essential oils
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 523-540
Jorge Augusto Dias da Costa Abreu ◽  
Mikael Neumann ◽  
Wagner Paris ◽  
André Martins de Souza ◽  

Essential oils and enzymes are alternatives to feed additives for ruminants that aim to replace the use of ionophores and improve animal performance, but their mechanisms of action are different. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify if there is a synergistic effect in the combined use of enzymes carbohydrates and essential oils on the performance, ingestive behavior and carcass traits of steers fed a high-energy diet. During the finishing period of 78 days, 40 steers were assigned to four treatments: CON- control; ENZ- enzymatic complex; EO- essential oil blend; ENZ+EO - enzymatic complex combined with essential oil blend. Regardless of the feedlot periods, the ENZ+EO treatment caused a reduction in the dry matter intake (12.48%) compared to the control. The ENZ+EO treatment resulted in the lowest mean fecal output and, consequently, the highest dry matter digestibility (DMD) and starch digestibility (SD), compared to the other treatments. Animals that received EO and ENZ+EO in the diet spent more time in feeding. As for the number of times animals visited the feeding trough, the highest values were presented by the animals in the EO, ENZ and ENZ+EO treatments. For the carcass parameters, only the subcutaneous fat thickness on the rib was significantly different between treatments, with the highest values obtained by adding EO and ENZ+EO (8.80 and 8.10 mm respectively). Thus, the combination of carbohydrate enzymes and essential oils proved to be synergistically beneficial in relation to better use of nutrients and productive performance of feedlot steers.

Kellen Cruvinel Rodrigues Andrade ◽  
Diegue Henrique Nascimiento Martins ◽  
Diogo de Amorim Barros ◽  
Paula Monteiro de Souza ◽  

The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the available literature on the essential oil from species of genus Cordia. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. The search was conducted on four databases: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus until June 5th, 2020, with no time or language restrictions. Sixty out of the 1,333 initially gathered studies fit the inclusion criteria after the selection process. Nine species of Cordiawere reported in the selected studies, out of which 79% of the evaluated studies reported essential oil from Cordia curassavica. The essential oil extraction methods identified were hydrodistillation and steam distillation. As for biological application, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, larvicidal and antioxidant activities were the most reported. The main compounds reported for essential oil were β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, and sabinene. The information reported in this systematic review can contribute scientifically to the recognition of the importance of the genus Cordia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 481-490
Mohamed I. Elsayed ◽  
Adel D. Al-Qurashi ◽  
Najeeb Marei Almasaudi ◽  
Kamal A.M Abo-Elyousr

2022 ◽  
Vol 153 ◽  
pp. 105882
Alisson da Silva Santana ◽  
Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin ◽  
Thais Lohaine Braga dos Santos ◽  
Yago Alves Baptista ◽  
Maria Clezia dos Santos ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112514
Mansi Sharma ◽  
Kamaljit Grewal ◽  
Rupali Jandrotia ◽  
Daizy Rani Batish ◽  
Harminder Pal Singh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Louise van Oudenhove ◽  
Aurelie Cazier ◽  
Marine Fillaud ◽  
Anne-Violette Lavoir ◽  
Hicham Fatnassi ◽  

Essential oils (EOs) are increasingly used as biopesticides due to their insecticidal potential. This study addresses their non-target effects on a biological control agent: the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens. In particular, we tested whether EOs affected parasitoid fitness either directly, by decreasing pre-imaginal survival, or indirectly, by disrupting parasitoids' orientation abilities. The effect of Anise, Fennel, Sweet orange, Basil, Coriander, Oregano, Peppermint, Mugwort, Rosemary and Thyme EOs were studied on five strains of T. evanescens. Specific experimental setups were developed, and data obtained from image analysis were interpreted with phenomenological models fitted with Bayesian inference. Results highlight the fumigant toxicity of EOs on parasitoid development. Anise, Fennel, Basil, Coriander, Oregano, Peppermint and Thyme EOs are particularly toxic and drastically reduce the emergence rate of T. evanescens. Most EOs also affect parasitoid behavior: (i) Basil, Coriander, Oregano, Peppermint, Mugwort and Thyme EOs are highly repellent for naive female parasitoids; (ii) Anise and Fennel EOs can have repellent to attractive effects depending on strains; and (iii) Sweet orange, Oregano and Rosemary EOs have no detectable impact on orientation behavior. This study shows that EOs fumigation have non-target effects on egg parasitoids. This highlights the need to cautiously precise the deployment framework of biopesticides in an agroecological perspective.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Arya Nair ◽  
Rashmi Mallya ◽  
Vasanti Suvarna ◽  
Tabassum Asif Khan ◽  
Munira Momin ◽  

Microbial pathogens are the most prevalent cause of chronic infections and fatalities around the world. Antimicrobial agents including antibiotics have been frequently utilized in the treatment of infections due to their exceptional outcomes. However, their widespread use has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Furthermore, due to inherent resistance to antimicrobial drugs and the host defence system, the advent of new infectious diseases, chronic infections, and the occurrence of biofilms pose a tougher challenge to the current treatment line. Essential oils (EOs) and their biologically and structurally diverse constituents provide a distinctive, inexhaustible, and novel source of antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. However, due to their volatile nature, chemical susceptibility, and poor solubility, their development as antimicrobials is limited. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymeric and inorganic materials have been studied extensively to overcome these limitations. Nanoparticles are being investigated as nanocarriers for antimicrobial delivery, antimicrobial coatings for food products, implantable devices, and medicinal materials in dressings and packaging materials due to their intrinsic capacity to overcome microbial resistance. Essential oil-loaded nanoparticles may offer the potential benefits of synergism in antimicrobial activity, high loading capacity, increased solubility, decreased volatility, chemical stability, and enhancement of the bioavailability and shelf life of EOs and their constituents. This review focuses on the potentiation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their constituents in nanoparticulate delivery systems for a wide range of applications, such as food preservation, packaging, and alternative treatments for infectious diseases.

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