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Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Damayanti Buchori ◽  
Akhmad Rizali ◽  
Windra Priawandiputra ◽  
Rika Raffiudin ◽  
Dewi Sartiami ◽  

There is a high diversity of bees in the tropics, including honey bees and stingless bees, which are the main sources for honey and other ecosystem services. In Indonesia, beekeeping practices have been developed for centuries, and they have been part of many cultural practices in many traditional communities. The objective of this research was to study the beekeeping status and managed bee diversity in Indonesia and to investigate beekeepers’ perspectives on the factors and obstacles related to beekeeping. Direct interview and online interview were conducted to gain data on bees and beekeepers. In total, 272 beekeepers were interviewed across 25 provinces. Samplings of honey bees and stingless bees were also done during direct interviews for further identification and, when possible, pollen identification. All data and specimens were then sent to IPB Bogor for compilation and identification. We recorded 22 species of bees, including 3 species of honey bees and 19 species of stingless bees, that are reared by Indonesian beekeepers, with Apis cerana and Tetragonula laeviceps as the most common species. Our research also found that the majority of beekeepers fall into the category of the younger generation (30–39 years old) with educational background mostly from senior high school. Based on the beekeepers’ perspectives, there are several obstacles to beekeeping, especially the occurrence of death of bee foragers attributed to climate, food source, and pesticides. In conclusion, there is a need to develop a strategy for beekeeping and bee conservation in Indonesia, especially for adaptation and mitigation from environmental changes with a particular focus on climate and land-use change.

2022 ◽  
Léa Bariod ◽  
Sonia Saïd ◽  
Clément Calenge ◽  
Vincent Badeau ◽  
Stéphane Chabot ◽  

Ixodes ricinus , the most common species of tick in Europe, is known to transmit major pathogens to animals and humans such as Babesia spp. or Borrelia spp.. Its abundance and distribution have been steadily increasing in Europe during recent decades, due to global environmental changes. Indeed, as ticks spend most of their life in the environment, their activity and life cycle are highly dependent on environmental conditions, and therefore on climate or habitat changes. Simultaneously, wild ungulates have expanded their range and increased dramatically in abundance worldwide, in particular roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ), have allowed tick populations to grow and spread. Currently, tick infestation on newborn wild ungulates is poorly documented. However, newborn ungulates are considered more sensitive to tick bites and pathogen transmission because of their immature immune system. Thus, improving knowledge about the factors influencing tick infestation on newborns is essential to better understand their health risks. This study was conducted at Trois-Fontaines forest, Champagne-Ardenne, France (1992-2018). Based on a long-term monitoring of roe deer fawns, we used a novel Bayesian model of the infestation of fawns to identify which biotic or abiotic factors are likely to modify the level of infestation by ticks of 965 fawns over time. We show that tick burden increased faster during the first days of life of the fawns and became constant when fawns were 5 days old and more, which could be explained by the depletion of questing ticks or the turnover of ticks feeding on fawns. Moreover, the humidity, which favors tick activity, was weakly positively related to the tick burden. Our results demonstrate that tick infestation was highly variable among years, particularly between 2000 and 2009. We hypothesize that this results from a modification of habitat caused by hurricane Lothar.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Junjie Hu ◽  
Jun Sun ◽  
Yanmei Guo ◽  
Hongxia Zeng ◽  
Yunzhi Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Data on the genus Sarcocystis in insectivores are limited. The Asian gray shrew Crocidura attenuata is one of the most common species of the insectivore family Soricidae in South Asia and Southeast Asia. To our knowledge, species of Sarcocystis have never been recorded previously in this host. Methods Tissues were obtained from 42 Asian gray shrews caught in 2017 and 2018 in China. Sarcocysts were observed using light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To describe the parasite life cycle, muscle tissues of the host infected with sarcocysts were force-fed to two beauty rat snakes Elaphe taeniura. Individual sarcocysts from different Asian gray shrews, and oocysts/sporocysts isolated from the small intestines and feces of the experimental snakes, were selected for DNA extraction, and seven genetic markers, namely, two nuclear loci [18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1)], three mitochondrial genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), cox3 and cytochrome b], and two apicoplast genes (RNA polymerase beta subunit and caseinolytic protease C), were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Results Sarcocysts were found in 17 of the 42 (40.5%) Asian gray shrews. Under LM, the microscopic sarcocysts showed saw- or tooth-like protrusions measuring 3.3–4.5 μm. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall contained numerous lancet- or leaf-like villous protrusions, similar to those described for type 9h of the common cyst wall classification. The experimental beauty rat snakes shed oocysts/sporocysts measuring 11.9–16.7 × 9.2–10.6 μm with a prepatent period of 10–11 days. Comparison of the newly obtained sequences with those previously deposited in GenBank revealed that those of 18S rDNA and cox1 were most similar to those of Sarcocystis scandentiborneensis recorded in the tree shrews Tupaia minor and Tupaiatana (i.e., 97.6–98.3% and 100% identity, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA or ITS1 sequences placed this parasite close to Sarcocystis spp. that utilize small animals as intermediate hosts and snakes as the known or presumed definitive host. On the basis of morphological and molecular characteristics and host specificity, the parasite was proposed as a new species, named Sarcocystis attenuati. Conclusions Sarcocysts were recorded in Asian gray shrews, to our knowledge for the first time. Based on morphological and molecular characterization, a new species of parasite is proposed: Sarcocystisattenuati. According to the LM and TEM results, S. attenuati sarcocysts are distinct from those of Sarcocystis spp. in other insectivores and those of S. scandentiborneensis in tree shrews. The 18S rDNA or cox1 sequences of Sarcocystis attenuati shared high similarity with those of Sarcocystisscandentiborneensis, Sarcocystis zuoi, Sarcocystis cf. zuoi in the Malayan field rat, and Sarcocystis sp. in the greater white-toothed shrew. Therefore, we suggest that more research on the relationships of these closely related taxa should be undertaken in the future. Graphical abstract

