Water Solubility
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Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 78-89
Nuryanto ◽  
E. Chasanah ◽  
D.N. Afifah ◽  
Y.N. Fawzya ◽  
T.D. Suryaningrum ◽  

Malnutrition is still a major problem in Indonesia, particularly stunting and acute malnutrition due to protein deficiency. In contrast, Indonesia is rich in protein sources such as fish but they are poorly utilized. Biologically processed fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) has proven to be highly nutritious and digestible. Our preliminary study in developing the High Protein Complementary Food (HPCF) formula for infant enriched with FPH, showed that of 17 formulas, 3 formulas was the best. This study was aimed to analyzing sensory analysis using the hedonic test, physical analysis and absorption protein. The result shows that the hedonic test of FPH-enriched HPCF infant food revealed that the product was acceptable in term of colour, aroma and texture. In comparison to the commercial product, FPH-enriched instant HPCF infant product had higher bulk density. The highest Water Absorption Index (WAI) was F1-C, the highest Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P, and the lowest rehydration was F2-P. Compared to commercial products, the instant FPH-enriched HPCF baby porridge has a bulk density that is greater than that of commercial products. The highest Water Absorption Index (WAI) was F1-C, the highest Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P and the lowest time for Rehydration was at F2-P. HPCF enriched with FPH showed the best protein absorption significantly in the P2 treatment group

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 69
Dawei Yu ◽  
Jiayao Feng ◽  
Huimin You ◽  
Shipeng Zhou ◽  
Yan Bai ◽  

Chitosan obtained from abundant marine resources has been proven to have a variety of biological activities. However, due to its poor water solubility, chitosan application is limited, and the degradation products of chitosan oligosaccharides are better than chitosan regarding performance. Chitosan oligosaccharides have two kinds of active groups, amino and hydroxyl groups, which can form a variety of derivatives, and the properties of these derivatives can be further improved. In this review, the key structures of chitosan oligosaccharides and recent studies on chitosan oligosaccharide derivatives, including their synthesis methods, are described. Finally, the antimicrobial and antitumor applications of chitosan oligosaccharides and their derivatives are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Samuel Katz ◽  
Haining Chen ◽  
David Fields ◽  
Erin Beirne ◽  
Phoebe Keyes ◽  

Photoproducts can be formed rapidly in the initial phase of a marine oil spill. However, their toxicity is not well understood. In this study, oil was irradiated, chemically characterized, and tested for toxicity in three copepod species (A. tonsa, T. longicornis, C.finmarchicus). Irradiation led to a depletion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes in oil residues, along with an enrichment in aromatic and aliphatic oil photoproducts. Target lipid model-based calculations of PAH toxic units (TU-PAH) predicted that PAH toxicities were lower in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of irradiated oil residues (“irradiated WAFs”) than in WAFs of dark-control samples (“dark WAFs”). In contrast, biomimetic extraction (BE) measurements showed increased bioaccumulation potential of irradiated WAFs compared to dark WAFs, mainly driven by photoproducts present in irradiated oil. In line with the BE results, copepod mortality increased in response to irradiated WAFs compared to dark WAFs. Low copepod toxicities were observed for WAFs produced with photooxidized oil slicks collected during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The results of this study suggest that while oil photoproducts have the potential to be a significant source of copepod toxicity, the water solubility of these products might mitigate their toxicity at sea.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 736
Alexandra Prodea ◽  
Alexandra Mioc ◽  
Christian Banciu ◽  
Cristina Trandafirescu ◽  
Andreea Milan ◽  

Triterpenic compounds stand as a widely investigated class of natural compounds due to their remarkable therapeutic potential. However, their use is currently being hampered by their low solubility and, subsequently, bioavailability. In order to overcome this drawback and increase the therapeutic use of triterpenes, cyclodextrins have been introduced as water solubility enhancers; cyclodextrins are starch derivatives that possess hydrophobic internal cavities that can incorporate lipophilic molecules and exterior surfaces that can be subjected to various derivatizations in order to improve their biological behavior. This review aims to summarize the most recent achievements in terms of triterpene:cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and bioconjugates, emphasizing their practical applications including the development of new isolation and bioproduction protocols, the elucidation of their underlying mechanism of action, the optimization of triterpenes’ therapeutic effects and the development of new topical formulations.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 421
Yao Yu ◽  
Yang Tian ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Qingxian Jia ◽  
Xuejun Chen ◽  

