Tropical Forages
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10312
Sandra Guisela Durango Morales ◽  
Rolando Barahona Rosales ◽  
Diana María Bolívar Vergara ◽  
Ngonidzashe Chirinda ◽  
Jacobo Arango

The effect of the inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala and Tithonia diversifolia in Zebu steers receiving a diet based on improved pastures such as Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria hybrid cv Cayman on nitrogen (N) excretion, urinary volume and rumen microbial population was evaluated. To determine the dry matter intake and nutrient excretion, eight steers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design consisting of four periods and four diets. Four of them were cannulated for ruminal fluid extraction and quantification of ruminal microorganisms in three times of grazing (T0, T7 and T15). Forage intake was calculated through the external marker titanium dioxide. Diet including forages with superior protein content generated an increase in the gene copy numbers of Prevotella ruminicola and total bacteria on 15 sampling day (p < 0.001). Animals receiving diets with the dietary inclusion of Leucaena and Tithonia had daily N intakes of 228 and 113.5g N intake d−1, of which they excreted 42% and 61%, respectively. Inclusion of both protein forages increased daily urinary volume (9% and 7% d−1), with respect to the pasture-based diet. This study revealed that the inclusion of 18% Leucaena in a pasture-based diet improves the dry matter intake and N retention in Zebu steers under tropical conditions.

2021 ◽  
Juan Ricardo Rocha ◽  
Renato Mello Prado ◽  
Marisa Cássia Piccolo

Abstract Climate change increases the occurrence of droughts, decreasing the production of tropical forages through the induction of physiological stress. Si is expected to broaden the limit from physiological stress of forages grown under water restriction, which may come from an improvement in the stoichiometric homeostasis of Si with N and C, favoring physiological aspects. This study assessed whether Si supply via fertigation improves physiological aspects and the water content in the plant by means of an antioxidant defense system and changes in the C:N:Si stoichiometry during the regrowth of two cultivars of Panicum maximum grown under two soil water regimes (70 and 40% of the soil’s water retention capacity). The forages studied are sensitive to water deficit without silicon supply. The application of Si via fertigation attenuated the water deficit, favoring plant growth by stabilizing the stoichiometric homeostasis C:N and C:Si, which are responsible for increasing the plant capacity of converting accumulated C in dry mass, favoring the water content of the plant tissue and the photosynthetic efficiency. This study highlights the importance of the physiological function of Si, and effects on the stoichiometry of C and N, which are neglected in most research on forages grown under water restriction.

2021 ◽  
pp. 104532
Claudia Horne da Cruz ◽  
Stefanie Alvarenga Santos ◽  
Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho ◽  
José Augusto Gomes Azevedo ◽  
Edenio Detmann ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1923-1940
Nariane Coelho de Oliveira ◽  
Kátia Aparecida de Pinho Costa ◽  
Laíne Gonçalves Rodrigues ◽  
Ana Carolina Gomes Silva ◽  

Ensiling sorghum with tropical forages has been shown to be a promising alternative for ruminant feed production, as this approach improves the quality of the sorghum silage. In this context, the goal of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of sweet sorghum silage made with different levels of Paiaguas palisadegrass and Ipypora grass. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized 2 x 6 factorial design with four replications. Two forages (Paiaguas palisadegrass and Ipypora grass) were added to sorghum at six levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%), for a total of 48 experimental silos. After 50 days of fermentation, the silos were opened, and the fermentation profile and chemical composition of the silage were analysed. The results showed that the addition of Paiaguas palisadegrass and Ipypora grass to the sorghum silage increased the pH, buffering capacity and NH3-NT of the silage and reduced its dry matter content but did not affect its fermentation characteristics, which remained within an appropriate range. The addition of increasing levels of Paiaguas palisadegrass and Ipypora grass to the sorghum silage increased the crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the silage and decreased the fibre fraction (neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and lignin) and ether extract contents. Adding tropical forages to sorghum silage material at levels above 40% is recommended. Among forage crops, addition of Paiaguas palisadegrass to sorghum silage resulted in higher content of crude protein and IVDMD. Mixed silages can be an effective alternative to improve the quality of forage sorghum silage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 53 (2) ◽  
Tiago Santos Silva ◽  
Gherman Garcia Leal de Araujo ◽  
Edson Mauro Santos ◽  
Juliana Silva de Oliveira ◽  
Fleming Sena Campos ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (2) ◽  
pp. 139-147
R. Y. Aderinboye

