Cardiovascular Diseases
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2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. 100887
Author(s):  
Christina Ip ◽  
King Sum Luk ◽  
Vincent Lok Cheung Yuen ◽  
Lorraine Chiang ◽  
Ching Ki Chan ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 327-335
Author(s):  
A. A. Evteeva ◽  
M. S. Sheremeta ◽  
E. A. Pigarova

Some environmental chemicals capable of interfering with the endocrine regulation of energy metabolism and the structure of adipose tissue in the function of the reproductive, immune, cardiovascular and other systems are called endocrine disruptors or disruptors. According to the WHO definition, the term «endocrine disruptors» means: «Exogenous substances or mixtures thereof that alter the function (s) of the endocrine system and, as a result, cause adverse effects in the intact organism or in its offspring, or (sub) population.» This includes compounds to which humanity is exposed in daily life as a result of their use in pesticides, herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents, refractory impregnations and as ingredients in personal care products. This review will present the latest scientific data on various ERs, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs): pesticides (mirex, chlordecane, endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene-HCB dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-DDT and its metabolites), industrial chemicals (bisphenol A, polybrominated ether -PBDE, polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB, nonylphenol, dioxins, perfluorooctanoic acid-PFOA, phthalates), pharmaceuticals (diethylstilbestrol-DES). ERs are regarded as compounds that cause obesity, since they have the ability to influence cellular processes associated with adipose tissue, initiating changes in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Analysis of scientific materials on this issue indicates that ERs are ubiquitous in the environment and have a detrimental effect on the health of animals and mankind. The scientific and practical interest in this article is based on the growing statistics of the development of such socially significant pathologies as obesity and related diseases, including diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, menstrual irregularities, as well as cancer and infertility, for of which obesity is a risk factor.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 126-139
Author(s):  
Brunda M ◽  
Spandana Peddareddy ◽  
Arushi Moha ◽  
Mahesh DM ◽  
Samriddha Thapa ◽  
...  

Background: The pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent data showed that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most prevalent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, data indicate that hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are important risk factors for progression and unfavourable outcome in COVID-19 patients. Poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with severe progression of disease. Hence, large studies with comprehensive analysis of all risk factors and longer follow-up are necessary. Methods and analysis: A single-centre retrospective cross-sectional study of 300 patients that were SARS-CoV-2 positive from May to October 2020 was done. Data was entered into Microsoft excel data sheet and was analysed using SPSS 22 version software. Chi-square test or Fischer’s exact test (for 2x2 tables only) was used as test of significance for qualitative data. Independent t test was used as test of significance to identify the mean difference between two quantitative variables. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used as test of significance to identify the mean difference between more than two quantitative variables. P value (Probability that the result is true) of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant after assuming all the rules of statistical tests. Data collected was analyzed in a group of patients who were sub divided into 2 groups diabetics and Non diabetics. The parameters studied included laboratory markers: D dimer, CRP, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Ferritin levels. To assess the glycemic control HbA1C levels were assessed. The outcome parameters considered were Oxygen requirement, assessing the requirement of intensive care and duration of stay in the hospital Conclusion: The patients with higher HbA1c values were found to have higher CRP and D-dimer values and required ICU shift and prolonged hospital stay. Hence, good control of diabetes will reduce the worsening of disease. In a country like India, where most of the population do not have health insurance cover proper control of diabetes, can reduce the burden on family. Hence, large studies with comprehensive analysis of all risk factors and longer follow-up are necessary.


Author(s):  
Stefan Lukac ◽  
Sebastian Mayer ◽  
Kathrin Mühlen ◽  
Felix Flock

Abstract Aim According to the World Health Organization, approximately 810 pregnant women die every day as a consequence of peripartum complications. A large proportion of deaths happen in developing countries. Peripartum cardiac arrest is a rare event that must be treated immediately. It is important to consider the differential diagnoses in order to save lives. Methods In this review, we discuss a differential diagnosis of cardiac arrest according to the BEAU-CHOPS scheme of the American Heart Association in the relation to the case report of our 40-year-old G5/P3 patient who went into cardiac arrest during cesarean delivery. Results Typical differentials for cardiac arrest during labor are bleeding, embolism, anesthetic complications, cardiovascular diseases, eclampsia, and sepsis. All of them were considered and ruled out in this patient. In the end, we suspect that physiological cardio-inhibitory reflexes triggered by sudden profound hypovolemia after placental separation along with the patientʼs risk factors, especially obesity and maternal age, and the administration of spinal anesthesia all potentially contributed to the cardiac arrest. Conclusions This review highlights that the cardiac arrest during labor can be triggered by the multifactorial etiology, but firstly the typical differential diagnosis needs to be excluded.


Author(s):  
Ming Ye ◽  
Jennifer Vena ◽  
Jeffrey Johnson ◽  
Grace Shen-Tu ◽  
Dean Eurich

IntroductionAlberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP) is the largest population-based prospective cohort study of cancer and chronic diseases in Alberta, Canada. The ATP cohort data were primarily self-reported by participants on lifestyle behaviors and disease risk factors at the enrollment, which lacks sufficient and accurate data on chronic disease diagnosis for longer-term follow-up. ObjectivesTo characterize the occurrence rate and trend of chronic diseases in the ATP cohort by linking with administrative healthcare data. MethodsA set of validated algorithms using ICD codes were applied to Alberta Health (AH) administrative data (October 2000-March 2018) linked to the ATP cohort to determine the prevalence and incidence of common chronic diseases. ResultsThere were 52,770 ATP participants (51.2± 9.4 years old at enrollment and 63.7% females) linked to the AH data with average follow-up of 10.1± 4.4 years. In the ATP cohort, hypertension (18.5%), depression (18.1%), chronic pain (12.8%), osteoarthritis (10.1%) and cardiovascular diseases (8.7%) were the most prevalent chronic conditions. The incidence rates varied across diseases, with the highest rates for hypertension (22.1 per 1000 person-year), osteoarthritis (16.2 per 1000 person-year) and ischemic heart diseases (13.0 per 1000 person-year). All chronic conditions had increased prevalence over time (p <0.001 for trend tests), while incidence rates were relatively stable. The proportion of participants with two or more of these conditions (multi-morbidity) increased from 3.9% in 2001 to 40.3% in 2017. ConclusionsThis study shows an increasing trend of chronic diseases in the ATP cohort, particularly related to cardiovascular diseases and multi-morbidity. Using administrative health data to monitor chronic diseases for large population-based prospective cohort studies is feasible in Alberta, and our approach could be further applied in a broader research area, including health services research, to enhance research capacity of these population-based studies in Canada.


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