Meloxicam (MLX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. However, its poor water solubility limits the dissolution process and influences absorption. In order to solve this problem and improve its bioavailability, we prepared it in nanocrystals with three different particle sizes to improve solubility and compare the differences between various particle sizes. The nanocrystal particle sizes were studied through dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser scattering (LS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the morphology of nanocrystals. The sizes of meloxicam-nanocrystals-A (MLX-NCs-A), meloxicam-nanocrystals-B (MLX-NCs-B), and meloxicam-nanocrystals-C (MLX-NCs-C) were 3.262 ± 0.016 μm, 460.2 ± 9.5 nm, and 204.9 ± 2.8 nm, respectively. Molecular simulation was used to explore the distribution and interaction energy of MLX molecules and stabilizer molecules in water. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) proved that the crystalline state did not change in the preparation process. Transport studies of the Caco-2 cell model indicated that the cumulative degree of transport would increase as the particle size decreased. Additionally, plasma concentration–time curves showed that the AUC0–∞ of MLX-NCs-C were 3.58- and 2.92-fold greater than those of MLX-NCs-A and MLX-NCs-B, respectively. These results indicate that preparing MLX in nanocrystals can effectively improve the bioavailability, and the particle size of nanocrystals is an important factor in transmission and absorption.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 445
Aikaterini Sakellaropoulou ◽  
Angeliki Siamidi ◽  
Marilena Vlachou

Melatonin (MLT) is involved in many functions of the human body, mainly in sleeping-related disorders. It also has anti-oxidant potential and has been proven very effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorders (SAD), which afflict some people during short winter days. Melatonin has been implicated in a range of other conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s and other neurological conditions, and in certain cancers. Its poor solubility in water leads to an insufficient absorption that led scientists to investigate MLT inclusion in cyclodextrins (CDs), as inclusion of drugs in CDs is a way of increasing the solubility of many lipophilic moieties with poor water solubility. The aim of this review is to gather all the key findings on MLT/CD complexes. The literature appraisal concluded that MLT inclusion leads to a 1:1 complex with the majority of CDs and increases the solubility of the hormone. The interactions of MLT with CDs can be studied by a variety of techniques, such as NMR, FT-IR, XRD and DCS. More importantly, the in vivo experiments showed an increase in the uptake of MLT when included in a CD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jesus Magallon ◽  
Peter Vu ◽  
Craig Reeves ◽  
Stella Kwan ◽  
Kimberly Phan ◽  

AbstractResistance to amikacin in Gram-negatives is usually mediated by the 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6')-Ib], which catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to the 6' position of the antibiotic molecule. A path to continue the effective use of amikacin against resistant infections is to combine it with inhibitors of the inactivating reaction. We have recently observed that addition of Zn2+ to in-vitro enzymatic reactions, obliterates acetylation of the acceptor antibiotic. Furthermore, when added to amikacin-containing culture medium in complex to ionophores such as pyrithione (ZnPT), it prevents the growth of resistant strains. An undesired property of ZnPT is its poor water-solubility, a problem that currently affects a large percentage of newly designed drugs. Water-solubility helps drugs to dissolve in body fluids and be transported to the target location. We tested a pyrithione derivative described previously (Magda et al. Cancer Res 68:5318–5325, 2008) that contains the amphoteric group di(ethyleneglycol)-methyl ether at position 5 (compound 5002), a modification that enhances the solubility. Compound 5002 in complex with zinc (Zn5002) was tested to assess growth inhibition of amikacin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in the presence of the antibiotic. Zn5002 complexes in combination with amikacin at different concentrations completely inhibited growth of the tested strains. However, the concentrations needed to achieve growth inhibition were higher than those required to achieve the same results using ZnPT. Time-kill assays showed that the effect of the combination amikacin/Zn5002 was bactericidal. These results indicate that derivatives of pyrithione with enhanced water-solubility, a property that would make them drugs with better bioavailability and absorption, are a viable option for designing inhibitors of the resistance to amikacin mediated by AAC(6')-Ib, an enzyme commonly found in the clinics.

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Prabhakar Busa ◽  
Ravindranadh Koutavarapu ◽  
Yaswanth Kuthati

Combinational therapy using chemodynamictherapy (CDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) is known to enhance the therapeutic outcome for cancer treatment. In this study, a biocompatible nano formulation was developed by coating polydopamine (PDA) over doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded copper-substituted mesoporous silica (CuMSN) nanoparticles. PDA coating not only allowed selective photothermal properties with an extended DOX release but also enhanced the water solubility and biocompatibility of the nanocomposites. The nanocomposites displayed a monodispersed shape and pH-dependent release characteristics, with an outstanding photothermal conversion and excellent tumor cell inhibition. The cellular-uptake experiments of [email protected]@PDA in A549 cells indicated that nanoparticles (NPs) aided in the enhanced DOX uptake in tumor cells compared to free DOX with synergistic anti-cancer effects. Moreover, the cell-viability studies displayed remarkable tumor inhibition in combinational therapy over monotherapy. Thus, the synthesized [email protected]@PDA NPs can serve as a promising platform for dual cancer therapy.

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