hepatitis b surface antigen
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 387
Hiroteru Kamimura ◽  
Hirofumi Nonaka ◽  
Masaya Mori ◽  
Taichi Kobayashi ◽  
Toru Setsu ◽  

Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that can be employed to accurately predict biological transitions. Eliminating hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAgs) is the final therapeutic endpoint for chronic hepatitis B. Reliable predictors of the disappearance or reduction in HBsAg levels have not been established. Accurate predictions are vital to successful treatment, and corresponding efforts are ongoing worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to identify an optimal deep learning model to predict the changes in HBsAg levels in daily clinical practice for inactive carrier patients. We identified patients whose HBsAg levels were evaluated over 10 years. The results of routine liver biochemical function tests, including serum HBsAg levels for 1, 2, 5, and 10 years, and biometric information were obtained. Data of 90 patients were included for adaptive training. The predictive models were built based on algorithms set up by SONY Neural Network Console, and their accuracy was compared using statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis revealed a mean absolute percentage error of 58%, and deep learning revealed a mean absolute percentage error of 15%; thus, deep learning is an accurate predictive discriminant tool. This study demonstrated the potential of deep learning algorithms to predict clinical outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-67
Qiangwei Shi ◽  
Rui Yu ◽  
Qian Sun ◽  
Chunfeng Wang ◽  

Health Scope ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Alireza Bakhshipour ◽  
Manijeh Khalili ◽  
Raheleh Rafaiee

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a severe public health problem in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate the intrafamilial transmission of HBV in vaccinated children whose one or both parents were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Methods: In a study with retrospective cohort design, 110 exposed cases with HBsAg-positive parent(s) were compared with 110 unexposed controls of the same sex and age groups. The participants were directly asked about demographic characteristics, medical history, and vaccinations. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HBV infection markers using the ELIZA method. Results: Overall, 1.8% HBsAg (P = 0.15) and 13.6% hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) (P < 0.0001) positivity rates were detected in the exposed group. The hepatitis B surface antibody titer (HBsAb) showed that 34.5% of cases and 56.3% of controls had HBsAb levels > 10 IU/L. There was a significant difference in the protective HBsAb level between the two groups (P < 0.0001). There were significant associations between HBsAb level and gender in the exposed group and decreased HBsAb levels and age. Conclusions: The high rate of positive HBcAb and HBsAg and decreasing HBsAb levels with age in this study indicate that routine childhood vaccination programs are inadequate in preventing HBV transmission and vaccine routes changing or further booster vaccination is essential. Effective case finding in vaccinated children with HBsAg-positive parents, intradermal vaccination, and hepatitis B immunoglobulin in newborns with HBsAg-positive fathers are suggested.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Edris Nabizadeh ◽  
Anahita Ghotaslou ◽  
Behnaz Salahi ◽  
Reza Ghotaslou

Objectives. The organisms of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus as an acronym of TORCH are major pathogens in prepregnancy and reproductive-age women. These microorganisms are considered a serious problem and cause 2-3% of all birth defects in the fetus. Our study was aimed at screening the seroprevalence of TORCH antibodies among prepregnancy and reproductive-age women in Tabriz, Iran. Design and Setting. This study was carried out in 2726 prepregnancy and reproductive-age women, who were referred to the laboratory for prenatal TORCH screening. To detect the presence of IgG, IgM antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen against these microorganisms were carried out using a chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer (CLIA). Results. In the current study, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, anti-Rubella virus IgG, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgG were found in 722 cases (26.5%), 2579 cases (94.6%0), and 2718 cases (99.7%), respectively. Moreover, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM, anti-Rubella virus IgM, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgM were discovered in 10 cases (0.4%), 13 cases (0.5%), and 16 cases (0.6%), respectively. The Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 32 cases (1.2%). The dissemination of positive TORCH in various ages was different ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusions. In our study, the seroprevalence of acute TORCH infections was relatively low. Due to the probability of vertical transmission to the fetus during pregnancy and the unpleasant complication of these pathogens, it is essential to be screened for detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies in reproductive ages.

2022 ◽  
Yue Jia ◽  
Jingjing Zhang ◽  
Lingfei Mo ◽  
Bomiao Ju ◽  
Nan Hu ◽  

Abstract Background The rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were controversial when considering the reported outcomes. It was speculated that HBV infection status altered after suffering from RA, and variations over HBV infection rates became apparent. Methods To compare the positive proportions of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA, a case-control study was performed between the 27 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with RA and the 108 age-and gender-matched CHB patients. In addition, the positive rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) were surveyed among the 892 RA patients. Results Compared to the CHB patients, the CHB patients with RA exhibited lower rates of HBeAg positivity (11.1% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.003), HBV DNA positivity (37.0% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.007) and ALT elevation (11.1% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.024). In the 892 RA patients, the prevalence of HBsAg (3.0%) was lower than that of China national data (7.2%), whereas the anti-HBc positive rate of 44.6% was higher than that of 34.1%. Conclusion HBV infection status altered after suffering from RA. Compared to the matched CHB patients, low positive proportions of HBeAg and HBV DNA were observed for CHB patients with RA.

