Arterial Pressure
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Jacob K. Meariman ◽  
Jane C. Sutphen ◽  
Juan Gao ◽  
Daniel R. Kapusta

Nalfurafine is a G-protein–biased KOR (kappa opioid receptor) agonist that produces analgesia and lacks CNS adverse effects. Here, we examined the cardiovascular and renal responses to intravenous and oral nalfurafine alone and in combination with furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, or amiloride. We hypothesized that nalfurafine, given its distinct mechanism of vasopressin inhibition, would increase urine output to these diuretics and limit electrolyte loss. Following catheterization, conscious Sprague-Dawley rats received an isotonic saline infusion and were then administered an intravenous bolus of nalfurafine, a diuretic, or a combination. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and urine output were recorded for 90 minutes. In another study, rats were placed in metabolic cages and administered drug in an oral volume load. Hourly urine samples were then collected for 5 hours. Intravenous and oral nalfurafine produced a marked diuresis, antinatriuresis, antikaliuresis, and a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Compared with diuretic treatment alone, intravenous coadministration with nalfurafine significantly increased urine output to furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide and decreased sodium and potassium excretion. Notably, mean arterial pressure was reduced with nalfurafine/diuretic combination therapy compared to diuretics alone. Similarly, oral coadministration of nalfurafine significantly increased urine output to hydrochlorothiazide and decreased sodium and potassium excretion, whereas combination with furosemide only limited the amount of sodium excreted. Further, both intravenous and oral coadministration of nalfurafine enhanced the diuresis to amiloride and decreased sodium excretion. Together, these findings demonstrate that nalfurafine enhances the diuresis to standard-of-care diuretics without causing an excessive loss of electrolytes, offering a new approach to treat several cardiovascular conditions.

Lawrence Labrecque ◽  
Joel S. Burma ◽  
Marc-Antoine Roy ◽  
Jonathan David Smirl ◽  
Patrice Brassard

The cerebral pressure-flow relationship has directional sensitivity, meaning the augmentation in cerebral blood flow is attenuated when mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases vs MAP decreases. We employed repeated squat-stands (RSS) to quantify it using a novel metric. However, its within-day reproducibility and the impacts of diurnal variation and biological sex are unknown. Study aims were to evaluate this metric for: 1) within-day reproducibility and diurnal variation in middle (MCA; ∆MCAvT/∆MAPT) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA; ∆PCAvT/∆MAPT); 2) sex differences. ∆MCAvT/∆MAPT and ∆PCAvT/∆MAPT were calculated at seven time-points (08:00-17:00) in 18 participants (8 women; 24 ± 3 yrs) using the minimum-to-maximum MCAv or PCAv and MAP for each RSS at 0.05 Hz and 0.10 Hz. Relative metric values were also calculated (%MCAvT/%MAPT, %PCAvT/%MAPT). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) evaluated reproducibility, which was good (0.75-0.90) to excellent (>0.90). Time-of-day impacted ∆MCAvT/∆MAPT (0.05 Hz: p = 0.002; 0.10 Hz: p = 0.001), %MCAvT/%MAPT (0.05 Hz: p = 0.035; 0.10 Hz: p = 0.009), and ∆PCAvT/∆MAPT (0.05 Hz: p = 0.024), albeit with small/negligible effect sizes. MAP direction impacted both arteries' metric at 0.10 Hz (all p < 0.024). Sex differences in the MCA only (p = 0.003) vanished when reported in relative terms. These findings demonstrate this metric is reproducible throughout the day in the MCA and PCA and is not impacted by biological sex.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shuai Zhao ◽  
Linlin Han ◽  
Ruihui Zhou ◽  
Shiqian Huang ◽  
Yafeng Wang ◽  

