transforming growth factor beta
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 405-410
Lian Tan ◽  
Xiongxiong Wang ◽  
Danqi Chen ◽  
Li Xu ◽  
Yudong Xu ◽  

Our study investigates whether miR-265 regulates the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) through TGF-β1 and promotes lung injury repair in rats with sepsis, thereby inhibiting sepsis progression. 25 patients with sepsis admitted to the Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Department of the hospital and 17 normal controls were included. TGF-β1 level was measured by ELISA. miR-265 level was measured by qRT-PCR and AT II-related genes and proteins expression was analyzed by western blot and qRT-PCR. miR-265 expression was significantly higher in sepsis patients than normal group. Progenitor BMSCs were long and shuttle-shaped after 1 and 3 days of growth. Cultured MSCs had low expression of the negative antigen CD34 (4.32%) and high expression of the positive antigen CD44 (99.87%). TGF-β1 level was significantly increased with longer induction time, while miR-265 expression was significantly decreased in cell culture medium. miR-265 interference significantly decreased TGF-β1 expression. In conclusion, miR-265 inhibits BMSC differentiation to AT II via regulation of TGF-β1, thereby inhibiting sepsis progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jaeyeon Wee ◽  
Hyang Kim ◽  
Sang-Jin Shin ◽  
Taeyong Lee ◽  
Seung Yeol Lee

Abstract Background Organogenesis from tonsil-derived mesenchymal cells (TMSCs) has been reported, wherein tenogenic markers are expressed depending on the chemical stimulation during tenogenesis. However, there are insufficient studies on the mechanical strain stimulation for tenogenic cell differentiation of TMSCs, although these cells possess advantages as a cell source for generating tendinous tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain and transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) on the tenogenic differentiation of TMSCs and evaluate the expression of tendon-related genes and extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as collagen. Results mRNA expression of tenogenic genes was significantly higher when the mechanical strain was applied than under static conditions. Moreover, mRNA expression of tenogenic genes was significantly higher with TGF-β3 treatment than without. mRNA expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic genes was not significantly different among different mechanical strain intensities. In cells without TGF-β3 treatment, double-stranded DNA concentration decreased, while the amount of normalized collagen increased as the intensity of mechanical strain increased. Conclusions Mechanical strain and TGF-β3 have significant effects on TMSC differentiation into tenocytes. Mechanical strain stimulates the differentiation of TMSCs, particularly into tenocytes, and cell differentiation, rather than proliferation. However, a combination of these two did not have a synergistic effect on differentiation. In other words, mechanical loading did not stimulate the differentiation of TMSCs with TGF-β3 supplementation. The effect of mechanical loading with TGF-β3 treatment on TMSC differentiation can be manipulated according to the differentiation stage of TMSCs. Moreover, TMSCs have the potential to be used for cell banking, and compared to other mesenchymal stem cells, they can be procured from patients via less invasive procedures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 924
Julia Hauptstein ◽  
Leonard Forster ◽  
Ali Nadernezhad ◽  
Jürgen Groll ◽  
Jörg Teßmar ◽  

In 3D bioprinting for cartilage regeneration, bioinks that support chondrogenic development are of key importance. Growth factors covalently bound in non-printable hydrogels have been shown to effectively promote chondrogenesis. However, studies that investigate the functionality of tethered growth factors within 3D printable bioinks are still lacking. Therefore, in this study, we established a dual-stage crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based bioink that enabled covalent tethering of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF‑β1). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were cultured over three weeks in vitro, and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs within bioink constructs with tethered TGF‑β1 was markedly enhanced, as compared to constructs with non-covalently incorporated TGF‑β1. This was substantiated with regard to early TGF‑β1 signaling, chondrogenic gene expression, qualitative and quantitative ECM deposition and distribution, and resulting construct stiffness. Furthermore, it was successfully demonstrated, in a comparative analysis of cast and printed bioinks, that covalently tethered TGF‑β1 maintained its functionality after 3D printing. Taken together, the presented ink composition enabled the generation of high-quality cartilaginous tissues without the need for continuous exogenous growth factor supply and, thus, bears great potential for future investigation towards cartilage regeneration. Furthermore, growth factor tethering within bioinks, potentially leading to superior tissue development, may also be explored for other biofabrication applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 275-280
Lei Ji ◽  
Xue Zhong ◽  
Xingxing Xia ◽  
Wei Yu ◽  
Yuping Qin

Purpose: To investigate the protective role of syringaresinol in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally into rats to establish the diabetic model. Streptozotocin-induced rats were orally administered syringaresinol, and pathological changes in kidneys were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine kidney injury indicators, 24-h urine proteins, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCR). Blood glucose was measured using a blood glucose meter, while levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in kidney were also measured using ELISA. Results: Pathological changes in the kidneys were observed in rats post-streptozotocin treatment. Administration of syringaresinol reduced the lesion degree, with improved pathological morphology in kidney. Syringaresinol administration significantly attenuated streptozotocin-increased levels of BUN, SCR, 24-h urine protein, and blood glucose (p < 0.01). Streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress, shown by enhanced MDA level and reduced levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, was reversed in rat kidneys following syringaresinol administration. However, the expression levels of nuclear factor erythropoietin- 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) proteins decreased, while transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and signal transducer and transcriptional modulator (Smad) 2/3/7 proteins increased in rats post-streptozotocin treatment. Syringaresinol administration reversed the effects of streptozotocin on protein expression of Nrf2, HO-1, TGF-β1, and Smad 2/3/7. Conclusion: Syringaresinol exerted a protective effect against DN through activation of Nrf2 and inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad pathways. Thus, the compound can potentially be developed for management of diabetic nephropathy.

