pharmacological studies
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Muhammad Riaz ◽  
Majid Khan ◽  
Rizwan Ahmad ◽  
Lina Hussain AlLehaibi ◽  

Currently, the whole world is facing a life-threatening novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Natural products are well-known for their potential role against viral disease, and some anti-viral agents have been developed to combat these diseases. Herein, the authors investigated the possible effects of this Holy plant Nigella sativaL. (NS), against coronavirus, using evidence-based and mechanistic approaches to conclude the immune-boosting and alleviation of respiratory systemeffects of NS. The pharmacological studies established a prominent role in treating various respiratory, immune systems, cardiovascular, skin, and gastrointestinal disorders. Literature supported the significant anti-viral role and showed an inhibitory role for NS against MHV-A59 CoV (mouse-hepatitis virus–A59) infected Hela, i.e., HeLaCEACAM1a (HeLa-epithelial carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a) cell. NS is a safe herbal product or dietary supplement and could be an effective and affordable community adjuvant treatment for coronavirus in the current scenario.

Andreia Fuentes Santos ◽  
Marilia Moraes Queiroz Souza ◽  
Karoline Bach Pauli ◽  
Gustavo Ratti da Silva ◽  

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieriin the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieriusing Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieriimproves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnierihave been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Mohammad Kamil ◽  
F Ahmad ◽  
M T Abdallah

Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is used for bronchitis, as a carminative, for treating cough, cataracts and as a stimulant. The rhizome is cooked with salt and water and used as an expectorant. Extract of the juice of rhizome is used as eye-drops. In Yemen, it is mixed with other plants used for constipation, as a purgative, against colds, catarrh and acidity of the stomach. Root ginger is widely used for culinary purposes and as a spice. The rhizomes (imported from India) are used with cinnamon and cloves and made into a tea for treating colds and as a general tonic. The drink is also used as an aphrodisiac (Gazanfar, 1994). Ginger is useful in piles, rheumatism, headache, lumbago, pains, bleeding, chest congestion, cholera, cold, diarrhea, dropsy, nausea, stomachache, gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting, and diarrhea. The fresh juice of ginger acts as a strong diuretic. The juice of the leaves is effective against helminthiasis and marasmus and related conditions of diarrhea and dysentery (Monograph of Unani Medicine,2003).

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Komal Rizwan ◽  
Ismat Majeed ◽  
Muhammad Bilal ◽  
Tahir Rasheed ◽  
Ahmad Shakeel ◽  

The genus Mimosa belongs to the Fabaceae family and comprises almost 400 species of herbs, shrubs and ornamental trees. The genus Mimosa is found all over the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa, South America, North America and Australia. Traditionally, this genus has been popular for the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, fever, toothache, wound healing, asthma, leprosy, vaginal and urinary complaints, skin diseases, piles, gastrointestinal disorders, small pox, hepatitis, tumor, HIV, ulcers and ringworm. The review covered literature available from 1959 to 2020 collected from books, scientific journals and electronic searches, such as Science Direct, Web of Science and Google scholar. Various keywords, such as Mimosa, secondary metabolites, medicines, phytochemicals and pharmacological values, were used for the data search. The Mimosa species are acknowledged to be an essential source of secondary metabolites with a wide-ranging biological functions, and up until now, 145 compounds have been isolated from this genus. Pharmacological studies showed that isolated compounds possess significant potential, such as antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, and antiproliferative as well as cytotoxic activities. Alkaloids, chalcones, flavonoids, indoles, terpenes, terpenoids, saponins, steroids, amino acids, glycosides, flavanols, phenols, lignoids, polysaccharides, lignins, salts and fatty esters have been isolated from this genus. This review focused on the medicinal aspects of the Mimosa species and may provide a comprehensive understanding of the prospective of this genus as a foundation of medicine, supplement and nourishment. The plants of this genus could be a potential source of medicines in the near future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cheng Wang ◽  
Shu Dai ◽  
Lihong Gong ◽  
Ke Fu ◽  
Cheng Ma ◽  

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (He-shou-wu in Chinese), a Chinese botanical drug with a long history, is widely used to treat a variety of chronic diseases in clinic, and has been given the reputation of “rejuvenating and prolonging life” in many places. 2,3,4′,5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG, C20H22O9) is the main and unique active ingredient isolated from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., which has extensive pharmacological activities. Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed that TSG exhibits significant activities in treating various diseases, including inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic steatosis, osteoporosis, depression and diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of TSG up to 2021 by searching the databases of Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect and CNKI. According to the data, TSG shows remarkable anti-inflammation, antioxidation, neuroprotection, cardiovascular protection, hepatoprotection, anti-osteoporosis, enhancement of memory and anti-aging activities through regulating multiple molecular mechanisms, such as NF-κB, AMPK, PI3K-AKT, JNK, ROS-NO, Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase-3, ERK1/2, TGF-β/Smad, Nrf2, eNOS/NO and SIRT1. In addition, the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TSG are also discussed in this review, which provided direction and basis for the further development and clinical application of TSG.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Sreejita Ghosh ◽  
Dibyajit Lahiri ◽  
Moupriya Nag ◽  
Ankita Dey ◽  
Soumya Pandit ◽  

