Acute Hepatitis
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Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3050
Julia Lienhard ◽  
Isabelle Vonlanthen-Specker ◽  
Xaver Sidler ◽  
Claudia Bachofen

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of acute hepatitis in humans worldwide. In industrialised countries, most infections are caused by the zoonotic genotype 3. The main reservoir was found in pigs, with fattening pigs as the main shedders. The aim of this study was to establish a screening tool to detect HEV in pig farms. HEV-positive samples were sequenced using Sanger sequencing. First, different sample materials, including floor swabs, slurry, dust swabs and faeces were tested for HEV. Floor swabs turned out to give the best results and, in the form of sock swabs, were used for the screening of Swiss pig herds. A total of 138 pig farms were tested, with a focus on fattening pigs. Overall, 81 farms (58.8%) were HEV positive. Most sequences belonged to subtype 3h, in which they formed a specific cluster (Swiss cluster). In addition, subtype 3 l and two unassigned sequences were detected. As a conclusion, sock swabs were found to be a helpful tool to screen pig herds for HEV and establish a sequence collection that may enable molecular epidemiology and support outbreak investigation and prevention.

Wen‐Chieh Huang ◽  
Yu‐Min Lin ◽  
Hsing‐Tao Kuo ◽  
Ming‐Juen Sheu ◽  
Yin‐Hsun Feng ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 529-537
Le Thi Lan Anh ◽  
Vu Thi Thuong ◽  
Pham Thi Ha Giang ◽  
Bui Thi Thanh Nga ◽  
Minh Thi Hang ◽  

Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease in the tropics and subtropics. Leptospira infected human without prompt detection and treatment will face serious consequences such as acute hepatitis-kidneys, pulmonary hemorrhage which can lead to death. Besides the MAT gold standard method, Leptosipra antigens developed by DNA recombination technology have been widely studying and applying in diagnosis of Leptospira infection in human and animal. Overcoming the disadvantages of MAT and ELISA such as complicated protocol, which requires highly qualified staff and specialized equipment, the latex agglutination method has been studied and widely used in detecting pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli, Leptospira in the world. The advantages of this method are simple operation, fast and cheap. In the previous article, we expressed Leptospira LigB antigen in E. coli cells and successfully purified it by affinity chromatography with 98% purity. In this paper, we present the process for establishment of a Lepto-LAT kit to detect Leptospira infection in dogs. This kit had the sensitivity and specificity of 91.75% and 91.57%, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Ke Peng ◽  
Pierre-Yves Lozach

Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that was first discovered in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya, in 1930. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) primarily infects domestic animals and humans, with clinical outcomes ranging from self-limiting febrile illness to acute hepatitis and encephalitis. The virus left Africa a few decades ago, and there is a risk of introduction into southern Europe and Asia. From this perspective, we introduce RVFV and focus on the capacity of its virulence factor, the nonstructural protein NSs, to form amyloid-like fibrils. Here, we discuss the implications for the NSs biological function, the ability of RVFV to evade innate immunity, and RVFV virulence and neurotoxicity.

2021 ◽  
Sang Soo Lee ◽  
Jin-Kyu Cho ◽  
Hee Jin Kim ◽  
Ra Ri Cha ◽  
Jae Min Lee ◽  

Abstract Background: Although acute hepatitis E is not fatal in healthy individuals, it is unclear whether hepatitis E superinfection increases mortality in patients with pre-existing liver disease. Thus, we investigated the prognosis of patients with acute hepatitis E according to their cirrhosis diagnosis, and the prognosis according to the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with cirrhosis and chronic liver disease (CLD). Methods: This study included 74 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E between January 2007 and December 2019. Of them, 39 patients without CLD, 13 patients with non-cirrhotic CLD, and 22 patients with cirrhotic CLD were analyzed. Results: Among the 74 patients with HEV infection, 7 (9.5%) died within 180 days: 5 with underlying cirrhosis (71.4%) and 2 without cirrhosis (28.6%). The 180-day mortality was significant higher for patients with cirrhosis than for patients without cirrhosis (22.7% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.013). The age- and sex-adjusted proportional-hazard model revealed an approximately 8-fold increase in 180-day mortality risk in patients with cirrhosis compared to patients without cirrhosis. In addition, development of hepatitis E virus-related ACLF due to acute liver function deterioration in patients with pre-existing CLD or cirrhosis worsened the 180-day mortality rate. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the acute hepatitis E mortality rate was low in heathy individuals but higher in patients with cirrhosis, and especially high in those with ACLF.

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