Seed quality is routinely assessed by direct tests, e.g, the germination test, or indirect tests like the tetrazolium test, which has shoown to be promising in the determine viability and vigor, allowing the diagnosis of the main problems that may affect seed quality, such as mechanic damages, field deterioration and storage. In this respect, this study was conducted to develop a tetrazolium test protocol to evaluate the viability and vigor of Tamarindus indica L. seeds. Before exposing the seeds to the tetrazolium solution, seed preconditioning studies were carried out in which seven soaking times were tested. The soaking time that did not cause damage to the seed embryo and allowed the removal of the seed coat to expose the seed structures to the tetrazolium salt was selected. Then, an experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement involving two seed lots, three soaking times in tetrazolium salt (6, 12 and 16 h) and three salt concentrations (0.075, 0.1 and 0.5%), totaling 18 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds, evaluated at 40 ºC. For each treatment, the seeds were divided into three classes, namely, viable and vigorous embryos (class 1); viable embryos (class 2) and non-viable or dead embryos (class 3). For a comparison with the tetrazolium test results, the two seed lots were analyzed for water content, germination, emergence, first count, germination speed index, emergence speed index, growth and seedling dry weight. The viability and vigor of T. indica seeds can be evaluated after a soaking period of 48 h and immersion for 6h in tetrazolium salt at the concentration of 0.1%, at 40°C, with provides results similar to conventional seed viability tests. The tetrazolium test proved to be adequate to differentiate T. indica seed lots in terms of viability.
The aim of this study was to analyze the production patterns present in rural properties producing cattle in the micro-regions that make up the state of Pará. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was applied to identify the patterns, and these data are used to evaluate correlation between the heterogeneity of rural properties and the environmental impact on the identified patterns. The theoretical contribution is based on discussions on global impacts of food production and environmental sustainability and the impacts of livestock production systems in Brazil and the Amazon. Survey data were taken from the 2017 Agricultural Census, available for the 144 municipalities in the state, and pooled into 22 micro-regions. Three patterns of rural properties were identified: the first related to conservation management practices and called transition management; the second highlights aspects associated with information technology and communication (ICT) and productivity called technical productive efficiency; the third indicates the importance of social organization and access to information called social participation. With these patterns, it was possible to develop the Traditional Performance Indicator (TPI), in which the micro-regions of São Félix do Xingu, Itaituba and Conceição do Araguaia were those with the highest values of this indicator, water protection practices are present in the properties, however, in precarious conditions, and conservation practices are rarely used. The correlation between heterogeneity, measured by the size of pasture area in each microregion, and the TPI is positive, strong and significant. In this transition context, public policies are essential to provide access to infrastructure, credit and good animal health and biotechnology practices
The initial development of pitayas may be limited by a few factors, among them, water deficit. Agricultural hydrogels can be used as an alternative to enhance the retention and availability of water and nutrients in the soil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of irrigation frequency and hydrogel doses on the development of white pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) seedlings to establish a time interval in days between irrigations that provides better seedling development and determine the hydrogel dose that provides a reduction of water consumption without damaging seedling development. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, in which the treatments corresponded to 4 hydrogel doses (0, 2, 4, and 6 g/plant of Biogel Hidro Plus) incorporated into the substrate and four irrigation frequencies (1, 3, 5, and 7 days of interval). The biometric characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, and organic and inorganic solutes of the plants were evaluated after 120 days. The use of daily irrigation negatively influenced the growth and biomass accumulation of the aerial part of the seedlings and, consequently, provided the lowest values of cladodes of the pitaya seedlings. Pitaya seedlings had greater development when using an irrigation frequency of around 3 days. The application of 6 g/plant of hydrogel provided the highest averages for accumulation of dry biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and organic and inorganic solutes at irrigation levels of 3.6, 4, and about 3.8 days of intervals, respectively. Hydrogel incorporation allowed increasing the interval between irrigations by 1 day without damages to the seedling development.
Peanut seed can be infected by pathogen diseases that adversely affect the oil crop’s value chain. Ozone gas (O3) can be an alternative for the control of fungal diseases due to its high oxidizing potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of O3 exposure time on physiological and health characteristics of seed from three peanut cultivars. Seed from peanut cultivars Granoleico, IAC OL3, and IAC 503 were analyzed for their health (blotter test) and physiological potential (germination, first count, and seedling length) after exposure to O3 for 0, 1, 8, and 16 h. Peanut seed physiological quality and health differed among cultivars. Exposure of seed from peanut cultivars IAC OL3, IAC 503, and Granoleico to O3 at a rate of 600 mg h-1 did not affect the development of normal seedlings as measured by the first count and germination, but seedling length increased, decreased, or was not affected in cultivars Granoleico, IAC 503, and IAC OL3, respectively. Also, O3 did not eradicate fungal infections in peanut seed treated with O3 at a rate of 600 mg h-1 for up to 16 h, but the incidence of the fungus Rhizopus sp. in seed from cultivars IAC OL3, Granoleico, and IAC 503 increased, decreased or was not affected, respectively, after 8 h.
