acute hepatitis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-03
Parveen Malhotra ◽  
Vani Malhotra ◽  
Yogesh Sanwariya ◽  
Ajay Chugh ◽  
Isha Pahuja ◽  

Case report: We present a young female of fourteen years who was admitted to the hospital with short duration of Icterus, malaise, vomiting and diagnosed to be having acute hepatitis B. She went into acute liver failure as evidenced by development of hepatic encephalopathy and coagulopathy. She was managed on lines of hepatic encephalopathy along with oral antiviral treatment. She recovered successfully and was discharged after two weeks in heamodynamically stable condition. After a gap of six months, she became Hepatitis B surface (HbsAg) & hepatitis B e-antigen (HbeAg) negative and Hepatitis B Virus DNA (HBV DNA) was undetectable with normal liver function tests. She is on regular follow up for last one year and is absolutely normal. Conclusion: Acute hepatitis B can go into acute liver failure in 1% of cases, treatment for which includes liver transplantation and oral antiviral treatment which is especially helpful in cases who cannot afford liver transplantation, as was in our case.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e247203
Boby Varkey Maramattom ◽  
Akheel A Syed

Viral myositis is commonly seen with influenza and COVID-19 infections. While it has been described with acute viral hepatitis, concomitant involvement of the peripheral nerves causing a neuromyopathy has not been reported. A 67-year-old man with acute hepatitis B infection developed a severe myalgia and lower limb weakness around 1 month into his illness. Investigations revealed a neuromyopathy and rhabdomyolysis. MRI whole body with short tau inversion recovery sequences showed scattered muscle hyperintensities in the upper and lower limbs. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and improved. This is the first report of an acute neuromyopathy associated with acute hepatitis B viral infection and demonstration of muscle MRI abnormalities in this condition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Takeshi Goya ◽  
Tomoyuki Kurashige ◽  
Miho Kurokawa ◽  
Masatake Tanaka ◽  
Tomomi Aoyagi ◽  

Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occasionally progresses to acute liver failure, often with poor prognosis. The appropriate pharmacological approach is yet to be established. Although nucleotide analogs (NA) and corticosteroids are candidates for the treatment of acute HBV infection, their therapeutic effects, especially their effect on HBV clearance, remain unclear. To clarify effects on the HBV clearance of combination therapy of NA and steroid pulse therapy (SPT) for acute HBV infection, we first analyze the effectiveness of this therapy in patients with HBV infection compared with NA monotherapy (NAM). Of the 57 consecutive patients with acute hepatitis B infection from May 2007 to December 2018, we have included 25 patients for this study, whom we followed up until HBV clearance. According to the administration of NA and SPT, we divided patients into two groups (NAM group and NA + SPT group) and compared their results. Of the 25 patients, 10 received NAM, whereas 15 received NA + SPT. There were no appreciable adverse effects related to SPT. The time required for the clearance of HBsAg (76 (43–116) days vs. 26 (14–51) days, p = 0.0418) and HBV-DNA (NAM group vs. NA + SPT group: 180 (83.5–220) vs. 69 (43–136) days, p = 0.0420) was significantly shorter in the NA + SPT group than in the NAM group. The hazard ratio of NA + SPT for the clearance of HBsAg and HBV-DNA were 0.45 (0.19–1.09) and 0.35 (0.14–0.89), respectively. In conclusion, we showed that NA + SPT promoted HBV elimination. These findings support the use of the NA + SPT combination for acute HBV infection without the concern of persistent HBV infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Chencheng Xie ◽  
Jonathan M. Fenkel ◽  
Dina L. Halegoua-DeMarzio ◽  
Jesse M. Civan ◽  
Danielle M. Tholey ◽  

Introduction. Hepatitis A infection (HAV) is generally characterized by an acute icteric illness or may have a subclinical self-limited course, although rarely, can result in fulminant hepatitis and death. In 2019, the City of Philadelphia declared a public health emergency due to an HAV outbreak. We are reporting a series of four cases of acute liver failure (ALF) requiring liver transplantation (LT) due to acute HAV. Methods. Chart review and case descriptions of four patients with acute HAV-related ALF who were expeditiously evaluated, listed as Status 1A, and who underwent LT between August 2019 and October 2019 at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Results. All four patients presented with acute hepatocellular jaundice and had a positive HAV IgM, and all other causes of ALF were excluded. All four cases met the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) criteria for ALF. Three of the four cases met King’s College Criteria of poor prognosis for nonacetaminophen-induced ALF. All four patients underwent successful LT and were discharged six to twelve days postoperatively. One patient died of disseminated Aspergillus infection five months after LT, while the others have had excellent clinical outcomes shown by one-year follow-ups. All four explants had remarkably similar histological changes, revealing acute hepatitis with massive necrosis accompanied by a prominent lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate and bile ductular proliferation. Conclusion. Although rare, patients presenting with acute HAV need close monitoring as they may rapidly progress to ALF. Early referral to a transplant center afforded timely access to LT and yielded overall good one-year survival. Widespread HAV vaccination for high-risk individuals is an essential strategy for preventing disease and curbing such future outbreaks.

JCI Insight ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tina Senff ◽  
Christopher Menne ◽  
Christine Cosmovici ◽  
Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez ◽  
Jasneet Aneja ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 382-383
Uttam Biswas ◽  
Atanu Chandra ◽  
Somak Kumar Das ◽  
Uddalak Chakraborty ◽  
Shrestha Ghosh

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Mary C. Kuhns ◽  
Vera Holzmayer ◽  
Anne L. McNamara ◽  
Mark Anderson ◽  
Gavin A. Cloherty

Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serum markers during typical acute self-limited infection are usually depicted as a composite of traditional HBV markers. The current study updates and expands our knowledge of acute hepatitis B with quantitative molecular and serological data on longitudinal samples from five plasmapheresis donors with acute HBV. Methods 137 longitudinal samples from five plasmapheresis donors with acute HBV were tested, four with self-limited infection and one who developed persistent infection. Testing included quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HBV antigens, quantitative HBV e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, quantitative HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg), the highly sensitive ARCHITECT HBsAg NEXT (HBsAgNx) assay, and a quantitative research assay for HBV pregenomic RNA (pg RNA). Results Peak levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg differed by several orders of magnitude among the panels (2.2 × 105–2.7 × 109 IU/ml for HBV DNA and 7.9–1.1 × 105 IU/ml for HBsAg). HBsAg levels peaked an average of 2.8 days after the HBV DNA peak. The overall duration of observed HBsAg positivity was increased by the more sensitive HBsAgNx assay compared to the quantitative assay in four panels. Intermittently detectable low-level HBV DNA was observed after HBsAg loss in three panels. Peak HBeAg levels occurred 2–20 days after the DNA peak and ranged from 1.1 to 4.5 × 103 IU/ml. In four panels with resolution of infection, anti-HBs levels indicating immunity (≥ 10 mIU/ml) were detected 19–317 days after the HBV DNA peak. Maximum HBcrAg concentrations ranged from 1 × 105 to > 6.4 × 106 U/ml and correlated with HBeAg values (R2 = 0.9495) and with HBV DNA values (R2 = 0.8828). Peak pgRNA values ranged from 1.6 × 103 to 1.4 × 108 U/ml and correlated with HBV DNA (R2 = 0.9013). Conclusion Traditional and new/novel HBV biomarkers were used to generate molecular and serological profiles for seroconversion panels spanning the early to late phases of acute HBV. Seroconversion profiles were heterogeneous and may be instructive in appreciating the spectrum of acute profiles relative to the typical composite representation.

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