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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. R. Abbas ◽  
R. T. Khan ◽  
S. Shafique ◽  
S. Mumtaz ◽  
A. A. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract By applying the in-silico method, resveratrol was docked on those proteins which are responsible for bone loss. The Molecular docking data between the resveratrol and Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand [RANKL] receptors proved that resveratrol binds tightly to the receptors, showed the highest binding affinities of −6.9, −7.6, −7.1, −6.9, −6.7, and −7.1 kcal/mol. According to in-vitro data, Resveratrol reduced the osteoclasts after treating Marrow-Derived Macrophages [BMM] with Macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF] 20ng / ml and RANKL 50ng / ml, with different concentrations of resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) For 7 days, the cells were treated with MCSF (20 ng / ml) and RANKL (40 ng / ml) together with concentrated trimethyl ether and resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) within 12 hours. Which, not affect cell survival. After fixing osteoclast cells with formaldehyde fixative on glass coverslip followed by incubation with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5 min and after that stain with rhodamine phalloidin staining for actin and Hoechst for nuclei. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to see the distribution of filaments actin [F.actin]. Finally, resveratrol reduced the actin ring formation. Resveratrol is the best bioactive compound for drug preparation against bone loss.


2022 ◽  
Vol 429 ◽  
pp. 132090
Author(s):  
Najmeh Alsadat Abtahi ◽  
Seyed Morteza Naghib ◽  
Sina Jafari Ghalekohneh ◽  
Zahra Mohammadpour ◽  
Hojjatollah Nazari ◽  
...  

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 191
Author(s):  
Kathya Huesca-Urióstegui ◽  
Elsy J. García-Valderrama ◽  
Janet A. Gutierrez-Uribe ◽  
Marilena Antunes-Ricardo ◽  
Daniel Guajardo-Flores

Nanofibers have emerged as a potential novel platform due to their physicochemical properties for healthcare applications. Nanofibers’ advantages rely on their high specific surface-area-to-volume and highly porous mesh. Their peculiar assembly allows cell accommodation, nutrient infiltration, gas exchange, waste excretion, high drug release rate, and stable structure. This review provided comprehensive information on the design and development of natural-based polymer nanofibers with the incorporation of herbal medicines for the treatment of common diseases and their in vivo studies. Natural and synthetic polymers have been widely used for the fabrication of nanofibers capable of mimicking extracellular matrix structure. Among them, natural polymers are preferred because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and similarity with extracellular matrix proteins. Herbal bioactive compounds from natural extracts have raised special interest due to their prominent beneficial properties in healthcare. Nanofiber properties allow these systems to serve as bioactive compound carriers to generate functional matrices with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-viral, and other properties which have been studied in vitro and in vivo, mostly to prove their wound healing capacity and anti-inflammation properties.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Atefe Ghafurian Nasab ◽  
Sayed Ali Mortazavi ◽  
Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi ◽  
Mahboobe Sarabi Jamab

In the present research, the production potential of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Lactobacillus brevis PML1 was investigated. In addition, the microorganism viability was examined in MAN, ROGOSA, and SHARPE (MRS) after undergoing high hydrostatic pressure at 100, 200, and 300 MPa for 5, 10, and 15 min. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the production conditions of GABA as well as the bacteria viability. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that both the independent variables (pressure and time) significantly influenced the dependent ones (GABA and bacteria viability) ( P < 0.05 ). The optimum extraction conditions to maximize the production of GABA included the pressure of 300 MPa and the time of 15 min. The amount of the compound was quantified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrophotometry. For the process optimization, a central composite design (CCD) was created using Design Expert with 5 replications at the center point, whereby the highest content of GABA was obtained to be 397.73 ppm which was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphological changes in the microorganism. The results revealed that not only did have Lactobacillus brevis PML1 the potential for the production of GABA under conventional conditions (control sample) but also the content of this bioactive compound could be elevated by optimizing the production parameters.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 180
Author(s):  
Han-Mei Tseng ◽  
Tzy-Ming Lu ◽  
Lean-Teik Ng

Cynanchum taiwanianum is an important plant used in traditional medicine. The increasing demand and lack of information regarding its cultivation have become concerns for sustainability. This study examined the effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates on the growth and biosynthesis of main bioactive compounds, including cynandione A and polyphenolic compounds, in field-cultivated C. taiwanianum. Two field experiments were conducted using three levels of nitrogen (N100, N150 and N200) and three levels of potassium (K100, K150 and K200) treatments. The experimental variables were either N or K fertilizer. The results showed that, aside from N200, N and K fertilization significantly increased C. taiwanianum shoot and tuber biomass. High N fertilization resulted in low total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in shoots and tubers, but the effects of K fertilization were minimal. Cynandione A, an important bioactive compound, was only detected in tubers; its content were enhanced with the increasing K fertilization, but reduced with excess N fertilization (N200). Although N and K fertilizers are important for C. taiwanianum tuber production, the yield of cynandione A was associated with K but not N fertilization rates. These results provide some essential information for the optimal production of C. taiwanianum tubers and functional compounds. Further studies are required to examine the mechanism(s) of cynandione A biosynthesis and its compartmentation in plant tissues.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-33
Author(s):  
P. Boonyanuphong ◽  
U. Tobgay

