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2022 ◽  
Caitlin R Francis ◽  
Hayle Kincross ◽  
Erich J Kushner

In early blood vessel development, trafficking programs, such as those using Rab GTPases, are tasked with delivering vesicular cargo with high spatiotemporal accuracy. However, the function of many Rab trafficking proteins remain ill-defined in endothelial tissue; therefore, their relevance to blood vessel development is unknown. Rab35 has been shown to play an enigmatic role in cellular behaviors which differs greatly between tissue-type and organism. Importantly, Rab35 has never been characterized for its potential contribution in sprouting angiogenesis; thus, our goal was to map Rab35s primary function in angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate that Rab35 is critical for sprout formation; in its absence apicobasal polarity is entirely lost in vitro and in vivo. To determine mechanism, we systematically explored established Rab35 effectors and show that none are operative in endothelial cells. However, we find that Rab35 partners with DENNd1c, an evolutionarily divergent guanine exchange factor, to localize to actin. Here, Rab35 regulates actin polymerization, which is required to setup proper apicobasal polarity during sprout formation. Our findings establish that Rab35 is a potent regulator of actin architecture during blood vessel development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Rouhallah Sharifi ◽  
Muhammad Saad Shoaib Khan ◽  
Faisal Islam ◽  
Javaid Akhter Bhat ◽  

Wheat is an important cereal crop species consumed globally. The growing global population demands a rapid and sustainable growth of agricultural systems. The development of genetically efficient wheat varieties has solved the global demand for wheat to a greater extent. The use of chemical substances for pathogen control and chemical fertilizers for enhanced agronomic traits also proved advantageous but at the cost of environmental health. An efficient alternative environment-friendly strategy would be the use of beneficial microorganisms growing on plants, which have the potential of controlling plant pathogens as well as enhancing the host plant’s water and mineral availability and absorption along with conferring tolerance to different stresses. Therefore, a thorough understanding of plant-microbe interaction, identification of beneficial microbes and their roles, and finally harnessing their beneficial functions to enhance sustainable agriculture without altering the environmental quality is appealing. The wheat microbiome shows prominent variations with the developmental stage, tissue type, environmental conditions, genotype, and age of the plant. A diverse array of bacterial and fungal classes, genera, and species was found to be associated with stems, leaves, roots, seeds, spikes, and rhizospheres, etc., which play a beneficial role in wheat. Harnessing the beneficial aspect of these microbes is a promising method for enhancing the performance of wheat under different environmental stresses. This review focuses on the microbiomes associated with wheat, their spatio-temporal dynamics, and their involvement in mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Lucy Huang ◽  
Adam Badenoch ◽  
Marthinus Vermeulen ◽  
Shahid Ullah ◽  
Charmaine Woods ◽  

AbstractAirway surgery presents a unique environment for operating room fire to occur. This study aims to explore the factors of combustion when using KTP laser with high flow oxygen in an ex-vivo model. The variables tested were varying tissue type, tissue condition, oxygen concentration, laser setting, and smoke evacuation in a stainless-steel model. Outcome measures were time of lasing to the first spark and/or flame. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the risk of spark and flame across the different risk factors. For every 10% increase in oxygen concentration above 60% the risk of flame increased by a factor of 2.3. Continuous laser setting at 2.6 W increased the risk by a factor of 72.8. The risk of lasing adipose tissue is 7.3 times higher than that of muscle. Charred tissue increases the risk of flame by a factor of 92.8. Flame occurred without a preceding spark 93.6% of the time. Using KTP laser in the pulsed mode with low wattages, minimising lasing time, reducing the oxygen concentration and avoiding lasing adipose or charred tissue produce a relatively low estimated risk of spark or flame.

Kirubel Hailu ◽  
Chad Cannon ◽  
Sarah Hayes

Abstract Disclaimer In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. Purpose Several research articles have been published within the last decade comparing the use of tenecteplase to alteplase in ischemic stroke management. Prior reporting on the comparative therapeutic efficacy and safety profiles of tenecteplase and alteplase is reviewed. Summary Tenecteplase is a variant of native tissue-type plasminogen activator, which rapidly promotes thrombolysis by catalyzing formation of the serine protease plasmin. Tenecteplase has theoretical advantages over alteplase as it has greater fibrin specificity and has a longer half-life than alteplase. This allows the administration of a single bolus over 5 to 10 seconds, as opposed to a bolus followed by a 1-hour infusion with alteplase. While currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, tenecteplase has also been studied in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and has extensive data for this off-label indication. The most comprehensive trials to date evaluating the use of tenecteplase in acute ischemic stroke include the TNK-S2B, Australian TNK, ATTEST, Nor-Test, and EXTEND-IA TNK trials. Findings from these randomized controlled studies suggest that tenecteplase is at least as efficacious as alteplase in terms of neurological outcomes. The majority of these studies also reported a trend toward improved safety profiles with the use of tenecteplase. Conclusion Current clinical evidence shows that tenecteplase is not inferior to alteplase for the treatment of ischemic stroke and suggests that tenecteplase may have a superior safety profile. Furthermore, tenecteplase also has practical advantages in terms of its administration. This can potentially lead to a decrease in medication errors and improvement in door to thrombolytic time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 521
Ahmed Gaber ◽  
Hassan A. Youness ◽  
Alaa Hamdy ◽  
Hammam M. Abdelaal ◽  
Ammar M. Hassan

