step in the microdilution method). The statistical analysis of results obtained with both methods presented a good sensitivity and specificity (100% in both cases), which let us correctly discriminate between active and non-active oils. The values obtained for the minimal inhibitory concentration were independent of the technique used. Finally, the obtained results show that the validated microtechnique allows important diminishment of time and resources for investigations dealing with essential oils or lipophilic extracts evaluation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 133-139
Ashumi Gupta ◽  
Neelam Jain

Background: Ovarian cancer forms a significant proportion of cancer-related mortality in females. It is often detected late due to non-specific clinical presentation. Radiology and tumor markers may indicate an ovarian mass. However, exact diagnosis requires pathological evaluation, which may not be possible before surgery. Intraoperative frozen section (FS) is, therefore, an important modality for the diagnosis of ovarian masses. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study step-by-step approach along with diagnostic utility and accuracy of intraoperative FS in diagnosis of ovarian masses. Materials and Methods: Retrospective comparative analysis was done to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FS as compared to routine histopathology in the pathology department of a tertiary care hospital. Diagnostic categorization was done into benign, borderline, and malignant. Overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of FS technique were calculated. Results: Out of 51 cases, FS analysis yielded accurate diagnosis in 94.1% of ovarian masses. Intraoperative FS had a sensitivity of 94.7%, specificity of 96.9%, 3.1% false-positive rate, and 5.3% false-negative rate in malignant tumors. In benign lesions, FS had 91.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. FS had 75% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity in cases of borderline tumors. Conclusion: FS is a fairly accurate technique for intraoperative evaluation of ovarian masses. It can help in deciding the extent of surgery. It distinguishes benign and malignant tumors in most cases with high sensitivity and specificity. A methodical approach is useful in determining accurate diagnosis on FS diagnosis.

Diabetology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 240-249
Evangelista Kenan Malindisa ◽  
Emmanuel Balandya ◽  
Fredirick Mashili ◽  
Marina Njelekela

Background: Simple and less costly screening tools are needed to combat the rising non-communicable diseases epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) as a screening tool for prediabetes, T2D, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of young adults in urban Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among participants aged 18–35 years. The FINDRISC questionnaire was used to collect data and compute the FINDRISC scores for each participant. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, blood glucose, and lipid profiles data were collected accordingly. Results: A total of 259 participants were recruited into the study. The median age was 21 years (IQR 19–27), and more than half 60.2% (156) were females. In total, 32.8% (85) of the participants had at least a slightly elevated risk of developing T2D in 10 years’ time. Compared to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), FINDRISC had a sensitivity and specificity of 39.1% and 69.2%, respectively (aROC = 0.5). The FINDRISC score significantly correlated with MetS (p = 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, FINDRISC has shown low sensitivity and specificity in the screening of pre-diabetes/T2D. However, it has potential utility in the screening of MetS in a young-adult population.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 6047
Denisse Champin ◽  
Max Carlos Ramírez-Soto ◽  
Javier Vargas-Herrera

Little is known regarding the usefulness of the smartphone in the detection of uterine cervical lesions or uterine cervical cancer. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of the smartphone in the detection of uterine cervical lesions and measured its diagnostic accuracy by comparing its findings with histological findings. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies on the usefulness of the smartphone in detecting uterine cervical lesions indexed in SCOPUS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, OVID, Web of Science, and SciELO until November 2020. The risk of bias and applicability was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. A total of 16 studies that evaluated the usefulness of the smartphone in the detection of uterine cervical lesions based on the images clicked after visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Lugol’s iodine (VILI), or VIA/VILI combination were included in the study. Five studies estimated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, nine described diagnostic concordance, and five described the usefulness of mobile technology. Among the five first studies, the sensitivity ranged between 66.7% (95% confidence interval (CI); 30.0–90.3%) and 94.1% (95% CI; 81.6–98.3%), and the specificity ranged between 24.0% (95% CI; 9.0–45.0%) and 85.7% (95% CI; 76.7–91.6%). The risk of bias was low (20%), and the applicability was high. In conclusion, the smartphone images clicked after a VIA were found to be more sensitive than those following the VILI method or the VIA/VILI combination and naked-eye techniques in detecting uterine cervical lesions. Thus, a smartphone may be useful in the detection of uterine cervical lesions; however, its sensitivity and specificity are still limited.

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