Livers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar ◽  
Mamun Al Mahtab ◽  
Osamu Yoshida ◽  
Yoichi Hiasa

Millions of people of the world suffer from chronic hepatitis B (CHB), a pathological entity in which the patients are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and express hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA, as well as evidence of liver damages. Considerable numbers of CHB patients develop cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma if untreated. Two groups of drugs (interferons and nucleoside analogs) are used to treat CHB patients, but both are endowed with considerable adverse effects, increased costs, extended duration of therapy, and limited efficacy. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop new and innovative therapeutics for CHB patients, and many such drugs have been developed during the last four decades. Some of these drugs have inspired considerable optimism to be a game-changer for the treatment of CHB. Here, we first discuss why ongoing therapeutics such as interferon and nucleoside analogs could not stand the test of time. Next, we dissect the scope and limitation of evolving therapies for CHB by dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms of some of these innovative therapeutics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  
I. Khan ◽  
M. A. Kakakhel ◽  
L. Xi ◽  
Y. Bai ◽  

Abstract Hepatitis B virus infection is perilous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it remains clinically asymptomatic. The present study draws up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The blood samples from 4803 individuals including 2399 male and 2404 females were investigated. All the suspected samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and followed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that 312 (13.00%) out of 2399 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HBV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HBV antibodies were found in the age of 21-30 groups (10.73%). Furthermore, the ICT positive samples were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the existence of active HBV-DNA. It was observed that 169 (7.04%) out of (2399) male of the total population (4803) tested was positive. On the other hand, the female 463 (19.25%) possessed antibodies in their blood against HBV. Accumulatively, our results showed a higher percentage of HBV prevalence in males than females in the age group 21-30 years. The total HCV infected in Mardan general population was recorded at 5.7% comprising both male and female.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 182
Dinna Rakhmina ◽  
Wahdah Norsiah ◽  
Tini Elyn Herlina ◽  
Norhafizah Mulia Sari ◽  
Reza Pertiwi ◽  

According to Regulation No. 53 of 2015 of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, a high risk of HBV infection in health workers is a problem that requires attention, and vaccination knowledge is critical to reducing these risk factors. Furthermore, because some people do not produce a sufficient antibody-forming (anti-HBs) response to HBsAg, testing for evidence of protective immunity against hepatitis B vaccination is required (Hepatitis B Surface Antigen). The purpose of the study was to determine the mapping of the characteristics of anti-HBs antibodies response after hepatitis B vaccination in health workers in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, smoking habits, obesity, vaccination frequency, last time of vaccination. Sixty vaccinated health workers were used to creating the research sample. Anti-HBs levels/titers in serum were measured using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method, and a questionnaire was used to compile the data for this study. Age, gender, smoking, obesity, and vaccination dose were all used to map the outcomes of the anti-HBs antibody immune response study. Anti-HBs antibody response in health workers was graded as poor in 36 people (60%) and strong in 24 (40%). Regarding ethnic origin, lifestyle, obesity, and vaccination dose (frequency), there was no significant link between post-vaccination anti-HBs antibody response in health workers. In terms of age and gender, there is a strong association between post-vaccination anti-HBs antibody responses in health workers. Low antibody titers should be revaccinated to enhance anti-HBs titers, and health workers who smoke should quit because it reduces the levels of anti-HBs titers produced clinically.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 393-397
Orluwene CG ◽  
Eli S ◽  
Okagua KE ◽  
Owhonda G ◽  
Tee GP ◽  

Background: Hepatitis B Viral (HBV) infection is a potentially fatal infection of public health importance globally. Pregnant women and their unborn children are at risk of this infection due to its mode of transmission especially when in contact with infected body fluids and from mother to child transmission respectively. The prevalence of HBV infection in Nigeria is 13.6%. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HBV infection amongst pregnant women in rural community in southern Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective cross sectional study of pregnant women at Ogoni Primary Health Centers and General Hospitals in Southern Nigeria carried over a 4-month period. Serological test results for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of subjects were retrieved from the laboratories. Permission was gotten from Director of Public Health Rivers State Ministry of Health. The information gotten was analyzed using independent t test, chi square and fisher exact tests. Significance level was set at 0.05. Result: One hundred and eighty-five pregnant women were recruited for the study. The mean age of the antenatal clinic attendees was 28 ± 2 years, the mean gestational age at booking was 25 weeks and the mean parity was 2. Majority had secondary level of education represented by 122 (66%). Fifteen (8.1%) of the pregnant women were positive for Hepatitis B surface antigen. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV infection was 8.1% in Ogoni southern Nigeria. This is worisome, hence preventive measures including HBV vaccines should be made available to the populace.

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