Fatty liver disease is considered a critical illness that should be diagnosed and detected at an early stage. In advanced stages, liver cancer or cirrhosis arise, and to identify this disease, radiologists commonly use ultrasound images. However, because of their low quality, radiologists found it challenging to recognize this disease using ultrasonic images. To avoid this problem, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis technique is developed in the current study, using Machine Learning Algorithms and a voting-based classifier to categorize liver tissues as being fatty or normal, based on extracting ultrasound image features and a voting-based classifier. Four main contributions are provided by our developed method: firstly, the classification of liver images is achieved as normal or fatty without a segmentation phase. Secondly, compared to our proposed work, the dataset in previous works was insufficient. A combination of 26 features is the third contribution. Based on the proposed methods, the extracted features are Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and First-Order Statistics (FOS). The fourth contribution is the voting classifier used to determine the liver tissue type. Several trials have been performed by examining the voting-based classifier and J48 algorithm on a dataset. The obtained TP, TN, FP, and FN were 94.28%, 97.14%, 5.71%, and 2.85%, respectively. The achieved precision, sensitivity, specificity, and F1-score were 94.28%, 97.05%, 94.44%, and 95.64%, respectively. The achieved classification accuracy using a voting-based classifier was 95.71% and in the case of using the J48 algorithm was 93.12%. The proposed work achieved a high performance compared with the research works.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Guanlan Chen ◽  
Rui Zeng ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  
Hongying Cai ◽  
Jiajia Chen ◽  

Clam heparinoid G2 (60.25 kDa) and its depolymerized derivatives DG1 (24.48 kDa) and DG2 (6.75 kDa) prepared from Coelomactra antiquata have been documented to have excellent fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activity. In this study, to further explore the antithrombotic activity of G2, DG1 and DG2, azure A, sheep plasma, and clot lytic rate assays were used to determine their anticoagulant and thrombolytic activity in vitro. The results indicated that the anticoagulant titer of G2 was approximately 70% that of heparin and the thrombolytic activity of DG2 was greater than G2, DG1, and heparin activities. Moreover, in a carrageenan-induced venous thrombosis model, oral administration of G2 and DG1 each at 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for 7 days significantly reduced blacktail thrombus formation, increased tissue-type plasminogen activator, fibrin degradation products, and D-dimer levels, decreased von Willebrand factor and thromboxane B2 levels, and restored phylum and genus abundance changes of intestinal bacteria. DG2 had no antithrombotic effect. At 20 mg/kg, G2, DG1, and heparin had comparable antithrombotic activities, and DG1 at 40 mg/kg had more muscular antithrombotic activity than G2. Thus, DG1 could be an antithrombotic oral agent owing to its more robust antithrombotic activity and lower molecular weight.

Open Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 174-184
Rong Liang ◽  
Fang Fang ◽  
Sen Li ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Xiaohong Zhang ◽  

Abstract Assisted oocyte activation (AOA) has been proposed as an effective technique to overcome the problem of impaired fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) but the safety of AOA remains a concern. We aimed to investigate if AOA induces imprinting effects on embryos. We used 13 cleavage embryos, nine blastocysts, and eight placentas from 15 patients. The subjects were divided into six groups by tissue type and with or without AOA. The methylation levels of imprinted genes (H19, paternally expressed gene [PEG3] and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N [SNRPN]) were tested by pyrosequencing. We observed different methylation levels among cleavage embryos. The variability was much more remarkable between cleavage embryos than blastocysts and placenta tissues. The methylation levels were especially higher in SNRPN and lower in the H19 gene in AOA embryos than those without AOA. No significant difference was found either among blastocysts or among placenta tissues regardless of AOA. The methylation levels of the three genes in blastocysts were very similar to those in the placenta. Compared to conventional ICSI, AOA changed imprinting methylation rates at H19 and SNRPN in cleavage embryos but not in the blastocyst stage and placenta. We recommend that blastocyst transfer should be considered for patients undergoing AOA during in vitro fertilization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
M. Shah ◽  
S. Kausar ◽  
J. A. Mian ◽  
H. Jabeen ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
Gregor Majdič ◽  
Metka Voga ◽  
Ana Pleterski

