Essential Oils
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Mahmoud Osanloo ◽  
Ali Ghanbariasad ◽  
Ali Taghinezhad

Since synthetic chemotherapeutic drugs produce a certain degree of drug resistance and due to their common side effects, such as damage to hematopoietic cells and hair loss, it is necessary to use herbal medicine as a substrate to develop new anticancer drugs. The ingredients of three essential oils (EO) were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Their anticancer activities have been investigated on four human breast cancer cell lines, including MCF-7, MDA-MB-175, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468. In addition, their antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The three plants were investigated for identifications of the ingredients of their EOs, and major ingredients were identified in each plant as alpha-phellandrene (26.75 %) in Anethum graveolens L., limonene (61.83 %) in Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, and zingiberene (30.28 %) in Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Among the EOs, C. limon was significantly more effective than others; its half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on MCF-7 was obtained at 201 µg.mL-1. Furthermore, Z. officinale EO showed a higher antioxidant activities in comparison to the two other EOs. Considering the antioxidant and anticancer effects of the EOs, they could be further investigated as a possible complementary medicine in cancer.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
El Moussaoui Abdelfattah ◽  
Allali Aimad ◽  
Mohammed Bourhia ◽  
Khalid Chebbac ◽  
Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah ◽  

The current study was conducted to investigate antifungal and insecticidal activities of essential oil extracted from the Moroccan Withania frutescens L. (EOW), and their chemical composition was profiled. To achieve this goal, EOW was extracted by the hydro-distillation method and their phytochemical constituents were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses (GC-MS). Insecticidal activity was evaluated by use of four tests: contact toxicity, inhalation toxicity, and repellent tests. Antifungal activity was evaluated on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris (F. oxysporum) using different concentrations of EOW. GC/MS analysis revealed that EOW was rich in carvacrol (31.87%), thymol (30.08%), and camphor (9.13%). At a 1-µL/L dose, EOW exhibited mortality rates of 23.13 ± 1.07% and 24.41 ± 1.21% against Callosobruchus maculatus (C.maculatus) by inhalation and contact, respectively. Notably, EOW dose of 20 μL/L caused significant mortality rates of 95.1 ± 3.5% and 76.69 ± 1.71% by inhalation and contact, respectively. EOW exhibited an inhibitory effect on mycelial growth against the tested fungi F. oxysporum of 100% and 93.5 ± 1.1% for the 9 and 4.5 mg/mL doses, respectively. The reduced mycelial growth rate for F. oxysporum was recorded to be 0.3 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/h for the EOW doses of 2.25 and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively. The outcome of the present work showed that EOW has a promising antifungal and insecticidal activity, and it can therefore be employed as a natural alternative insecticidal and mycocidal agent to replace the chemically-synthesized ones.

Textiles ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-49
Sunidhi Mehta ◽  
Maureen MacGillivray

Integrative medicine is a rapidly growing specialty field of medical care that emphasizes the amalgamation of complementary therapies and conventional medicine. Aromatherapy, one of the complementary therapies, is a centuries-old tradition, used in many cultures and societies as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional medicine. However, there is very little understanding of its therapeutic benefits in the scientific realm related to the correct dosage of essential oils, their delivery mechanism and their efficacy on human physiology in general. We reviewed studies published between 2011–2021 focused on aromatherapy and textiles, and explore “textile” materials as a possible carrier for essential oils in this paper. Due to their proximity to the biggest organ of the human body, textiles can potentially serve as a good delivery system for the therapeutic benefit of essential oils. After this rigorous review, we found gaps in the field. Therefore, we propose cross-disciplinary synergies for future research to fully understand the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Rajat Subhra Dutta ◽  
Supriya Sahu ◽  
Bhaskar Mazumder

Abstract: Currently, the research focus has been on finding new alternatives to synthetic mosquito repellents due to their toxicity. Natural products act as a suitable alternative since plant-based mosquito repellents have been used traditionally due to their low toxicity. Essential oils as mosquito repellent have gained importance due to various functional bioactive constituents. Different formulations of essential oils have been studied from time to time to enhance the stability and protection time. However, the underlying mechanism of repellent activity of the bioactive constituents against specific mosquito species remains unexplored. This review focuses on the various sources of essential oil with their bioactive components and their receptor-based mechanism of action for inducing mosquito repellency against different mosquito species. Furthermore, a comparison of the various formulations of essential oil-based mosquito repellents with synthetic repellents has been discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 1143-1149
Debashis Mandal ◽  
Malsawmkima Mualchin

