Malnutrition is still a major problem in Indonesia, particularly stunting and acute
malnutrition due to protein deficiency. In contrast, Indonesia is rich in protein sources
such as fish but they are poorly utilized. Biologically processed fish protein hydrolysate
(FPH) has proven to be highly nutritious and digestible. Our preliminary study in
developing the High Protein Complementary Food (HPCF) formula for infant enriched
with FPH, showed that of 17 formulas, 3 formulas was the best. This study was aimed to
analyzing sensory analysis using the hedonic test, physical analysis and absorption
protein. The result shows that the hedonic test of FPH-enriched HPCF infant food
revealed that the product was acceptable in term of colour, aroma and texture. In
comparison to the commercial product, FPH-enriched instant HPCF infant product had
higher bulk density. The highest Water Absorption Index (WAI) was F1-C, the highest
Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P, and the lowest rehydration was F2-P. Compared
to commercial products, the instant FPH-enriched HPCF baby porridge has a bulk density
that is greater than that of commercial products. The highest Water Absorption Index
(WAI) was F1-C, the highest Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P and the lowest time
for Rehydration was at F2-P. HPCF enriched with FPH showed the best protein absorption
significantly in the P2 treatment group
Aimed to evaluate the effect of water solubility on chemical properties and surface structure of bioceramic-based (BC-HiFlow and BC-EndoSeqence) compared with resin-based (Adseal) root canal sealers. Fresh mix was inserted into polyethylene mold (n = 10) and subjected to Vicat needle to evaluate the setting time. The set discs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy then immersed in deionized water for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. The solubility%, pH changes, released calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (PO43−) and silicon (Si4+) ions were evaluated after each immersion period. The discs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/Energy dispersed X-ray (SEM/EDX) before and after solubility test. Although FTIR detected similar composition of both bioceramic-sealers, BC-EndoSequence determined the prolonged setting times. At the end of solubility test, both bioceramic-sealers exhibited significant greater solubility (>3%), alkaline pH (>11) at p < 0.001. Adseal displayed the significant greatest Ca2+ and PO43− released, while BC-HiFlow displayed the significant greatest Si4+ release (p < 0.001). SEM revealed voids and pores on the surface of all tested sealers with the greatest value on Adseal surface. In conclusion, although both bioceramic-sealers had high solubility, BC-Hiflow complied the ISO standard regarding setting time and least surface micropores better than that of BC-EndoSequence.
Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin remain as substantial challenges to their oral delivery via functional foods. In this study, the effect of pH and the addition of a protein (sodium caseinate; NaCas) on the aqueous solubility and stability of rutin was studied, from which an efficient delivery system for the incorporation of rutin into functional food products was developed. The aqueous solubility, chemical stability, crystallinity, and morphology of rutin (0.1–5% w/v) under various pH (1–11) and protein concentrations (0.2–8% w/v) were studied. To manufacture the concentrated colloidally stable rutin–NaCas particles, rutin was dissolved and deprotonated in a NaCas solution at alkaline pH before its subsequent neutralisation at pH 7. The excess water was removed using ultrafiltration to improve the loading capacity. Rutin showed the highest solubility at pH 11, while the addition of NaCas resulted in the improvement of both solubility and chemical stability. Critically, to achieve particles with colloidal stability, the NaCas:rutin ratio (w/w) had to be greater than 2.5 and 40 respectively for the lowest (0.2% w/v) and highest (4 to 8% w/v) concentrations of NaCas. The rutin–NaCas particles in the concentrated formulations were physically stable, with a size in the range of 185 to 230 nm and zeta potential of −36.8 to −38.1 mV, depending on the NaCas:rutin ratio. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin in different systems were 76% to 83% and 2% to 22%, respectively. The concentrated formulation containing 5% w/v NaCas and 2% w/v rutin was chosen as the most efficient delivery system due to the ideal protein:flavonoid ratio (2.5:1), which resulted in the highest loading capacity (22%). Taken together, the findings show that the delivery system developed in this study can be a promising method for the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin into functional foods.