Increased resistance of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter sp. (ESKAPE) pathogens against various drugs has enhanced the urge for the development of alternate therapeutics. Quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent cell-to-cell communication mechanism responsible for controlling pathogenicity with the regulation of gene expression. Thus, QS is considered a potential target for the development of newer anti-biofilm agents that do not depend on the utilization of antibiotics. Compounds with anti-QS effects are known as QS inhibitors (QSIs), and they can inhibit the QS mechanism that forms the major form in the development of bacterial pathogenesis. A diverse array of natural compounds provides a plethora of anti-QS effects. Over recent years, these natural compounds have gained importance as new strategies for combating the ESKAPE pathogens and inhibiting the genes involved in QS. Different pharmacognostical and pharmacological studies have been carried out so far for identification of novel drugs or for the discovery of their unique structures that may help in developing more effective anti-biofilm therapies. The main objective of this review is to discuss the various natural compounds, so far identified and their employed mechanisms in hindering the genes responsible for QS leading to bacterial pathogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Aysan Rahiminiya ◽  
Hamideh Herizchi Ghadim ◽  
Nargess Sadati Lamardi ◽  
Mohsen Haghir Ebrahimabadi ◽  
Seyyed Mohammadbagher Fazljou ◽  

Context: Five species of the genus Ajuga (Lamiaceae) having the common name of "bugle" are found in Iran. In Persian medicine (PM), the genus Ajuga (Kamaphytus) is used for treating jaundice, joint pain, gout, amenorrhea, sciatica, and wound healing. This study aimed to review the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and biological activities of Ajuga species that grow in Iran to determine their therapeutic potentials and suggest further studies on the healing properties of this genus in Iran. Evidence Acquisition: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched for studies on Ajuga species in Iran, including "Ajuga austro-iranica," "Ajuga chamaecistus," "Ajuga comata" (Syn.: "Ajuga Chia," "Ajuga chamaepitys subsp. Chia"), "Ajuga orientalis," and "Ajuga reptans." The search period was from 1966 to February 2021. The related articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the current study. Results: Several ethnobotanical and pharmacologic reports have verified the traditional uses of the genus Ajuga for anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, analgesic, anabolic, anti-arthritis, antipyretic, and hepatoprotective activities. Numerous phytochemicals have been identified from Ajuga species involving phytoecdysteroids, neo-clerodane-diterpenes, iridoids, flavonoids, withanolides, phenylethyl glycoside, and essential oils. Conclusions: Due to the beneficial therapeutic effects of Ajuga genus, it can be considered in future clinical studies as a source of natural antioxidants, dietary supplements in the pharmaceutical industry, and stabilizing food against oxidative deterioration.

2022 ◽  
pp. 698-710
Neha Mishra ◽  
Rashmi Srivastava

Cinnamon has been used as a spice, condiment, and aromatic plant since centuries ago. Cinnamon is a small evergreen tree belonging to the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. There are more than 250 species of cinnamon worldwide. In India, Cinnamomum verum and Cinnamomum cassia are the most common species grown in the Himalaya region. They have been used as folk medicine for the treatment of nausea, flatulent dyspepsia, coughs, diarrhea, malaria, gastric disorder, and to alleviate pain and inflammation in rheumatic arthritis. Therapeutic properties of cinnamon are due to the presence of bioactive constituents such as p-coumaric, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol are the major active constituents responsible for its characteristic flavor, aroma, and therapeutic properties. Pharmacological studies found that it could be a promising candidate with potential for designing new drugs. This review is aimed to summarize the ethanomedicinal importance, phytochemistry, and wide spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic applications of cinnamon.

2022 ◽  
pp. 649-671
Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar ◽  
Muthusamy Murugan ◽  
M. K. Dhanya ◽  
Thiravidamani Sathyan ◽  
Surya Raj ◽  

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally employed in south East Asia as well as India and China for treatment of nausea, asthma, fever, vomiting, cough, constipation, pain, arthritis, inflammation, etc. This chapter discusses the phytochemical composition and pharmacological studies of ginger extracts, ginger essential oil (GEO), and active bioactive constituents. The essential oil of fresh and dry ginger was ranged between 0.2% - 2.62% and 0.72% - 4.17% respectively. The bioactive constituent zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, curcumene, β-bisabolene, β-farnesene, camphene, and gingerol and shogal are the major constituents in ginger extracts. These compounds are chief bioactive substances responsible for pharmacological activities such antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticoagulant, antiradiation, anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, anti-obesity, and weight loss effects. Future research needs to investigate the suitable duration, maximum dosage of ginger, concerns of overdosage, and its side effects in animal models and humans.

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