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2022 ◽  
Fengping Liu ◽  
Jingjie Du ◽  
Qixiao Zhai ◽  
Jialin Hu ◽  
Aaron W. Miller ◽  

Background and aims: Emerging studies reveal a unique bacterial community in the human bladder, with alteration of composition associated to disease states. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that is characterized by frequent impairment of the kidney. Here, we explored the bladder microbiome, metabolome, and cytokine profiles in SLE patients, as well as correlations between microbiome and metabolome, cytokines, and disease profiles. Methods and materials: We recruited a cohort of 50 SLE patients and 50 individually matched asymptomatic controls. We used transurethral catheterization to collect urine samples, 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile bladder microbiomes, and LC-MS/MS to perform untargeted metabolomic profiling. Results: Compared to controls, SLE patients possessed a unique bladder microbial community and increased alpha diversity. These differences were accompanied by differences in urinary metabolomes, cytokines, and patients’ disease profiles. The SLE-enriched genera, including Bacteroides, were positively correlated with several SLE-enriched metabolites, including olopatadine. The SLE-depleted genera, such as Pseudomonas, were negatively correlated to SLE-depleted cytokines, including IL-8. Alteration of the bladder microbiome was associated with disease profile. For example, the genera Megamonas and Phocaeicola were negatively correlated with serum complement C3, and Streptococcus was positively correlated with IgG. Conclusions: Our present study reveals associations between the bladder microbiome and the urinary metabolome, cytokines, and disease phenotypes. Our results could help identify biomarkers for SLE.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 257
Khadidja Kessas ◽  
Zhor Chouari ◽  
Imen Ghzaiel ◽  
Amira Zarrouk ◽  
Mohamed Ksila ◽  

Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that participate in a wide range of metabolic processes, including energy production and biomolecule synthesis. The morphology and distribution of intracellular mitochondria change dynamically, reflecting a cell’s metabolic activity. Oxidative stress is defined as a mismatch between the body’s ability to neutralise and eliminate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). A determination of mitochondria failure in increasing oxidative stress, as well as its implications in neurodegenerative illnesses and apoptosis, is a significant developmental process of focus in this review. The neuroprotective effects of bioactive compounds linked to neuronal regulation, as well as related neuronal development abnormalities, will be investigated. In conclusion, the study of secondary components and the use of mitochondrial features in the analysis of various neurodevelopmental diseases has enabled the development of a new class of mitochondrial-targeted pharmaceuticals capable of alleviating neurodegenerative disease states and enabling longevity and healthy ageing for the vast majority of people.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 300
Chidambaram Ramanathan ◽  
Thomas Lackie ◽  
Drake H. Williams ◽  
Paul S. Simone ◽  
Yufeng Zhang ◽  

As a redox-sensitive coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis. Low NAD+ levels are linked to multiple disease states, including age-related diseases, such as metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, restoring/increasing NAD+ levels in vivo has emerged as an important intervention targeting age-related neurodegenerative diseases. One of the widely studied approaches to increase NAD+ levels in vivo is accomplished by using NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Oral administration of NMN has been shown to successfully increase NAD+ levels in a variety of tissues; however, it remains unclear whether NMN can cross the blood–brain barrier to increase brain NAD+ levels. This study evaluated the effects of oral NMN administration on NAD+ levels in C57/B6J mice brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that oral gavage of 400 mg/kg NMN successfully increases brain NAD+ levels in mice after 45 min. These findings provide evidence that NMN may be used as an intervention to increase NAD+ levels in the brain.