In pig farming, measurements of production parameters play a fundamental role in the success of the activity. Minimal differences in fertility between breeders can lead to less reproductive efficiency and, less productivity. However, assessing the fertility of each male and the early identification of subfertile males is a difficult task to be performed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in vitro and in vivo parameters in the identification of subfertile males of the Landrace breed, aiming to collaborate with genetic improvement programs, routine optimization in the Genetic Diffusion Units (GDUs) and the results of performance. In experiment 1, an approach to identify males with subfertility was evaluated based on retrospective data. For this, the results (averages of birth rates, number of total births and average percentages of female and male piglets per litter) were evaluated for a total of 996 matings and 847 parturitions. The inseminations came from ejaculates of 32 males, who had at least 19 females inseminated with homospermic doses in the concentration of 2.5 x 109 total sperm from the same male. As for the birth rate (BR), an average of 85.47% ± 6.05 was observed with a group of median males, seven males that stood out and one individual (M32) with a performance of 58.06% ± 9.0. For the total number of piglets born (PB) the average was 13.41 ± 0.56, with three males with better performance and one (M32) with very poor performance (8.62 ± 0.59). In experiment 2, it was verified whether evaluations of inseminating doses (ID) of semen in vitro (motility and sperm morphology) after 96 hours of storage had correlations with fertility in vivo, which can be used to identify subfertile males. The evaluations were performed on 30 ejaculates regarding the means of BR and PB, considering only those who had at least 7 females inseminated. There were no correlations between the motility assessments and semen morphological changes and the reproductive parameters evaluated. The results obtained in vivo, referring to BR and PB, demonstrated that it was possible to identify differences between males, the individual (M32) had the worst results for the percentages of BR and PB. It is concluded that there are males of high and low fertility and that only the in vitro analyzes carried out in this study are not enough to categorize them, however, the evaluation of retrospective data was efficient for this purpose.
Essential oils and enzymes are alternatives to feed additives for ruminants that aim to replace the use of ionophores and improve animal performance, but their mechanisms of action are different. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify if there is a synergistic effect in the combined use of enzymes carbohydrates and essential oils on the performance, ingestive behavior and carcass traits of steers fed a high-energy diet. During the finishing period of 78 days, 40 steers were assigned to four treatments: CON- control; ENZ- enzymatic complex; EO- essential oil blend; ENZ+EO - enzymatic complex combined with essential oil blend. Regardless of the feedlot periods, the ENZ+EO treatment caused a reduction in the dry matter intake (12.48%) compared to the control. The ENZ+EO treatment resulted in the lowest mean fecal output and, consequently, the highest dry matter digestibility (DMD) and starch digestibility (SD), compared to the other treatments. Animals that received EO and ENZ+EO in the diet spent more time in feeding. As for the number of times animals visited the feeding trough, the highest values were presented by the animals in the EO, ENZ and ENZ+EO treatments. For the carcass parameters, only the subcutaneous fat thickness on the rib was significantly different between treatments, with the highest values obtained by adding EO and ENZ+EO (8.80 and 8.10 mm respectively). Thus, the combination of carbohydrate enzymes and essential oils proved to be synergistically beneficial in relation to better use of nutrients and productive performance of feedlot steers.
Salinity interferes in the physiology of seedlings from germination and seedling emergence, so it is necessary to adopt measures to mitigate its effects. The objectives of this research were to evaluate irrigation frequency, saline water, polymer, and container volume in the emergence and physiology of Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. The treatments were obtained from the combination of polymer doses (0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0; and 1.2 g dm-3), electrical conductivities of the irrigation water (0.3; 1, 1; 2.7; 4.3; and 5.0 dS m-1), and irrigation frequencies (daily and alternate), plus two additional treatments to assess the volume of the container. A randomized block design was used. Emergence and leaf indices of chlorophyll, fluorescence, and gas exchange were analyzed 100 days after sowing. The increase in electrical conductivity reduced and delayed seedling emergence. Decreasing irrigation frequency reduced the chlorophyll b index, stomatal conductance, transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and carboxylation efficiency. The magnitude of the effects of electrical conductivity of water and polymer were associated with the frequency of irrigation. However, both salinity and polymer reduced practically all physiological variables. The reduction in container volume also affected the physiology of the seedlings, with more effects when irrigated on alternate days. The T. esculenta seedlings are considered sensitive to salinity, should be irrigated daily with water with less electrical conductivity than 1.0 dS m-1, as well as higher capacity containers used (0.75 vs 1.30 dm3).
