cardiovascular diseases
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ESMO Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 100363
Author(s):  
S.F. Lee ◽  
B.A. Vellayappan ◽  
L.C. Wong ◽  
C.L. Chiang ◽  
S.K. Chan ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 85-96
Author(s):  
Aikaterini Andreadi ◽  
Alfonso Bellia ◽  
Nicola Di Daniele ◽  
Marco Meloni ◽  
Renato Lauro ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 427-431
Author(s):  
Wenju Yan ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Gaiqin Li ◽  
Luhua Yin ◽  
Huanyi Zhang ◽  
...  

Cardiovascular diseases, including congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases, impose a severe burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Although bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) therapy can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the heart disease, relatively low abundance, difficult accessibility, and small tissue volume hinder the clinical usefulness. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) show similar potential with BMSCs to differentiate into lineages and tissues, such as smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and adipocytes, with attractiveness of obtaining adipose tissue easily and repeatedly, and a simple separation procedure. We briefly summarize the current understanding of the cardiomyocytes differentiated from ADSCs


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 952
Author(s):  
Siarhei A. Dabravolski ◽  
Victoria A. Khotina ◽  
Vasily N. Sukhorukov ◽  
Vladislav A. Kalmykov ◽  
Liudmila M. Mikhaleva ◽  
...  

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) mutations are known to participate in the development and progression of some CVD. Moreover, specific types of mitochondria-mediated CVD have been discovered, such as MIEH (maternally inherited essential hypertension) and maternally inherited CHD (coronary heart disease). Maternally inherited mitochondrial CVD is caused by certain mutations in the mtDNA, which encode structural mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial tRNA. In this review, we focus on recently identified mtDNA mutations associated with CVD (coronary artery disease and hypertension). Additionally, new data suggest the role of mtDNA mutations in Brugada syndrome and ischemic stroke, which before were considered only as a result of mutations in nuclear genes. Moreover, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA involvement in the development of the disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 931
Author(s):  
Siarhei A. Dabravolski ◽  
Victoria A. Khotina ◽  
Andrey V. Omelchenko ◽  
Vladislav A. Kalmykov ◽  
Alexander N. Orekhov

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, the crucial regulator of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, lipid metabolism and inflammation, is involved in the development of atherosclerosis and further CVDs (cardiovascular diseases). This review discusses the general regulation and functions of VEGFs, their role in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis development and progression. These functions present the great potential of applying the VEGF family as a target in the treatment of atherosclerosis and related CVDs. In addition, we discuss several modern anti-atherosclerosis VEGFs-targeted experimental procedures, drugs and natural compounds, which could significantly improve the efficiency of atherosclerosis and related CVDs’ treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 912
Author(s):  
Javier Saenz-Medina ◽  
Mercedes Muñoz ◽  
Claudia Rodriguez ◽  
Ana Sanchez ◽  
Cristina Contreras ◽  
...  

An epidemiological relationship between urolithiasis and cardiovascular diseases has extensively been reported. Endothelial dysfunction is an early pathogenic event in cardiovascular diseases and has been associated with oxidative stress and low chronic inflammation in hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke or the vascular complications of diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study is to summarize the current knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms of urolithiasis in relation to the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidities. Methods: A non-systematic review has been performed mixing the terms “urolithiasis”, “kidney stone” or “nephrolithiasis” with “cardiovascular disease”, “myocardial infarction”, “stroke”, or “endothelial dysfunction”. Results: Patients with nephrolithiasis develop a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease with a relative risk estimated between 1.20 and 1.24 and also develop a higher vascular disease risk scores. Analyses of subgroups have rendered inconclusive results regarding gender or age. Endothelial dysfunction has also been strongly associated with urolithiasis in clinical studies, although no systemic serum markers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation or oxidative stress could be clearly related. Analysis of urine composition of lithiasic patients also detected a higher expression of proteins related to cardiovascular disease. Experimental models of hyperoxaluria have also found elevation of serum endothelial dysfunction markers. Conclusions: Endothelial dysfunction has been strongly associated with urolithiasis and based on the experimental evidence, should be considered as an intermediate and changeable feature between urolithiasis and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress, a key pathogenic factor in the development of endothelial dysfunction has been also pointed out as an important factor of lithogenesis. Special attention must be paid to cardiovascular morbidities associated with urolithiasis in order to take advantage of pleiotropic effects of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers and allopurinol.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ahmed Obaid Almashaykhi ◽  
Dr. Randa Consultant M. Nooh ◽  
Dr. Sami Said Almudarra ◽  
Abdulaziz Saad ALMutari ◽  
Naif Saud ALBudayri ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND Annually, in the month of Dhul hijjah, over 2 million Muslims travel to Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj. Hajj is the biggest mass gathering globally, which creates a significant influence on Hajjes' health. The Omani medical mission is the official delegation from the Omani government to Saudi Arabia to serve the Omani hajjees regarding their health issues. OBJECTIVE This study investigates the referral rate and pattern of diseases among hajjees referred by the Omani medical mission during Hajj 1440 H. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Omani Medical missions in Makkah, Madinah, Mina, and Arafat. Data was collected via a predesigned form. All Omani pilgrims presenting to the mission who were referred to local hospitals were included. RESULTS The total number of cases was 5000, of which 106 (2.1%) were referred to local hospitals (21.2 per 1000 hajjees). The most common causes of referral were cardiovascular diseases (23.6%), followed by gastrointestinal disease (17.9%) and trauma (16.9%). Males comprised 60.1%. Their mean age was 47.3 years (SD ±11.27), with the highest referrals in the 51-60 years age group (30%). Over half (55.7%) had co-morbidities. Patients' mean time to reach the clinic was 8.87 min (SD ±6.41), with 65% arriving in 5 min or less. The mean time needed to reach the hospital by ambulance was 11.39 min (SD ±6.6), with 36% arriving within 5 min. Of the referrals, 42% were admitted into hospital. Hospitalization was significantly higher among patients with chest pain (P-value < 0.0057), diabetics (P-value < 0.0001), and patients with Heart Disease (P-value = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS The most common causes for referral of Hajjees from the Omani Medical Mission were cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disease, and trauma. This information should assist the Omani government in planning their medical services in hajj season in future years.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 336
Author(s):  
Katarzyna Najman ◽  
Anna Sadowska ◽  
Krzysztof Buczak ◽  
Hanna Leontowicz ◽  
Maria Leontowicz