Background: Volatile anesthetic-induced agitation, also called paradoxical excitation, is not uncommon during anesthesia induction. Clinically, patients with agitation may lead to self-injury or disrupt the operative position, increasing the incidence of perioperative adverse events. The study was designed to investigate clinical features of sevoflurane-induced agitation and examined whether any gene polymorphisms can potentially be used to predict agitation.Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients underwent anesthesia induction with sevoflurane were included in this study. Frontal electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and hemodynamics were recorded continuously during anesthesia induction. DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina Infinium Asian Screening Array and the SNaPshot technology. Genetic association was analyzed by genome-wide association study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of variables in the prediction of agitation.Results: Twenty-five (14.2%) patients experienced agitation. The depth of anesthesia index (Ai index) (p &lt; 0.001), EMG (p &lt; 0.001), heart rate (HR) (p &lt; 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (p &lt; 0.001) rapidly increased during the agitation. EEG exhibited a shift toward high frequencies with spikes during agitation. The fast waves (alpha and beta) were more pronounced and the slow rhythms (delta) were less prominent during the occurrence of agitation. Moreover, three SNPs in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene were correlated to the susceptibility to agitation (p &lt; 5.0 × 10−6). Carrying rs1801394 A &gt; G (odds ratio 3.50, 95% CI 1.43–9.45) and/or rs2307116 G &gt; A (3.31, 1.36–8.95) predicted a higher risk of agitation.Discussion: This study suggests that the agitation/paradoxical excitation induced by sevoflurane is characterized as increases in Ai index, EMG, HR and MAP, and the high frequency with spikes in EEG. Moreover, our results provide preliminary evidence for MTRR genetic polymorphisms, involving folate metabolism function, may be related to the susceptibility to agitation.Clinical Trial Number and Registry URL: ChiCTR1900026218;

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_S1) ◽  
pp. S175-S179
Kelley L Duggan ◽  
Timothy N Holt ◽  
Milton G Thomas ◽  
Scott E Speidel ◽  
Richard M Enns

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Eija K. Laakkonen ◽  
Jari E. Karppinen ◽  
Satu Lehti ◽  
Earric Lee ◽  
Emilia Pesonen ◽  

ObjectiveLoss of sex hormones has been suggested to underlie menopause-associated increment in cardiovascular risk. We investigated associations of sex hormones with arterial stiffness in 19–58-years-old women. We also studied associations of specific hormonal stages, including natural menstrual cycle, cycle with combined oral contraceptives (COC) and menopausal status with or without hormone therapy (HT), with arterial stiffness.MethodsThis study includes repeated measurements of 65 healthy women representing reproductive (n=16 natural, n=10 COC-users) and menopause (n=5 perimenopausal, n=26 postmenopausal, n=8 HT-users) stages. Arterial stiffness outcomes were aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) and augmentation index (AIx%) assessed using Arteriograph-device. Generalized estimating equation models were constructed to investigate associations of each hormone (wide age-range models) or hormonal stage (age-group focused models) with arterial stiffness. PWVao models with cross-sectional approach, were adjusted for age, relative fitness, fat mass and mean arterial pressure, while models with longitudinal approach were adjusted for mean arterial pressure. AIx% models used the same approach for adjustments and were also adjusted for heart rate.ResultsNegative and positive associations with arterial stiffness variables were observed for estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, respectively, until adjustment for confounding effect of age. In naturally menstruating women, AIx% was higher at ovulation (B=3.63, p&lt;0.001) compared to the early follicular phase. In COC-users, PWVao was lower during active (B=-0.33 - -0.57, p&lt;0.05) than inactive pills. In menopausal women, HT-users had higher PWVao (B=1.43, p=0.03) than postmenopausal non-HT-users.ConclusionsWhen using wide age-range assessments covering reproductive to menopausal lifespan it is difficult to differentiate age- and hormone-mediated associations, because age-mediated influence on arterial stiffness seemed to overrule potential hormone-mediated influences. However, hormonal status associated differentially with arterial stiffness in age-group focused analyses. Thus, the role of sex hormones cannot be excluded. Further research is warranted to resolve potential hormone-mediated mechanisms affecting arterial elasticity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_S1) ◽  
pp. S204-S208
Taylor R Zimprich ◽  
Scott E Speidel ◽  
David W Schafer ◽  
Beth A Lashell ◽  
Timothy N Holt ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (12) ◽  
Sidra Mushtaq ◽  
Naeem Hameed ◽  
Rabika Bint Khamis Butt ◽  
Shahid Abbas ◽  
Ali Sajjad

Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of mean arterial pressure in second trimester for prediction of pre-eclampsia in females. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Unit III, Allied hospital, Faisalabad. Period: October 2016 to September 2017. Material & Methods: Total 386 patients were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. Booked females of age 18-40 years, parity<5 presenting at gestational age >16 weeks (on LMP) for antenatal checkup were included in study. Patients with multiple gestation (on medical record and USG), Females with chronic hypertension (BP≥140/90mmHg), chronic or gestational diabetes (BSR>186mg/dl), Females having oligohydramnios (AFI<5cm) or polyhydramnios (AFI>21cm) on USG, females having abnormal placental implantation or placental abruption (on USG) were excluded. The mean age of the patients was 28.59±6.93 years. The MAP of the patients was 94.88±14.68 mmHg. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of MAP was 92.89%, 89.12% and 91.45% respectively taking preeclampsia as gold standard. Conclusion: The mean arterial pressure in second trimester is very effective and useful screening method for prediction of preeclampsia with high values of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Matthias Jacquet-Lagrèze ◽  
David Claveau ◽  
Julie Cousineau ◽  
Kun Peng Liu ◽  
Jean-Gilles Guimond ◽  

Abstract Background In patient requiring vasopressors, the radial artery pressure may underestimate the true central aortic pressure leading to unnecessary interventions. When using a femoral and a radial arterial line, this femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient (FR-APG) can be detected. Our main objective was to assess the accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measures; specifically, measuring the gradient between the NIBP obtained at the brachial artery and the radial artery pressure and calculating the non-invasive brachial-to-radial arterial pressure gradient (NIBR-APG) to detect an FR-APG. The secondary objective was to assess the prevalence of the FR-APG in a targeted sample of critically ill patients. Methods Adult patients in an intensive care unit requiring vasopressors and instrumented with a femoral and a radial artery line were selected. We recorded invasive radial and femoral arterial pressure, and brachial NIBP. Measurements were repeated each hour for 2 h. A significant FR-APG (our reference standard) was defined by either a mean arterial pressure (MAP) difference of more than 10 mmHg or a systolic arterial pressure (SAP) difference of more than 25 mmHg. The diagnostic accuracy of the NIBR-APG (our index test) to detect a significant FR-APG was estimated and the prevalence of an FR-APG was measured and correlated with the NIBR-APG. Results Eighty-one patients aged 68 [IQR 58–75] years and an SAPS2 score of 35 (SD 7) were included from which 228 measurements were obtained. A significant FR-APG occurred in 15 patients with a prevalence of 18.5% [95%CI 10.8–28.7%]. Diabetes was significantly associated with a significant FR-APG. The use of a 11 mmHg difference in MAP between the NIBP at the brachial artery and the MAP of the radial artery led to a specificity of 92% [67; 100], a sensitivity of 100% [95%CI 83; 100] and an AUC ROC of 0.93 [95%CI 0.81–0.99] to detect a significant FR-APG. SAP and MAP FR-APG correlated with SAP (r2 = 0.36; p < 0.001) and MAP (r2 = 0.34; p < 0.001) NIBR-APG. Conclusion NIBR-APG assessment can be used to detect a significant FR-APG which occur in one in every five critically ill patients requiring vasoactive agents.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002203452110493
Z. Qin ◽  
C. Zhou ◽  
Y. Zhu ◽  
Y. Wang ◽  
H. Cao ◽  

Tooth extraction is one of the most common causes of dental anxiety and pain, leading to the elevation of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Such effects may be exaggerated and cause life-threatening accidents in patients with hypertension. Therefore, the pain and anxiety management of these patients is imperative. Virtual reality (VR) has been demonstrated to be a distraction method to relieve anxiety and pain in clinical operations. Thus, we hypothesized that VR can control the elevation of BP and HR in patients with hypertension. In this study, 96 eligible patients with controlled hypertension who needed tooth extraction were randomized to the VR or standard care group by stratified randomization of anxiety grade and gender. Their BP and HR were dynamically monitored. The corresponding systolic and diastolic BP and HR values were selected when systolic BP was at the highest point of the process. BP was converted into mean arterial pressure (MAP) for comparison per the following formula: MAP = (systolic BP + 2 × diastolic BP)/3. Statistical analyses were by intention to treat and conducted in SPSS. Nonparametric rank sum tests were used to compare the difference of ΔMAP and ΔHR between the VR and standard care groups. Multivariate linear regression was applied to evaluate the effect of VR on ΔMAP and ΔHR. The results showed that the VR technique significantly decreased the elevation of MAP ( P < 0.001) and HR ( P < 0.001), and this effect was found even after adjusting for baseline characteristics and additional surgical procedures (ΔMAP, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.276; ΔHR, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.152). VR did not increase the incidence of adverse events ( P = 0.677). In conclusion, the VR technique was effective in controlling BP and HR within an acceptable range and can help manage BP and HR during tooth extraction for patients with hypertension (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2100042132).

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