Juanjuan Ding ◽  
Bing Ma ◽  
Xupeng Wei ◽  
Ying Li

In this study, the aim was to investigate the discriminatory power of molecular diagnostics based on mNGS and traditional 16S ribosomal RNA PCR among Nocardia species. A total of fourteen clinical isolates from patients with positive Nocardia cultures and clinical evidence were included between January 2017 and June 2020 in HeNan Provincial People’s Hospital. DNA extraction and 16S rRNA PCR were performed on positive cultures, and pathogens were detected by mNGS in these same samples directly. Among the 14 Nocardia isolates, four species were identified, and N. cyriacigeorgica (8 cases) is the most common species. Twelve of the 14 Nocardia spp. isolates were identified by the two methods, while two strains of N. cyriacigeorgica were not identified by mNGS. All tested isolates showed susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), amikacin and linezolid. Apart from Nocardia species, other pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus, Enterococcus faecalis, Human herpesvirus, etc., were detected from the same clinical samples by mNGS. However, these different pathogens were considered as colonization or contamination. We found that it is essential to accurately identify species for determining antibiotic sensitivity and, consequently, choosing antibiotic treatment. 16S rRNA PCR was useful for identification of nocardial infection among species, while this technique needs the clinicians to make the pre-considerations of nocardiosis. However, mNGS may be a putative tool for rapid and accurate detection and identification of Nocardia, beneficial for applications of antimicrobial drugs and timely adjustments of medication.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Dawid Kocot ◽  
Ewa Sitek ◽  
Barbara Nowak ◽  
Anna Kołton ◽  
Alina Stachurska-Swakoń ◽  

Generative processes have been evaluated in six European buttercup species in order to verify the hypothesis that the reproduction efficiency of clonal species is lower than that of nonclonal ones. The study covered common species (Ficaria verna, Ranunculus auricomus, R. bulbosus, R. cassubicus, R. lanuginosus) and the endangered R. illyricus. The following properties have been assessed: pollen viability (staining method), pollen grain germination and the pollen-tube elongation in pistil tissues (fluorescence microscopy), seed formation efficiency, seed viability (tetrazolium test) and germination ability by introducing factors interrupting dormancy (low temperature and gibberellin application). Additionally, the pistil morphology was documented for R. bulbosus, R. illyricus and R. cassubicus using SEM techniques. It was demonstrated that the reproductive efficiency, expressed as the production of viable seeds able to germinate, was significantly higher in the species reproducing sexually (especially in R. lanuginosus) compared to the clonal ones. However, the complexity observed leads to separation of an additional group (cluster) of apomictic species: R. auricomus and R. cassubicus, distinguished by the lowest pollen viability and a low ability of the seeds to germinate. In the vegetatively reproducing R. illyricus, the seed formation efficiency was just 13.2% despite the having highest number of pistils in its flowers. The developed seeds of this species observed in our experiment were viable, but in general effective methods to stimulate their germination have not been proposed yet. Here, the first comparative study concerning the biology of sexual reproduction of R. illyricus is presented in the context of its decreasing distribution in natural habitats.