Abstract: Some limited reports suggest that cells can survive in the cadavers for much longer than it was previously thought.  In our study we explored how time after death, tissue type (muscle, brain and adipose tissue), storage temperature of cadavers (4 °C or at room temperature) and form of tissue storage (stored as cadavers or tissue pieces in phosphate buffered saline) affect the success of harvesting live cells from mice after death. Cells were isolated from dead tissues and grown in standard conditions. Some cells were used for RNA extraction and RT² Profiler™ PCR Array for cell lineage identification was performed to establish which lineages the cells obtained from post mortem tissues belong to. Results of our study showed that viable cells can be regularly isolated from muscle and brain tissue 3 days post mortem and with difficulty up to 6 days post mortem. Viable cells from brain tissue can be isolated up to 9 days post mortem. No cells were isolated from adipose tissue except immediately after death. In all instances viable cells were isolated only when tissues were stored at 4 °C. Tissue storage did not affect cell isolation. Isolated cells were progenitors from different germ layers. Our results show that live cells could be obtained from mouse cadavers several days after death.Key words: mouse; cadaver; stem cells; brain; muscle; adipose tissue IZOLACIJA ŽIVIH CELIC IZ RAZLIČNIH TKIV MIŠI DO DEVET DNI PO SMRTI Izvleček: Nekatere raziskave kažejo, da je preživetje celic v truplih precej daljše, kot je bilo znano do sedaj. V naši raziskavi smo proučevali, kako na uspešnost izolacije živih celic po smrti miši vplivajo različen čas izolacije po smrti, vrsta tkiva (mišično, možgansko in maščobno), temperatura shranjevanja trupel ter oblika shranjenega tkiva (kot koščki tkiv ali kot celi kadavri). Izolacija in gojenje celic iz tkiv mrtvih miši sta potekali pod standardnimi pogoji. Da bi ugotovili, katerim celičnim linijam pripadajo izolirane celice, je bil del celic uporabljen za izolacijo RNK in nadaljno uporabo v sistemu identifikacije izvornih celičnih linij z verižno reakcijo s polimerazo v realnem času. Rezultati naše raziskave so pokazali, da je žive celice mogoče izolirati iz mišičnega in možganskega tkiva 3 dni po smrti, pogojno tudi do 6 dni po smrti. Iz možganskega tkiva je bilo žive celice mogoče izolirati tudi do 9 dni po smrti. Iz maščobnega tkiva je bilo celice mogoče izolirati zgolj takoj po smrti, ne pa tudi v kasnejših časovnih intervalih. V vseh primerih so bile celice izolirane samo v primeru shranjevanja tkiv pri 4°C. Oblika shranjenega tkiva na izolacijo celic ni vplivala. Izolirane celice so pripadale različnim zarodnim plastem. Rezultati raziskave so pokazali, da je žive celice iz mišjih trupel mogoče izolirati tudi več dni po smrti.Ključne besede: miš; truplo; matične celice; možgansko tkivo; mišično tkivo; maščobno tkivo

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Alex Caulton ◽  
Ken G. Dodds ◽  
Kathryn M. McRae ◽  
Christine Couldrey ◽  
Steve Horvath ◽  

Robust biomarkers of chronological age have been developed in humans and model mammalian species such as rats and mice using DNA methylation data. The concept of these so-called “epigenetic clocks” has emerged from a large body of literature describing the relationship between genome-wide methylation levels and age. Epigenetic clocks exploit this phenomenon and use small panels of differentially methylated cytosine (CpG) sites to make robust predictions of chronological age, independent of tissue type. Here, we present highly accurate livestock epigenetic clocks for which we have used the custom mammalian methylation array “HorvathMammalMethyl40” to construct the first epigenetic clock for domesticated goat (Capra hircus), cattle (Bos taurus), Red (Cervus elaphus) and Wapiti deer (Cervus canadensis) and composite-breed sheep (Ovis aries). Additionally, we have constructed a ‘farm animal clock’ for all species included in the study, which will allow for robust predictions to be extended to various breeds/strains. The farm animal clock shows similarly high accuracy to the individual species’ clocks (r > 0.97), utilizing only 217 CpG sites to estimate age (relative to the maximum lifespan of the species) with a single mathematical model. We hypothesise that the applications of this livestock clock could extend well beyond the scope of chronological age estimates. Many independent studies have demonstrated that a deviation between true age and clock derived molecular age is indicative of past and/or present health (including stress) status. There is, therefore, untapped potential to utilize livestock clocks in breeding programs as a predictor for age-related production traits.

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