neurological outcomes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 728-730
I D Chaurasia ◽  
Yogita Chaurasia

To evaluate the visual and neurological outcomes of Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT). 40 Patients presenting with optic neuritis were enrolled in this study to analyze the Visual and Neurological outcomes after treatment according to ONTT Protocol, with emphasis on signs of anaemia, protein calorie malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, generalized lymphadenopathy, sinusitis, septic foci. Patients were followed up for three subsequent visits to assess the rate of visual recovery.Maximum patient 35(87.5) treated according to ONTT protocol while 5 (12.5%) treated with oral steroids alone. Maximum 33 eyes (70.2%) attain BCVA > 6/36 after 1st follow-up (with in 1 month) while 10(21.3%) eyes attain BCVA of 6/6 after 1st follow-up. 11 eyes (25.6%) attain BCVA 6/6 after II follow-up. General prognosis for recovery of vision was good and was slightly worse in more severely affected cases in the present series. Pallor of the optic disc and defect of vision did not always correspond–3 eyes which showed temporal of the disc at the end of follow up had a final vision of 6/9 or better in each eye.

SungJoon Park ◽  
Sung Woo Lee ◽  
Kap Su Han ◽  
Eui Jung Lee ◽  
Dong-Hyun Jang ◽  

Abstract Background A favorable neurological outcome is closely related to patient characteristics and total cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration. The total CPR duration consists of pre-hospital and in-hospital durations. To date, consensus is lacking on the optimal total CPR duration. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the upper limit of total CPR duration, the optimal cut-off time at the pre-hospital level, and the time to switch from conventional CPR to alternative CPR such as extracorporeal CPR. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study using prospective, multi-center registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients between October 2015 and June 2019. Emergency medical service–assessed adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with non-traumatic OHCA were included. The primary endpoint was a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge. Results Among 7914 patients with OHCA, 577 had favorable neurological outcomes. The optimal cut-off for pre-hospital CPR duration in patients with OHCA was 12 min regardless of the initial rhythm. The optimal cut-offs for total CPR duration that transitioned from conventional CPR to an alternative CPR method were 25 and 21 min in patients with initial shockable and non-shockable rhythms, respectively. In the two groups, the upper limits of total CPR duration for achieving a probability of favorable neurological outcomes < 1% were 55–62 and 24–34 min, respectively, while those for a cumulative proportion of favorable neurological outcome > 99% were 43–53 and 45–71 min, respectively. Conclusions Herein, we identified the optimal cut-off time for transitioning from pre-hospital to in-hospital settings and from conventional CPR to alternative resuscitation. Although there is an upper limit of CPR duration, favorable neurological outcomes can be expected according to each patient’s resuscitation-related factors, despite prolonged CPR duration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Guoqiang Tang ◽  
Jiabei Chen ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Song Fang

Objective: This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of adjuvant corticosteroids in managing patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) undergoing surgical intervention.Methods: We searched for eligible studies electronically on the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The last date of the search was 15th Jun 2021. Outcomes were pooled to calculate risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: Eleven studies were included. Four of them were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Six studies reported data on good neurological outcomes but with variable definitions. Combining all studies, we noted no statistically significant difference in good neurological outcome with the use of adjuvant corticosteroids (RR: 0.91 95% CI: 0.74, 1.12 I2 = 92% p = 0.39). Similar results were obtained on subgroup analysis based on definition and study type. However, the use of adjuvant corticosteroids was associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrence (RR: 0.51 95% CI: 0.40, 0.64 I2 = 0% p &lt; 0.0001). The meta-analysis also demonstrated no statistically significant difference in mortality rates with the use of adjuvant corticosteroids (RR: 1.01 95% CI: 0.47, 2.21 I2 = 76% p = 0.97). The results did not differ between RCTs and non-RCTs. Limited studies reported data on complications, and pooled analysis indicated no significant increase in infectious, gastrointestinal, and neurological complications with the use of adjuvant corticosteroids.Conclusion: The use of corticosteroids with surgery for CSDH might be associated with a reduction in recurrence rate. However, corticosteroids do not improve functional outcomes or mortality rates. Future studies should assess the impact of different corticosteroid regimens on patient outcomes, and should use standardized reporting of neurological outcomes with uniform follow-up duration.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Panagiotis Fistouris ◽  
Christian Scheiwe ◽  
Juergen Grauvogel ◽  
István Csók ◽  
Juergen Beck ◽  

