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João Martins ◽  
Adilson Marques ◽  
Élvio Rúbio Gouveia ◽  
Francisco Carvalho ◽  
Hugo Sarmento ◽  

The present study sought to examine the associations between participation in physical education (PE) classes and a range of health-related behaviours among adolescents. Secondary analysis of self-reported data from the Global Student Health Survey, collected between 2010 and 2017 from 222,121 adolescents (N = 117,914 girls; 49.0%; aged 13–17 years) from 67 countries and five world regions, was carried out. Participation in PE classes (0, 1–2, ≥3 days/week) was the independent variable. Physical activity (PA); sedentary behaviour (SB); active travel to school; fruit, vegetables, and alcohol consumption; and smoking; as well as adopting ≥5 of these healthy behaviours; were the dependent variables. Complex samples logistic regressions were performed to explore the associations between participation in PE classes and health-related behaviours. The results revealed that 18.2% of adolescents did not take part in PE classes. A total of 56.7% and 25.1% of adolescents reported participating in PE classes on 1–2 and ≥3 days/week, respectively. Only 26.8% of adolescents adopted ≥5 healthy behaviours. Participation in PE classes was positively associated with PA, active travel, fruit consumption, and vegetable consumption (only for ≥3 days/week), but was negatively associated with meeting SB recommendations, and with not smoking (only for girls and ≥3 days/week). Overall, PE participation was positively associated with adopting ≥5 healthy behaviours, with favourable results found for those who attended more PE classes. The findings revealed a positive association between participation in PE classes and a range of health-related behaviours among adolescents. This suggests that, worldwide, quality PE should be delivered at least 3 days per week up to daily to promote healthy lifestyles among adolescents.

Isabelle Pitrou ◽  
Helen-Maria Vasiliadis ◽  
Carol Hudon

Abstract Objective To examine the associations between BMI categories and subsequent 3-year cognitive decline among older adults, and to test whether physical activity modifies the associations. Methods Study sample included n = 1028 cognitively unimpaired older adults participating in the Étude sur la Santé des Aînés (ESA)-Services longitudinal study and followed 3 years later. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease of > 3 points in MMSE scores between baseline and follow-up. BMI categories (normal weight (reference), underweight, overweight, obese) were derived from self-reported weight and height. Moderate to vigorous physical activity of ≥20 min (# of times per week) was self-reported. The presence of chronic disorders was ascertained from administrative and self-reported data. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the risk of cognitive decline associated with BMI categories stratified by weekly physical activity (≥140 min), the presence of metabolic, cardiovascular and anxio-depressive disorders. Results In the overall sample, there was no evidence that underweight, overweight, or obesity, as compared to normal weight, was associated with cognitive decline, after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. Individuals with overweight reporting high physical activity had lower odds of cognitive decline (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.07–0.89), whereas no association was observed in individuals with overweight reporting low physical activity (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.41–1.75). Among participants with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, individuals with overweight reporting high physical activity had lower odds of cognitive decline (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01–0.59 and OR = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.01–0.92 respectively), whereas no association was observed in those with low physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity modifies the association between overweight and cognitive decline in older adults overall, as in those with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Results highlight the importance of promoting and encouraging regular physical activity in older adults with overweight as prevention against cognitive decline.

2022 ◽  
İmran Hasanoglu ◽  
Rahmet Guner ◽  
Suzan Sahin ◽  
Fatma Yilmaz Karadag ◽  
Ergun Parmaksiz ◽  

Abstract There is neither a surveillance system nor a study to reveal the HD related infection rates in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the infection rate among HD outpatients and implement CDC’s surveillance system. A multicenter prospective surveillance study is performed to investigate the infection rate among HD patients. CDC National Healthcare Safety Network dialysis event (DE) protocol is adopted for definitions and reporting. During April 2016–April 2018, 9 centers reported data. A total of 199 DEs reported in 10035 patient-months, and the overall DE rate was 1.98 per 100 patient-months. Risk of blood culture positivity is found to be 17.6 times higher when hemodialysis was through a tunneled catheter than through an arteriovenous fistula. DE rate was significantly lower in patients educated about the care of their vascular access site. Staphylococcus aureus was the most causative microorganism among mortal patients. Outcomes of DEs were hospitalization (73%), loss of vascular access (18.2%), and death (7.7%). This first surveillance study revealed the baseline status of HD related infections in Turkey and showed that NHSN DE surveillance system can be easily implemented even in a high workload dialysis unit and be adopted as a nationwide DE surveillance program.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Guoqiang Tang ◽  
Jiabei Chen ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Song Fang