2022 ◽  
Meike E van der Heijden ◽  
Amanda M Brown ◽  
Roy V Sillitoe

In vivo single-unit recordings distinguish the basal spiking properties of neurons in different experimental settings and disease states. Here, we examined over 300 spike trains recorded from Purkinje cells and cerebellar nuclei neurons to test whether data sampling approaches influence the extraction of rich descriptors of firing properties. Our analyses included neurons recorded in awake and anesthetized control mice, as well as disease models of ataxia, dystonia, and tremor. We find that recording duration circumscribes overall representations of firing rate and pattern. Notably, shorter recording durations skew estimates for global firing rate variability towards lower values. We also find that only some populations of neurons in the same mouse are more similar to each other than to neurons recorded in different mice. These data reveal that recording duration and approach are primary considerations when interpreting task-independent single-neuron firing properties. If not accounted for, group differences may be concealed or exaggerated.

Lauren Eades ◽  
Michael Drozd ◽  
Richard M. Cubbon

Innate immune function is shaped by prior exposures in a phenomenon often referred to as ‘memory’ or ‘training’. Diverse stimuli, ranging from pathogen-associated molecules to atherogenic lipoproteins, induce long-lasting training, impacting on future responses, even to distinct stimuli. It is now recognised that epigenetic modifications in innate immune cells, and their progenitors, underpin these sustained behavioural changes, and that rewired cellular metabolism plays a key role in facilitating such epigenetic marks. Oxygen is central to cellular metabolism, and cells exposed to hypoxia undergo profound metabolic rewiring. A central effector of these responses are the hypoxia inducible factors (or HIFs), which drive transcriptional programmes aiming to adapt cellular homeostasis, such as by increasing glycolysis. These metabolic shifts indirectly promote post-translational modification of the DNA-binding histone proteins, and also of DNA itself, which are retained even after cellular oxygen tension and metabolism normalise, chronically altering DNA accessibility and utilisation. Notably, the activity of HIFs can be induced in some normoxic circumstances, indicating their broad importance to cell biology, irrespective of oxygen tension. Some HIFs are implicated in innate immune training and hypoxia is present in many disease states, yet many questions remain about the association between hypoxia and training, both in health and disease. Moreover, it is now appreciated that cellular responses to hypoxia are mediated by non-HIF pathways, suggesting that other mechanisms of training may be possible. This review sets out to define what is already known about the topic, address gaps in our knowledge, and provide recommendations for future research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Bronte Miller ◽  
Mary Kathryn Sewell-Loftin

The endothelial cells that compose the vascular system in the body display a wide range of mechanotransductive behaviors and responses to biomechanical stimuli, which act in concert to control overall blood vessel structure and function. Such mechanosensitive activities allow blood vessels to constrict, dilate, grow, or remodel as needed during development as well as normal physiological functions, and the same processes can be dysregulated in various disease states. Mechanotransduction represents cellular responses to mechanical forces, translating such factors into chemical or electrical signals which alter the activation of various cell signaling pathways. Understanding how biomechanical forces drive vascular growth in healthy and diseased tissues could create new therapeutic strategies that would either enhance or halt these processes to assist with treatments of different diseases. In the cardiovascular system, new blood vessel formation from preexisting vasculature, in a process known as angiogenesis, is driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) which promotes blood vessel development. However, physical forces such as shear stress, matrix stiffness, and interstitial flow are also major drivers and effectors of angiogenesis, and new research suggests that mechanical forces may regulate VEGFR-2 phosphorylation. In fact, VEGFR-2 activation has been linked to known mechanobiological agents including ERK/MAPK, c-Src, Rho/ROCK, and YAP/TAZ. In vascular disease states, endothelial cells can be subjected to altered mechanical stimuli which affect the pathways that control angiogenesis. Both normalizing and arresting angiogenesis associated with tumor growth have been strategies for anti-cancer treatments. In the field of regenerative medicine, harnessing biomechanical regulation of angiogenesis could enhance vascularization strategies for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia or permit development of novel tissue engineering scaffolds. This review will focus on the impact of VEGFR-2 mechanosignaling in endothelial cells (ECs) and its interaction with other mechanotransductive pathways, as well as presenting a discussion on the relationship between VEGFR-2 activation and biomechanical forces in the extracellular matrix (ECM) that can help treat diseases with dysfunctional vascular growth.