2022 ◽  
Ana N Strat ◽  
Alexander Kirschner ◽  
Hannah Yoo ◽  
Ayushi Singh ◽  
Tyler Bague ◽  

In glaucoma, astrocytes within the optic nerve head (ONH) rearrange their actin cytoskeleton, while becoming reactive and upregulating intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Increased transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels have been implicated in glaucomatous ONH dysfunction. A key limitation of using conventional 2D culture to study ONH astrocyte behavior is the inability to faithfully replicate the in vivo ONH microenvironment. Here, we engineer a 3D ONH astrocyte hydrogel to better mimic in vivo mouse ONH astrocyte (MONHA) morphology, and test induction of MONHA reactivity using TGFβ2. Primary MONHAs were isolated from C57BL/6J mice and cell purity confirmed. To engineer 3D cell-laden hydrogels, MONHAs were mixed with photoactive extracellular matrix components (collagen type I, hyaluronic acid) and crosslinked for 5 minutes using a photoinitiator (0.025% riboflavin) and UV light (405-500 nm, 10.3 mW/cm2). MONHA-encapsulated hydrogels were cultured for 3 weeks, and then treated with TGFβ2 (2.5, 5.0 or 10 ng/ml) for 7 days to assess for reactivity. Following encapsulation, MONHA retained high cell viability in hydrogels and continued to proliferate over 4 weeks as determined by live/dead staining and MTS assays. Sholl analysis demonstrated that MONHAs within hydrogels developed increasing process complexity with longer process length over time. Cell processes connected with neighboring cells, coinciding with Connexin43 expression within astrocytic processes. Treatment with TGFβ2 induced reactivity in MONHA-encapsulated hydrogels as determined by altered F-actin cytoskeletal morphology, increased GFAP expression, and elevated fibronectin and collagen IV deposition. Our data sets the stage for future use of this 3D biomimetic ONHA-encapsulated hydrogel to investigate ONHA behavior in response to glaucomatous insult.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262046
Allison A. Fuchs ◽  
Praveen K. Balne ◽  
Elizabeth A. Giuliano ◽  
Nishant R. Sinha ◽  
Rajiv R. Mohan

Corneal injury and aberrant wound healing commonly result in corneal fibrosis and subsequent vision loss. Intermediate-conductance calmodulin/calcium-activated K+ channels (KCa3.1) have been shown to promote fibrosis in non-ocular and ocular tissues via upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). TRAM-34 is a selective inhibitor of KCa3.1 and reduces fibrosis by downregulation of TGFβ-induced transdifferentiation of stromal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Ascorbic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in promoting corneal re-epithelialization and reduction of neovascularization via anti-VEGF and anti-MMP mechanisms. This study evaluates tolerability and efficacy of a novel combination of TRAM-34 (25μM) and ascorbic acid (10%) topical treatment for corneal fibrosis using an established in vivo rabbit model and conducting clinical eye examinations. Markers of corneal fibrosis were evaluated in all corneas at study endpoint via histopathology, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR. The eyedrop treated eyes showed significantly improved clinical outcomes based on modified McDonald Shadduck scores, reduction of clinical haze on Fantes scores, and reduction of central corneal thickness (CCT). At cellular and molecular levels, eyedrop treatment also significantly reduced expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA and protein, collagen III mRNA, and fibronectin mRNA compared to non-treated eyes. Our study suggests that a tested new bimodal eyedrop is well tolerated and effectively reduces corneal fibrosis/haze in rabbits in vivo.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Jegarubee Bavananthasivam ◽  
Nadiyah Alqazlan ◽  
Mohammadali Alizadeh ◽  
Ayumi Matsuyama-Kato ◽  
Jake Astill ◽  

Vaccines against Marek’s disease can protect chickens against clinical disease; however, infected chickens continue to propagate the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) in feather follicles and can shed the virus into the environment. Therefore, the present study investigated if MDV could induce an immunoregulatory microenvironment in feathers of chickens and whether vaccines can overcome the immune evasive mechanisms of MDV. The results showed an abundance of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+ transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)+ T regulatory cells in the feathers of MDV-infected chickens at 21 days post-infection. In contrast, vaccinated chickens had a lower number of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, the expression of TGF-β and programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 increased considerably in the feathers of Marek’s disease virus-infected chickens. The results of the present study raise the possibility of an immunoregulatory environment in the feather pulp of MDV-infected chickens, which may in turn favor replication of infectious MDV in this tissue. Exploring the evasive strategies employed by MDV will facilitate the development of control measures to prevent viral replication and transmission.

2022 ◽  
Farida Ahangari ◽  
Christine Becker ◽  
Daniel G Foster ◽  
Maurizio Chioccioli ◽  
Meghan Nelson ◽  

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and often fatal disorder. Two FDA approved anti-fibrotic drugs, nintedanib and pirfenidone, slow the rate of decline in lung function, but responses are variable and side effects are common. Using an in-silico data-driven approach, we identified a robust connection between the transcriptomic perturbations in IPF disease and those induced by saracatinib, a selective Src kinase inhibitor, originally developed for oncological indications. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that saracatinib would be effective at attenuating pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the anti-fibrotic efficacy of saracatinib relative to nintedanib and pirfenidone in three preclinical models: (i) in vitro in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs); (ii) in vivo in bleomycin and recombinant adenovirus transforming growth factor-beta (Ad-TGF-β) murine models of pulmonary fibrosis; and (iii) ex vivo in precision cut lung slices from these mouse models. In each model, the effectiveness of saracatinib in blocking fibrogenic responses was equal or superior to nintedanib and pirfenidone.

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