<b><i>Object:</i></b> The initial amount of subarachnoid and ventricular blood is an important prognostic factor for outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this comparative study of an unselected aSAH-population, we assess the modifiability of these factors by implementation of blood clearance by cisternal lavage. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> All patients with aSAH treated in our department between October 2011 and October 2019 (8 years, <i>n</i> = 458) were included in our study. In the first 4-year period (BEFORE, <i>n</i> = 237), patients were treated according to international guidelines. In the second 4-year period (AFTER, <i>n</i> = 221), cisternal lavage methods were available and applied in 72 high-risk patients (32.5%). The cisternal and ventricular blood load was recorded by the Hijdra score. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the prognostic significance of risk factors, including blood load, in relation to common aSAH characteristics in both study groups. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Worse neurological outcomes (mRS &#x3e; 3) occurred in the BEFORE population with 41.45% versus 30.77% in the AFTER cohort, 6 months after aSAH (HR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.08–2.34, <i>p</i> = 0.01). Admission WFNS grade, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), herniation signs, concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, and the development of delayed cerebral infarction were strongly associated with poor outcome in both study groups. Intraventricular and cisternal blood load and, particularly, a cast fourth ventricle (Cast 4) represented strong prognosticators of poor neurological outcome in the BEFORE cohort. This effect was lost after implementation of cisternal lavage (AFTER cohort). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Cisternal and ventricular blood load – in particular: a Cast 4 – represent important prognosticators in patients with aSAH. They are, however, amenable to modification by blood clearing therapies.

Kirubel Hailu ◽  
Chad Cannon ◽  
Sarah Hayes

Abstract Disclaimer In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. Purpose Several research articles have been published within the last decade comparing the use of tenecteplase to alteplase in ischemic stroke management. Prior reporting on the comparative therapeutic efficacy and safety profiles of tenecteplase and alteplase is reviewed. Summary Tenecteplase is a variant of native tissue-type plasminogen activator, which rapidly promotes thrombolysis by catalyzing formation of the serine protease plasmin. Tenecteplase has theoretical advantages over alteplase as it has greater fibrin specificity and has a longer half-life than alteplase. This allows the administration of a single bolus over 5 to 10 seconds, as opposed to a bolus followed by a 1-hour infusion with alteplase. While currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, tenecteplase has also been studied in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and has extensive data for this off-label indication. The most comprehensive trials to date evaluating the use of tenecteplase in acute ischemic stroke include the TNK-S2B, Australian TNK, ATTEST, Nor-Test, and EXTEND-IA TNK trials. Findings from these randomized controlled studies suggest that tenecteplase is at least as efficacious as alteplase in terms of neurological outcomes. The majority of these studies also reported a trend toward improved safety profiles with the use of tenecteplase. Conclusion Current clinical evidence shows that tenecteplase is not inferior to alteplase for the treatment of ischemic stroke and suggests that tenecteplase may have a superior safety profile. Furthermore, tenecteplase also has practical advantages in terms of its administration. This can potentially lead to a decrease in medication errors and improvement in door to thrombolytic time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 290
Yun Im Lee ◽  
Ryoung-Eun Ko ◽  
Jeong Hoon Yang ◽  
Yang Hyun Cho ◽  
Joonghyun Ahn ◽  

We evaluated the optimal mean arterial pressure (MAP) for favorable neurological outcomes in patients who underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). Adult patients who underwent ECPR were included. The average MAP was obtained during 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after cardiac arrest, respectively. Primary outcome was neurological status upon discharge, as assessed by the Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale (range from 1 to 5). Overall, patients with favorable neurological outcomes (CPC 1 or 2) tended to have a higher average MAP than those with poor neurological outcomes. Six models were established based on ensemble algorithms for machine learning, multiple logistic regression and observation times. Patients with average MAP around 75 mmHg had the least probability of poor neurologic outcomes in all the models. However, those with average MAPs below 60 mmHg had a high probability of poor neurological outcomes. In addition, based on an increase in the average MAP, the risk of poor neurological outcomes tended to increase in patients with an average MAP above 75 mmHg. In this study, average MAPs were associated with neurological outcomes in patients who underwent ECPR. Especially, maintaining the survivor’s MAP at about 75 mmHg may be important for neurological recovery after ECPR.

2022 ◽  
Florence Julien‐Marsollier ◽  
Clementine Cholet ◽  
Adrien Coeffic ◽  
Thibault Dupont ◽  
Thibault Gauthier ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S651
Hiba J. Mustafa ◽  
Erica Makar ◽  
Nicole Pedersen ◽  
Christopher Harman ◽  
Ozhan M. Turan

Joshua Kurian ◽  
Mark N. Pernik ◽  
Jeffrey I. Traylor ◽  
William H. Hicks ◽  
Mohamad El Shami ◽  

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