Dietary supplementation with raw garlic has a preventive and healing effect in cardiovascular diseases, but it could also damage the intestinal mucosa, resulting in impairment of nutrient absorption. Garlic processing, including heat treatment, changes the content and biological activity of garlic, so it is crucial to find food-processing methods that will preserve the health-promoting properties of garlic while minimizing its negative impact on the digestive system. Therefore, in this study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth parameters, plasma lipid profile, and morphological parameters in the ileum of Wistar rats subjected to various types of heat treatment (90 s blanching garlic, 10 min boiling in water, 10 min pan frying without fat, microwave heating fresh garlic, 90 s blanching and microwave heating garlic, 10 min boiling in water and microwave heating garlic, and 10 min pan frying without fat and microwave heating garlic) was determined in an atherogenic diet (containing 1% addition of cholesterol). In the conducted research, it was found that the diet supplemented with heat-treated garlic used in the atherogenic diet improved the consumption and growth parameters of rats, depending on the type and time of its use. The highest consumption was recorded in atherogenic groups supplemented with garlic subjected to a longer (10 min) heat treatment and was then heated in a microwave oven. Garlic subjected to the shortest heat treatment proved to be most effective, and a significant improvement in the lipid profiles of rats’ plasma with atherogenic was observed. Extending the time of heat treatment of garlic and, additionally, its microwaving significantly weakened the action of garlic in the body, but still retained its hypolipidemic effect. The greatest influence on the structural changes in the mucosa of the rats’ iliac intestine, manifested by degeneration of the mucosa, shortening the length of the intestinal villi, damage to the brush border, and thus impairment of the intestinal absorption, was exerted by supplementing the atherogenic diet with garlic subjected to short-term heat treatment. Among the processes used, blanching was the least favorable, and the long-lasting thermal processes (cooking, frying for 10 min) had a positive effect on the mucosa of the rats’ intestines. The results obtained in this study confirm that the selection of an appropriate method of thermal processing of garlic may allow for the maintenance of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular diseases, while ensuring the safety of its long-term use in the context of degenerative changes in the gastrointestinal tract.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ekaterina Kushnareva ◽  
Vladimir Kushnarev ◽  
Anna Artemyeva ◽  
Lubov Mitrofanova ◽  
Olga Moiseeva

Objective: Immune checkpoints inhibitors are promising and wide-spread agents in anti-cancer therapy. However, despite their efficacy, these agents could cause cardiotoxicity, a rare but life-threatening event. In addition, there are still no well-described predictive factors for the development of immune-related adverse events and information on high risk groups. According to known experimental studies we hypothesized that cardiovascular diseases may increase myocardial PD-L1 expression, which could be an extra target for Checkpoint inhibitors and a potential basis for complications development.Methods: We studied patterns of myocardial PD-L1 expression in non-cancer-related cardiovascular diseases, particularly ischemic heart disease (n = 12) and dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 7), compared to patients without known cardiovascular diseases (n = 10) using mouse monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody (clone 22C3, 1:50, Dako). Correlation between immunohistochemical data and echocardiographic parameters was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using R Statistical Software—R studio version 1.3.1093.Results: In the myocardium of cardiac patients, we found membranous, cytoplasmic, and endothelial expression of PD-L1 compared to control group. In samples from patients with a history of myocardial infarction, PD-L1 membrane and endothelial expression was more prominent and frequent, and cytoplasmic and intercalated discs staining was more localized. In contrast, samples from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy displayed very faint endothelial staining, negative membrane staining, and more diffuse PD-L1 expression in the cytoplasm and intercalated discs. In samples from the non-cardiac patients, no convincing PD-L1 expression was observed. Moreover, we discovered a significant negative correlation between PD-L1 expression level and left ventricular ejection fraction and a positive correlation between PD-L1 expression level and left ventricular end-diastolic volume.Conclusions: The present findings lay the groundwork for future experimental and clinical studies of the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in cardiovascular diseases. Further studies are required to find patients at potentially high risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors therapy.


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