Effects of essential oils, namely Cinnamon, Citronella, Peppermint, Eucalyptus, Lavender, Thyme, Rosemary, Basil oil enriched coconut oil emulsion on shelf life and quality of ambient stored mango cv. Rangkuai were evaluated. Citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus) @ 0.5% (v/v) was found to maintain low weight loss (5.14%), high fruit firmness (52.85 N/cm2), ascorbic acid (33.62 mg/100 g), total phenol (89.67 mg/100 g) and least fruit decay (8.33%) at 12 days after storage (DAS) and had delayed accumulation of pulp colour (L: 91.06, a: -2.61, b : 24.03), β-carotene (3.85 mg/100 g) and total sugar (4.46%) for delayed ripening, thus found to extend the shelf life by 7 days compared with control (12.85 days). Bangladesh J. Bot. 50(4): 1143-1149, 2021 (December)

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 1173-1180
Musa Turkmen

The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oils of four Salvia spp. were analysed by GCMS. Three of them (Salvia aramiensis Rech. fil., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia tomentosa Mill.) analyzed in this study grow naturally in the Hatay flora. On the other hand, S. aramiensis is an endemic plant in Hatay flora. Fourth species (Salvia officinalis L.) is not growing in the flora of Turkey, but is only cultivated. The highest essential oil content (5.31%) was found in S. aramiensis and the least 1.68% was detected in S. officinalis. Eucalyptol was the main constituent for S. aramiensis, S. fruticosa and S. tomentosa. While this component was 58.65% in S. aramiensis, it was determined as 44.70 and 34.97% in S. tomentosa and S. fruticosa, respectively. In S. officinalis, the main constituent was determined as δ-Thujone (33.83%) and camphor (21.46%). Eucalyptol has been identified as the main composition in sage species which is grown in flora. Bangladesh J. Bot. 50(4): 1173-1180, 2021 (December)

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Aarón A. Molho-Ortiz ◽  
Atmir Romero-Pérez ◽  
Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca ◽  
Claudia C. Márquez-Mota ◽  
Francisco A. Castrejón-Pineda ◽  

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Héctor J. Rodríguez-Casanovas ◽  
Manuel De la Rosa ◽  
Yesit Bello-Lemus ◽  
Giulio Rasperini ◽  
Antonio J. Acosta-Hoyos

Background: Saliva of patients with COVID-19 has a high SARS-CoV-2 viral load. The risk of spreading the virus is not insignificant, and procedures for reducing viral loads in the oral cavity have been proposed. Little research to date has been performed on the effect of mouthwashes on the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and some of their mechanisms of action remain unknown. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 positive nasopharyngeal swabs measured by RT-PCR were used for virucidal activity in a 1:1 ratio, with an incubation time of 1 min. The solutions used in this study were: iodopovidone (8 mg); * D-limonene, a terpene extracted from citrus peels (0.3%); † cetylpyridinium chloride (0.1%) (CPC); ‡ chlorhexidine gluconate (10%) (CHX); § a CPC (0.12%) and CHX (0.05%) containing formula; ** a formula containing essential oils; †† a CPC containing formula (0.07%); ‡‡ a D-limonene (0.2%) and CPC (0.05%) containing formula; §§ a solution containing sodium fluoride (0.05%) and CPC (0.075%); *** a solution containing CHX (0.12%) and; ††† a CHX (0.2%) containing formula. ‡‡‡ As a control reaction, saline solution or excipient solution (water, glycerin, citric acid, colorant, sodium citrate) was used. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that a mouthwash containing both D-limonene and CPC reduced the virucidal activity in about 6 logs (>99.999% reduction). Hence, establishing a clinical protocol for dentists is suggested, where all patients to be treated rinse pre-operatively with a mouthwash containing both D-limonene and CPC to reduce the likelihood of infection with SARS-CoV-2 for dentists. This is a relatively inexpensive way to reduce viral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected individuals within the community. It is also a simple way to decrease infections from asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 221
Hyejin Hyeon ◽  
Ho Bong Hyun ◽  
Boram Go ◽  
Sung Chun Kim ◽  
Yong-Hwan Jung ◽  

Magnolia flower buds are a source of herbal medicines with various active compounds. In this study, differences in the distribution and abundance of major essential oils, phenolic acids, and primary metabolites between white flower buds of Magnolia heptapeta and violet flower buds of Magnolia denudata var. purpurascens were characterised. A multivariate analysis revealed clear separation between the white and violet flower buds with respect to primary and secondary metabolites closely related to metabolic systems. White flower buds contained large amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons (MH), phenolic acids, aromatic amino acids, and monosaccharides, related to the production of isoprenes, as MH precursors, and the activity of MH synthase. However, concentrations of β-myrcene, a major MH compound, were higher in violet flower buds than in white flower buds, possibly due to higher threonine levels and low acidic conditions induced by comparatively low levels of some organic acids. Moreover, levels of stress-related metabolites, such as oxygenated monoterpenes, proline, and glutamic acid, were higher in violet flower buds than in white flower buds. Our results support the feasibility of metabolic profiling for the identification of phytochemical differences and improve our understanding of the correlated biological pathways for primary and secondary metabolites.

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