Radicals derived from exogenous and endogenous sources are considered to be the principal cause of genetic damage. Exogenous and endogenous radicals participate in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which leads to damages in the DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. However, dietary compounds, mainly from pigmented rice, are an essential source of antioxidants that help protect cells from damage. This study seeks to determine the antioxidant properties and cytoprotective effect of two Thai pigmented rice extracts namely the glutinous black rice (native name: Neaw dum moa37) and red rice (native name: Hom gradung-nga57) on H2O2-induced damage in HT-29 cells. The bioactive compound contents, as well as antioxidant activities of both rice extracts, were investigated. The protective effect of rice extracts on H2O2-induced damage was executed following the co-incubation method. HT-29 cells were exposed to H2O2 and different rice extract concentrations for 3 h and an MTT assay was used to measure the viability of the cell. The ROS level was determined using the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA). The result showed that glutinous black rice extract contained significantly higher contents of all analysed antioxidants and activities than red rice extract. Glutinous black rice showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared to red rice. At the non-toxic concentration of both rice extracts, the HT-29 cells were guarded against the H2O2 induced oxidative stress. Besides, the intracellular ROS accumulation result from H2O2 exposure was significantly reduced in the presence of rice extracts for both glutinous black rice and red rice compared to control. Hence, this study has demonstrated the potential properties of both pigmented rice extracts in alleviating H2O2-mediated damage in HT-29 cells.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chang Pyo Hong ◽  
Chang-Kug Kim ◽  
Dong Jin Lee ◽  
Hee Jeong Jeong ◽  
Yi Lee ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Schisandra chinensis, an ancient member of the most basal angiosperm lineage which is known as the ANITA, is a fruit-bearing vine with the pharmacological effects of a multidrug system, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporosis effects. Its major bioactive compound is represented by lignans such as schisandrin. Molecular characterization of lignan biosynthesis in S. chinensis is of great importance for improving the production of this class of active compound. However, the biosynthetic mechanism of schisandrin remains largely unknown. Results To understand the potential key catalytic steps and their regulation of schisandrin biosynthesis, we generated genome-wide transcriptome data from three different tissues of S. chinensis cultivar Cheongsoon, including leaf, root, and fruit, via long- and short-read sequencing technologies. A total of 132,856 assembled transcripts were generated with an average length of 1.9 kb and high assembly completeness. Overall, our data presented effective, accurate gene annotation in the prediction of functional pathways. In particular, the annotation revealed the abundance of transcripts related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Remarkably, transcriptome profiling during fruit development of S. chinensis cultivar Cheongsoon revealed that the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, specific to coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis, showed a tendency to be upregulated at the postfruit development stage. Further the analysis also revealed that the pathway forms a transcriptional network with fruit ripening-related genes, especially the ABA signaling-related pathway. Finally, candidate unigenes homologous to isoeugenol synthase 1 (IGS1) and dirigent-like protein (DIR), which are subsequently activated by phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and thus catalyze key upstream steps in schisandrin biosynthesis, were identified. Their expression was increased at the postfruit development stage, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of schisandrin biosynthesis in S. chinensis. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the production and accumulation of schisandrin in S. chinensis berries and will be utilized as a valuable transcriptomic resource for improving the schisandrin content.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fui Fui Lem ◽  
Dexter Jiunn Herng Lee ◽  
Fong Tyng Chee ◽  
Su Na Chin ◽  
Kai Min Lin ◽  
...  

Network pharmacology analysis can act as a strategy to identify the pharmacological effect of plant-based bioactive compounds against coronavirus diseases. This study aimed to investigate the potential pharmacological mechanism of a local ethnomedicine (Costus speciosus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Phyllanthus niruri) of Northern Borneo against coronaviruses known as CHP. Compounds in CHP were extracted from databases and screened for their oral bioavailability and drug-likeness before a compound-target network was built. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction network and pathway enrichment were constructed and analyzed. A compound-target network consisting of 48 putative bioactive compounds targeting 587 candidate genes was identified. A total of 186 coronavirus-related genes were extracted and TP53, STAT3, HSP90AA1, STAT1, and EP300 were predicted to be the key targets. Notably, mapping of these target genes into the target-pathway network illustrated that functional enrichment was on viral infection and regulation of inflammation pathways. Urinatetralin is predicted, for the first time, as a bioactive compound that solely targets STAT3. The results from this study indicate that compounds present in CHP employ STAT3 and its connected pathways as the mechanism of action against coronaviruses. In conclusion, urinatetralin should be further investigated for its potential application against coronavirus infections.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Author(s):  
Waleska Stephanie da Cruz Nizer ◽  
Ariane Coelho Ferraz ◽  
Thaís de Fátima Silva Moraes ◽  
William Gustavo Lima ◽  
Josana Pereira dos Santos ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Teresita Arredondo-Ochoa ◽  
Guillermo A. Silva-Martínez

Most of the active pharmaceutical compounds are often prone to display low bioavailability and biological degradation represents an important drawback. Due to the above, the development of a drug delivery system (DDS) that enables the introduction of a pharmaceutical compound through the body to achieve a therapeutic effect in a controlled manner is an expanding application. Henceforth, new strategies have been developed to control several parameters considered essential for enhancing delivery of drugs. Nanostructure synthesis by microemulsions (ME) consist of enclosing a substance within a wall material at the nanoscale level, allowing to control the size and surface area of the resulting particle. This nanotechnology has shown the importance on targeted drug delivery to improve their stability by protecting a bioactive compound from an adverse environment, enhanced bioavailability as well as controlled release. Thus, a lower dose administration could be achieved by minimizing systemic side effects and decreasing toxicity. This review will focus on describing the different biocompatible nanostructures synthesized by ME as controlled DDS for therapeutic purposes.


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