Discover Food ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Mohsin Raza ◽  
Sonam Drema Tukshipa ◽  
Jharna Chakravorty

AbstractAntioxidant potential of weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina (adult & brood) and termite Odontotermes sp the two common species of insects used as food by tribes of Arunachal Pradesh and elsewhere in India. Our findings highlight the antioxidant potential of these two insects. DPPH• scavenging activity IC50 (µg/mL) ranged from 59.56 (weaver ant adult) to 66.30 (termite). Termite species scored higher ABTS•+ scavenging activity (IC50: µg/mL), Ferric reducing power (TPEE µg/g) and phenolics (mg GAE/g) (18.70, 36.60 and 626.92) than weaver ant adult (52.57, 211.21 and 369.69) and weaver ant brood (33.34, 114.32 and 486.04). On the other hand, weaver ant adult scored higher flavonoids (mg RTE/g) (663.43) than its brood (387.19) and termite species (58.04). Weaver ant brood contained substantial amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, comparatively higher than phenolics of weaver ant adult and flavonoids of termite. These two insects may serve as an ideal dietary food supplement for handling oxidative stress and as a replacement for some conventional food products. However, further study is needed to find out the bioactive compound at the individual species level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 36-40
Abdullah Mancy

Background: Dermatophytes are a common cause of superficial fungal infection of the skin. The emergence of epidemic-like attacks of those chronic and recurring represents a public health problem. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients with suspected fungal infection of the skin attending the Dermatology and Venereology Department of Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital were examined. Fifty-nine patients with chronic dermatophytosis were selected for the study and fifty of those were subjected for culture. History taking and a physical examination were conducted for all patients. A wet mount of 10% potassium hydroxide and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar was done for selected cases. Results: Among 59 patients with chronic infections, the main age group affected was 29 years old, with a nearly equal sex ratio. The mean duration of the illness was 1.2 years. Tinea corporis was the most common type. The Trichophyton genera were the most common (65%), and Trichophyton mentagrophyte was the most common species isolated (46%). Conclusion: Multiple factors have been associated with the appearance of epidemic-like attacks of chronic dermatophyte infections in Iraq in the last several years. Herein, we would like to shed light on these factors and the pathogens responsible.

2022 ◽  
pp. 698-710
Neha Mishra ◽  
Rashmi Srivastava

Cinnamon has been used as a spice, condiment, and aromatic plant since centuries ago. Cinnamon is a small evergreen tree belonging to the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. There are more than 250 species of cinnamon worldwide. In India, Cinnamomum verum and Cinnamomum cassia are the most common species grown in the Himalaya region. They have been used as folk medicine for the treatment of nausea, flatulent dyspepsia, coughs, diarrhea, malaria, gastric disorder, and to alleviate pain and inflammation in rheumatic arthritis. Therapeutic properties of cinnamon are due to the presence of bioactive constituents such as p-coumaric, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol are the major active constituents responsible for its characteristic flavor, aroma, and therapeutic properties. Pharmacological studies found that it could be a promising candidate with potential for designing new drugs. This review is aimed to summarize the ethanomedicinal importance, phytochemistry, and wide spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic applications of cinnamon.

2022 ◽  
Vol 962 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
Yu A Bazhenov

Abstract The paper presents data on registration of two regionally protected insects in the north of Zabaykalsky krai. Observations were made in summer 2019-2021 in Kalarsky district of Zabaykalsky krai on the Ridges Udokan and Kodar. Parnassius eversmanni and Parnassius phoebus are characteristic and common species of high alpine meadows of the study area, especially at the Kodar Ridge between the Apsat and Sredny Sakukan Rivers. This area is not part of the Kodar National Park and requires attention for conservation of rich high altitude ecosystems that include the studied insect species.

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