Objective: This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of adjuvant corticosteroids in managing patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) undergoing surgical intervention.Methods: We searched for eligible studies electronically on the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The last date of the search was 15th Jun 2021. Outcomes were pooled to calculate risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: Eleven studies were included. Four of them were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Six studies reported data on good neurological outcomes but with variable definitions. Combining all studies, we noted no statistically significant difference in good neurological outcome with the use of adjuvant corticosteroids (RR: 0.91 95% CI: 0.74, 1.12 I2 = 92% p = 0.39). Similar results were obtained on subgroup analysis based on definition and study type. However, the use of adjuvant corticosteroids was associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrence (RR: 0.51 95% CI: 0.40, 0.64 I2 = 0% p < 0.0001). The meta-analysis also demonstrated no statistically significant difference in mortality rates with the use of adjuvant corticosteroids (RR: 1.01 95% CI: 0.47, 2.21 I2 = 76% p = 0.97). The results did not differ between RCTs and non-RCTs. Limited studies reported data on complications, and pooled analysis indicated no significant increase in infectious, gastrointestinal, and neurological complications with the use of adjuvant corticosteroids.Conclusion: The use of corticosteroids with surgery for CSDH might be associated with a reduction in recurrence rate. However, corticosteroids do not improve functional outcomes or mortality rates. Future studies should assess the impact of different corticosteroid regimens on patient outcomes, and should use standardized reporting of neurological outcomes with uniform follow-up duration.

Toshihiko Iuchi ◽  
Akihiro Inoue ◽  
Yuichi Hirose ◽  
Motohiro Morioka ◽  
Keishi Horiguchi ◽  

Abstract Background Adjuvant treatment with Gliadel wafers may prolong overall survival (OS) for malignant glioma patients without increasing toxicity. In Japan, the long-term OS of these patients treated with Gliadel 7.7 mg implants has not been studied. We evaluated OS and prognostic factors that might affect OS in Japanese patients with malignant glioma who received the Gliadel 7.7 mg implant. Methods This observational, long-term, post-marketing surveillance was an extension of a previous surveillance. Data were collected through case report forms at 2 and 3 years after Gliadel implant. Up to 8 Gliadel wafers (61.6 mg of carmustine) were placed over the tumor resection site. Primary endpoints were OS and prognostic factors that may influence OS. Results Among the 506 patients analyzed, 62.6% had newly diagnosed disease, and 37.4% had recurrent disease; 79.1% had glioblastoma histological type and 79.6% had World Health Organization Grade IV disease. Patients received a median of 8 wafers. The median OS was 18.0 months; OS rates were 39.8% and 31.5% at 2 and 3 years, respectively. Age ≥65 years (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.456; P = 0.002), lower resection rate (HR: 1.206; P < 0.001), recurrence (HR: 2.418; P < 0.001), and concomitant radiotherapy (HR: 0.588; P < 0.001) were identified as significant prognostic factors. Conclusions This study confirmed the 2- and 3-year OS of Japanese malignant glioma patients with varied backgrounds after Gliadel implant. With a careful interpretation of indirect comparisons with previously reported data, the results suggest that prognosis could be improved with Gliadel implants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Jian Yu ◽  
Dahang Zhao ◽  
Shuo Wang ◽  
Chao Zhang ◽  
Jiazhang Huang ◽  

The implant design of the talar component for total ankle replacement (TAR) should match the surface morphology of the talus so that the replaced ankle can restore the natural motion of the tibiotalar joint and may reduce postoperative complications. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new 3D fitting method (the two-sphere fitting method of the talar trochlea with three fitting resection planes) to approximate the shape of the upper part of the talus for the Chinese population. 90 models of the tali from CT images of healthy volunteers were used in this study. Geometrical fitting and morphological measurements were performed for the surface morphology of the upper part of the talus. The accuracy of the two-sphere fitting method of the talar trochlea was assessed by a comparison of previously reported data. Parameters of the fitting geometries with different sizes were recorded and compared. Results showed that compared with previously reported one-sphere, cylinder, and bitruncated cone fitting methods, the two-sphere fitting method presented the smallest maximum distance difference, indicating that talar trochlea can be approximated well as two spheres. The radius of the medial fitting sphere R M was 20.69 ± 2.19  mm which was significantly smaller than the radius of the lateral fitting sphere R L of 21.32 ± 1.88  mm. After grouping all data by the average radius of fitting spheres, the result showed that different sizes of the upper part of the talus presented significantly different parameters except the orientation of the lateral cutting plane, indicating that the orientation of the lateral cutting plane may keep consistent for all upper part of the talus and have no relationship with the size. The linear regression analyses demonstrated a weak correlation ( R 2 < 0.5 ) between the majority of parameters and the average radius of the fitting spheres. Therefore, different sizes of the upper part of the talus presented unique morphological features, and the design of different sizes of talar components for TAR should consider the size-specific characteristics of the talus. The parameters measured in this study provided a further understanding of the talus and can guide the design of different sizes of the talar components of the TAR implant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Moriah E. Thomason ◽  
Denise Werchan ◽  
Cassandra L. Hendrix