Rumen degradation characteristics of Panicum maximum and Gmelina arborea forages in response to monensin supplementation were studied in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment using an Ndama fistulated steer. Monensin had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the soluble fraction 'a' of nutrients but showed reductions (P<0.05) in the degradable fractions b' of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre at 30 and 45 mg/kg DM supplementation levels relative to the control. These reductions were within the range of 45.76 - 49.52, 37.88 - 43.57, 44.60 - 45.31 and 45.18 - 46.85% for DM, CP, NDF and ADF, respectively. The potenti al degradation 'p' of DM, NDF, and ADF reduced (P<0.05) at 30 and 45 mg/kg DM while p' for CP reduced at 45 mg/kg DM. Forage type had significant effect (P<0.05) on nutrient degradation with Panicum maximum having lower nutrient degradation characteristics values than those of Gmelina arborea. While monens resulted in reduced nutrient degradation from Panicum maximum at 30 and 45 mg/kg DM, reduction in nutrients degradation from Gmelina arborea was observed only at 45 mg/kg DM. Comparatively, at similar levels of 15, 30 and 45 mg of monensin/kg DM, Panicum maximum had lower (P<0.05) degradation values to those observed for Gmelina arborea. The reduction effect of monensin on nutrient degradation from both forages suggests an inhibition of microbial digestion. This could increase rumen fill, reduce ruminal outflow rate and possibly increase the proportion of un-degradable proteins leaving the rumen for the lower tract. The particular level of monensin supplementation at which such reductions would occur depends on forage type  Keywords: , , .

2021 ◽  
Vol 93 (3) ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 51-68
Rainer Schultze-Kraft ◽  
Michael Peters ◽  
Peter Wenzl

A report on the tropical forage germplasm collection conserved in the CIAT genebank is presented. Emphasis is firstly on the assembling of the collection during 1972‒1993 through about 70 major and minor collecting missions in tropical America, Africa and Southeast Asia. Along with introductions from existing collections, currently some 1,600 accessions of 134 grass species and 21,000 accessions of 637 legume species are being maintained. Secondly, information on the utilization of the collection, with emphasis on cultivar development based on selection of accessions from the CIAT collection, is presented. Worldwide, a total of 44 grass and 34 legume cultivars derived from germplasm maintained at CIAT are reported. Information on germplasm distribution and knowledge sharing during the last four decades is also presented as well as a brief discussion on future needs.

2020 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-167
A. O. Yusuf ◽  
O. S. Sowande ◽  
O. M. Sogunle ◽  
V. A. Akinbami ◽  
O. O. Oyebanji ◽  

Ruminant livestock in most parts of the tropics graze extensively on naturally growing forages which are poor in quality. These tropical forages compared to those in the temperate, support lower levels of ruminant animal production mainly because they contain less nitrogen and are less digestible. The quality and quantity of these grasses become more critical in the dry seasons and thereby imposing more serious constraint to the development and productivity of these animals. Therefore, a study was conducted to access nutritional composition of Panicum maximum and Newbouldia laevis. Phytochemical screening of Newbouldia laevis was also carried out. Newbouldia laevis had higher crude fibre, ether extract and crude protein compared to Panicim maximum. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Tannin, Alkaloids, Flavonoids and Saponnin in Newbouldia laevis. The percentages of tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponin in the Newbouldia laevis were 11.5, 52.07, 3.1 and 0.64, respectively while none was recorded for Panicum maximum. The relatively high crude fibre, ether extract and crude protein values for both plants s appeared satisfactory for animal production. Also, the presence of the phytochemicals in the plant showed it importance in ethno veterinary medicine and pharmacology.

2020 ◽  
Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán

Abstract D. eriantha is a perennial grass not considered as a serious weed in some countries, but a competitive and aggressive weed in others (PROTA, 2016; Tropical Forages, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). The species is listed as invasive in Central America (Costa Rica), the Caribbean (Cuba), South America (Colombia, Ecuador) and Oceania (Australia, USA-Hawaii) (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016). Catasús Guerra (2015), however, argues that the species should not be on the list of the invasive species for Cuba, due to lack of spread as it is being over-grazed and not producing viable seeds. It is on the list of the top 200 most invasive species in Queensland, Australia, forming dense populations in riparian areas, open woodlands and on some beaches (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

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