2022 ◽  
Meng Zhou ◽  
Minjeong Ko ◽  
Anna C Hoge ◽  
Kelsey Luu ◽  
Yuzhen Liu ◽  

The complex genomic landscape of prostate cancer evolves across disease states under therapeutic pressure directed toward inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) signaling. While significantly altered genes in prostate cancer have been extensively defined, there have been fewer systematic analyses of how structural variation reflects the genomic landscape of this disease. We comprehensively characterized structural alterations across 278 localized and 143 metastatic prostate cancers profiled by whole genome and transcriptome sequencing. We observed distinct significantly recurrent breakpoints in localized and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC), with pervasive alterations in noncoding regions flanking the AR, MYC, FOXA1, and LSAMP genes in mCRPC. We defined nine subclasses of mCRPC based on signatures of structural variation, each associated with distinct genetic features and clinical outcomes. Our results comprehensively define patterns of structural variation in prostate cancer and identify clinically actionable subgroups based on whole genome profiling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Joey H. Li ◽  
Timothy E. O’Sullivan

NK cells play a crucial role in host protection during tumorigenesis. Throughout tumor development, however, NK cells become progressively dysfunctional through a combination of dynamic tissue-specific and systemic factors. While a number of immunosuppressive mechanisms present within the tumor microenvironment have been characterized, few studies have contextualized the spatiotemporal dynamics of these mechanisms during disease progression and across anatomical sites. Understanding how NK cell immunosuppression evolves in these contexts will be necessary to optimize NK cell therapy for solid and metastatic cancers. Here, we outline the spatiotemporal determinants of antitumor NK cell regulation, including heterogeneous tumor architecture, temporal disease states, diverse cellular communities, as well as the complex changes in NK cell states produced by the sum of these higher-order elements. Understanding of the signals encountered by NK cells across time and space may reveal new therapeutic targets to harness the full potential of NK cell therapy for cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Hai-ni Wen ◽  
Chen-yu Wang ◽  
Jin-meng Li ◽  
Zheng Jiao

The cardiotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs presents as a challenge to both clinicians and patients. Significant advances in cancer treatments have improved patient survival rates, but have also led to the chronic effects of anti-cancer therapies becoming more prominent. Additionally, it is difficult to clinically predict the occurrence of cardiovascular toxicities given that they can be transient or irreversible, with large between-subject variabilities. Further, cardiotoxicities present a range of different symptoms and pathophysiological mechanisms. These notwithstanding, mechanistic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling offers an important approach to predict cardiotoxicities and offering precise cardio-oncological care. Efforts have been made to integrate the structures of physiological and pharmacological networks into PK-PD modeling to the end of predicting cardiotoxicities based on clinical evaluation as well as individual variabilities, such as protein expression, and physiological changes under different disease states. Thus, this review aims to report recent progress in the use of PK-PD modeling to predict cardiovascular toxicities, as well as its application in anti-cancer therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sarah Metcalfe ◽  
Natalie Anselmi ◽  
Alejandro Escobar ◽  
Michelle B. Visser ◽  
Jason G. Kay

The oral cavity is a complex environment constantly exposed to antigens from food and the oral microbiota. Innate immune cells play an essential role in maintaining health and homeostasis in the oral environment. However, these cells also play a significant role in disease progression. This review will focus on two innate phagocytes in the oral cavity: macrophages and neutrophils, and examine their roles during homeostasis and disease development, with a focus on periodontal disease and cancer. Macrophages have a well-known ability to polarize and be activated towards a variety of phenotypes. Several studies have found that macrophages’ polarization changes can play an essential role in maintaining health in the oral cavity and contribute to disease. Recent data also finds that neutrophils display phenotypic heterogeneity in the oral cavity. In both cases, we focus on what is known about how these cellular changes alter these immune cells’ interactions with the oral microbiota, including how such changes can lead to worsening, rather than improving, disease states.

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