Forage sorghum is a crop that can be planted in semiarid regions, due to its greater adaptability to dry climate environments, and can replace maize in these regions, which are often unsuitable for its production. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the structural, morphological and nutritional characteristics of 23 sorghum hybrids forage cultivated in rainfed conditions, planted in different climate conditions, comparing the hybrids, in order to determine what produces the best in the climatic conditions of the explored region, and also to indicate whether this crop can be planted as a replacement for maize in environments not suitable for planting it. The research was conducted in climate BSh in the Municipality of Alvorada do Gurgueia, and climate Aw in the Municipality of Bom Jesus, both in the state of Piauí from 2014 to 2015. Each trial consisted of 20 experimental forage sorghum hybrids [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and three commercial hybrids. A randomized block design was used, with three replications in a factorial scheme (2 × 23). The growth characteristics determined were hybrid × climate interaction for the variables plant height, lodging and leaf/stem ratio. For the variable number of tillers, there was a significant difference only between hybrids. There was no difference between hybrids only for the lodging variable of climate Aw. The other variables showed a difference in all hybrids evaluated. There was an interaction for production of dead matter and total dry forage mass between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. For leaf production, there was an effect only for the different environments. For the chemical characteristics, there was an interaction for all variables analyzed between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. The semi-arid region of the State of Piauí, climate BSh which presents a high climatic risk for maize cultivation, proved to be favorable for forage sorghum production. The forage sorghum also presented agronomic characteristics similar to those found in semi humid climate Aw, a favorable region for maize cultivation. In addition, the tested hybrids showed good chemical characteristics, so the BSh climate has great exploratory potential for the cultivation of forage sorghum.
Automeris liberia Cramer are found in South America, with documented sightings in Ecuador, Peru, some regions of Mexico and, more recently, the Brazilian Amazon. These moths cause damage to several plant species. We designed an experiment to study the biology and morphometry of A. liberia in the laboratory and provide information for the management of the pest in oil palm cultivation in the Brazilian Amazon. Caterpillars for rearing were collected from commercial areas of oil palm cultivation, where they cause defoliation of the plant. They were fed a natural diet of oil palm leaves of the Tenera variety and observed from second generation onwards. Sex, behavior, posture, mass, body length, wingspan, body diameter, sex ratio, average growth ratio, and antenna were quantified. The embryonic stage lasted 14 days, followed by seven larval instar stages over 36 days. The pupal stage lasted 21 days. Adults had a longevity of 4.5 and 6 days and a total biological cycle of 78.5 and 80 days, for males and females, respectively. The growth ratio was 1.49. The antennae showed sexual dimorphism, with bipectinate morphology in males and filiform in females. In the adult stage, morphological variables were evaluated (body length, thoracic diameter, wingspan, forewing length, forewing height, hindwing length, hindwing height, antenna length, number of antennomeres, and body mass), and they showed significant differences between males and females (Newman-Keuls test, P < 0.05).
The interplay between biochemical characteristics and the generation of volatile compounds in 11 type II sourdough fermented by single strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied. Samples were collected at 0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24h for analyses of microbial growth, pH, titratable acidity and CO2 production. During the first 12h, the LABs entered the stationary phase, and the formation of organic and carboxyl acids, alcohols, and esters were observed. Although acidity is an important characteristic of sourdough, in this work increasing the acetic acid content decreased yeast growth and the CO2 retention capacity of the doughs. The main carbohydrate consumed by autochthonous yeast was influenced by the LAB added (homo-or heterofermentative), as observed by correlation analysis. Maltose and glucose showed a strong and negative correlation with the yeast cell density in the dough fermented by homo and heterofermentative LAB, respectively. Moreover, LAB had an important effect on the aromatic profile, being the alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, organics acids and esters mainly groups characterized. Altogether, 100 different volatile compounds were identified; however, each dough had a different volatile profile. This study shows, for the first time, the influence of a single strain of LAB on the characteristics of type II sourdough.