The nose-to-brain delivery of neuroprotective natural compounds is an appealing approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Nanoemulsions containing curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QU) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized physicochemically and structurally. A negative (CQ_NE−), a positive (CQ_NE+), and a gel (CQ_NEgel) formulation were developed. The mean particle size of the CQ_NE− and CQ_NE+ was below 120 nm, while this increased to 240 nm for the CQ_NEgel. The formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency and protected the CUR/QU from biological/chemical degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the CUR/QU were located at the interface of the oil phase in the proximity of the surfactant layer. The cytotoxicity studies showed that the formulations containing CUR/QU protected human nasal cells from the toxicity evidenced for blank NEs. No permeation across an in vitro model nasal epithelium was evidenced for CUR/QU, probably due to their poor water-solubility and instability in physiological buffers. However, the nasal cells’ drug uptake showed that the total amount of CUR/QU in the cells was related to the NE characteristics (CQ_NE− > CQ_NE+ > CQ_NEgel). The method used allowed the obtainment of nanocarriers of an appropriate size for nasal administration. The treatment of the cells showed the protection of cellular viability, holding promise as an anti-inflammatory treatment able to prevent neurodegenerative diseases.
In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to food safety and organic horticulture. Thus, people are looking for natural products to manage plant diseases, pests, and weeds. Essential oils (EOs) or EO-based products are potentially promising candidates for biocontrol agents due to their safe, bioactive, biodegradable, ecologically, and economically viable properties. Born of necessity or commercial interest to satisfy market demand for natural products, this emerging technology is highly anticipated, but its application has been limited without the benefit of a thorough analysis of the scientific evidence on efficacy, scope, and mechanism of action. This review covers the uses of EOs as broad-spectrum biocontrol agents in both preharvest and postharvest systems. The known functions of EOs in suppressing fungi, bacteria, viruses, pests, and weeds are briefly summarized. Related results and possible modes of action from recent research are listed. The weaknesses of applying EOs are also discussed, such as high volatility and low stability, low water solubility, strong influence on organoleptic properties, and phytotoxic effects. Therefore, EO formulations and methods of incorporation to enhance the strengths and compensate for the shortages are outlined. This review also concludes with research directions needed to better understand and fully evaluate EOs and provides an outlook on the prospects for future applications of EOs in organic horticulture production.
Chitosan obtained from abundant marine resources has been proven to have a variety of biological activities. However, due to its poor water solubility, chitosan application is limited, and the degradation products of chitosan oligosaccharides are better than chitosan regarding performance. Chitosan oligosaccharides have two kinds of active groups, amino and hydroxyl groups, which can form a variety of derivatives, and the properties of these derivatives can be further improved. In this review, the key structures of chitosan oligosaccharides and recent studies on chitosan oligosaccharide derivatives, including their synthesis methods, are described. Finally, the antimicrobial and antitumor applications of chitosan oligosaccharides and their derivatives are discussed.
As a low molecular weight alginate, alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) exhibit improved water solubility, better bioavailability, and comprehensive health benefits. In addition, their biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, non-immunogenicity, and gelling capability make them an excellent biomaterial with a dual curative effect when applied in a drug delivery system. In this paper, a novel alginate lyase, Algpt, was cloned and characterized from a marine bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. LJ-23. The purified enzyme was composed of 387 amino acid residues, and had a molecular weight of 42.8 kDa. The optimal pH of Algpt was 7.0 and the optimal temperature was 45 °C. The analysis of the conserved domain and the prediction of the three-dimensional structure indicated that Algpt was a novel alginate lyase. The dominant degradation products of Algpt on alginate were AOS dimer to octamer, depending on the incubation time, which demonstrated that Algpt degraded alginate in an endolytic manner. In addition, Algpt was a salt-independent and thermo-tolerant alginate lyase. Its high stability and wide adaptability endow Algpt with great application potential for the efficient preparation of AOS with different sizes and AOS-based products.