AbstractFirst-person accounts of COVID-19 illness and treatment can complement and enrich data derived from electronic medical or public health records. With patient-reported data, it is uniquely possible to ascertain in-depth contextual information as well as behavioral and emotional responses to illness. The Novel Coronavirus Illness Patient Report (NCIPR) dataset includes complete survey responses from 1,584 confirmed COVID-19 patients ages 18 to 98. NCIPR survey questions address symptoms, medical complications, home and hospital treatments, lasting effects, anxiety about illness, employment impacts, quarantine behaviors, vaccine-related behaviors and effects, and illness of other family/household members. Additional questions address financial security, perceived discrimination, pandemic impacts (relationship, social, stress, sleep), health history, and coping strategies. Detailed patient reports of illness, environment, and psychosocial impact, proximal to timing of infection and considerate of demographic variation, is meaningful for understanding pandemic-related public health from the perspective of those that contracted the disease.

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 71
Maria Badiceanu ◽  
Sinziana Anghel ◽  
Natalia Mihailescu ◽  
Anita Ioana Visan ◽  
Cristian N. Mihailescu ◽  

The development of new biological devices in response to market demands requires continuous efforts for the improvement of products’ functionalization based upon expansion of the materials used and their fabrication techniques. One viable solution consists of a functionalization substrate covered by layers via an appropriate deposition technique. Laser techniques ensure an enhanced coating’s adherence to the substrate and improved biological characteristics, not compromising the mechanical properties of the functionalized medical device. This is a review of the main laser techniques involved. We mainly refer to pulse laser deposition, matrix-assisted, and laser simple and double writing versus some other well-known deposition methods as magnetron sputtering, 3D bioprinting, inkjet printing, extrusion, solenoid, fuse-deposition modeling, plasma spray (PS), and dip coating. All these techniques can be extended to functionalize surface fabrication to change local morphology, chemistry, and crystal structure, which affect the biomaterial behavior following the chosen application. Surface functionalization laser techniques are strictly controlled within a confined area to deliver a large amount of energy concisely. The laser deposit performances are presented compared to reported data obtained by other techniques.

James W. D. Forster ◽  
Aaron M. Uthoff ◽  
Michael C. Rumpf ◽  
John B. Cronin

Change of direction (COD) is an important component of athlete performance and measuring and comparing athletes is an integral aspect of strength and conditioning practice. This article aimed to determine pro-agility shuttle utility, by quantifying variability and normative values for different sports, skill-levels and positions. Limitations of the pro-agility shuttle are identified, as are future research directions. A total of 67 studies were included for review. Pro-agility shuttle reliability was reported in 10 studies across 6 sports; however, comprehensive reliability statistics were absent in most papers. Additionally, only reliability of total-time from stopwatch and timing lights were reported. Data of 32,891 subjects in 12 sports (American football, basketball, cricket, general athletes, hockey, lacrosse, recreational athletes, resistance-trained athletes, rugby, soccer, swimming, and tennis) were extracted and aggregated, establishing sport, skill-level (elite, sub-elite, and novice) and positional normative values, where practical. Elite athletes showed the fastest performance times, whereas sub-elite and novice athletes showed similar spreads in performance, suggesting similar athletic capabilities. In conclusion, the pro-agility shuttle currently has limited diagnostic value and the variability of smaller performance sub-components within pro-agility shuttle should be examined. Furthermore, the value of other technologies such as smart phone, inertial sensor or radar should be investigated.

Dimitra Kale ◽  
Olga Perski ◽  
Aleksandra Herbec ◽  
Emma Beard ◽  
Lion Shahab

This study investigated UK adults’ changes in cigarette smoking and vaping during the COVID-19 pandemic and factors associated with any changes. Data were from an online longitudinal study. A self-selected sample (n = 332) of 228 smokers and 155 vapers (51 participants were both smokers and vapers) completed 5 surveys between April 2020 and June 2021. Participants self-reported data on sociodemographics, COVID-19-related, and smoking/vaping characteristics. During the 12 months of observations, among smokers, 45% self-reported a quit attempt (27.5% due to COVID-19-related reasons) since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic and the quit rate was 17.5%. At 12 months, 35.1% of continuing smokers (n = 174) reported smoking less and 37.9% the same, while 27.0% reported an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked/day. Among vapers, 25.0% self-reported a quit attempt (16.1% due to COVID-19-related reasons) and the quit rate was 18.1%. At 12 months, 47.7% of continuing vapers (n = 109) reported no change in the frequency of vaping/hour, while a similar proportion reported vaping less (27.5%) and more (24.8%). Motivation to quit smoking and being younger were associated with making a smoking quit attempt and smoking cessation. Being a cigarette smoker was associated with vaping cessation. Among a self-selected sample, COVID-19 stimulated more interest in reducing or quitting cigarette smoking than vaping.

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