water intake
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 287
Jianfen Zhang ◽  
Na Zhang ◽  
Shufang Liu ◽  
Songming Du ◽  
Guansheng Ma

The body’s water and sodium balances are tightly regulated and monitored by the brain. Few studies have explored the relationship between water and salt intake, and whether sodium intake with different levels of fluid intake leads to changes in hydration status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the patterns of water intake and hydration status among young adults with different levels of daily salt intakes. Participants’ total drinking fluids and water from food were determined by a 7-day 24-h fluid intake questionnaire for 7 days (from Day 1 to Day 7) and duplicate portion method (Day 5, Day 6 and Day 7). Urine of 24 h for 3 days (Day 5, Day 6 and Day 7) was collected and tested for the osmolality, the urine-specific gravity (USG), the concentrations of electrolytes, pH, creatinine, uric acid and the urea. The fasting blood samples for 1 day (Day 6) were collected and measured for the osmolality and the concentrations of electrolytes. The salt intakes of the participants were evaluated from the concentrations of Na of 24 h urine of 3 days (Day 5, Day 6 and Day 7). Participants were divided into four groups according to the quartile of salt intake, including the low salt intake (LS1), LS2, high salt intake (HS1) and HS2 groups. In total, 156 participants (including 80 male and 76 female young adults) completed the study. The salt intakes were 7.6, 10.9, 14.7 and 22.4 g among participants in the four groups (LS1, LS2, HS1 and HS2 groups, respectively), which differed significantly in all groups (F = 252.020; all p < 0.05). Compared to the LS1 and LS2 groups, the HS2 group had 310–381, 250–358 and 382–655 mL more amounts of water from the total water intake (TWI), total drinking fluids and water from food (all p < 0.05), respectively. Participants in the HS2 group had 384–403, 129–228 and 81–114 mL more in the water, water from dishes and staple foods, respectively, than those in the groups of LS1 and LS2 (p < 0.05). The HS2 group excreted 386–793 mL more urine than those in the groups of LS1 and LS2 (p < 0.05). However, regarding urine osmolality, the percentage of participants with optimal hydration status decreased from 41.0% in LS1 and LS2 to 25.6% in the HS2 group (p < 0.05). Participants with higher salt intake had higher TWI, total drinking fluids and water from food. Nevertheless, they had inferior hydration status. A reduction in salt intake should be encouraged among young adults to maintain optimal hydration status.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 367-380
Luciane Maria Stumpf ◽  
Jansller Luiz Genova ◽  
Liliana Bury de Azevedo dos Santos ◽  
Paulo Evaristo Rupolo ◽  

This study was conducted to assess the effect of two types of drinkers on water intake (WI) and two types of toys on behavioural observations of piglets in the nursery phase. A total of 72 crossbred entire male piglets (Landrace × Large White, Agroceres♂ and DanBred♀), weaned at 21 days of age, with an average initial body weight (AIBW) of 6.75 ± 0.19 kg were used. Two statistical models were fitted for WI. In model I, animals were distributed in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a split-plot in time, composed of six treatments (2 types of drinkers × 3 experimental phases), eight replications (days of sampling), and 36 animals/experimental unit (EU), without using AIBW as a covariate. In model II, animals were distributed in a CRD with two treatments (fixed or pendular nipple drinkers), eight replications (days of sampling) and 36 animals/EU, with use of AIBW as a covariate. For assessment of behavioural observations, the model was adjusted in a randomized block design, consisting of four treatments [two types of toys (metal chain and plastic bottle) × two daytime periods (morning and afternoon)], nine replications and three blocks constituted in time (days), totalling four pigs/EU. The results indicated an effect on animal daily WI in the starter phase in model I (p < 0.000) and II (p = 0.006). There was an effect (p ≤ 0.05) of toy type for behavioural observations, in which pigs showed a greater proportion of fighting and belly nosing when they had the bottle toy. However, animals spent more time (p ≤ 0.05) eating, drinking water, overlapping, and playing with the toy when they had access to the chain toy. There was an increase (p ≤ 0.05) in sleeping behaviour in the morning period, as well as greater (p ≤ 0.05) behavioural activity in the afternoon period. In conclusion, WI of nursery piglets was positively influenced by growth phase, and the fixed drinker stimulated greater WI in piglets in the starter phase. In addition, the metal chain, as an environmental enrichment, promoted improvements in feeding behaviour and WI, reducing fighting events, and the afternoon period had increased behavioural observations overall.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 280
Seok Tyug Tan ◽  
Chin Xuan Tan ◽  
Seok Shin Tan

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) isolation has altered individuals’ food purchasing behaviour and dietary intake patterns. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the changes in dietary intake patterns and their impacts on the weight status of young adults in Malaysia during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1045 young adults in Malaysia. The changes in dietary intake patterns were assessed using the Dietary Diversity Questionnaire with slight modifications, while anthropometric measurements including body height, body weight before the pandemic and current body weight were self-reported. Results: Overall, nearly half of the respondents (48.8%) gained weight during the confinement, with an average increment of 4.06 ± 3.23 kg. Of 1045, 45.3% reported consuming more fruits and 60.2% had higher plain water intake during the pandemic. It is observed that 41.0% to 66.8% of the young adults changed their dietary intake patterns during the pandemic. Increased consumption in cereals and grains (β = 0.084, p = 0.015, 95% CI = 0.017–0.160), as well as oils and fats (β = 0.123, p = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.059–0.241), was positively associated with weight gain during the pandemic. On the contrary, an increased plain water intake was negatively associated with weight gain during the lockdown (β = −0.100, p = 0.003, 95% CI = −0.171–−0.034). Findings in the current study also suggested that cutting back cereals and grains (β = 0.156, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.122–0.288), as well as oils and fats (β = 0.091, p = 0.012, 95% CI = 0.022–0.183), contributed significantly to weight loss during the pandemic confinement. Conclusion: In conclusion, the enforcement of the Movement Control Order (MCO) drove up the prevalence of overweight/obesity among young adults in Malaysia. Increased consumption of cereals and grains and oils and fats contributed to weight gain in the pandemic lockdown. Nonetheless, a noticeable proportion of young adults in Malaysia shifted to a healthier food choice by increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables.

Güzella Yılmaz ◽  
Hakan Karadağ

In the study, it was aimed to increase the vase life of Basic, Ulaş and Terra Ozan cultivars of Gerbera sp. For this purpose, microcapsules containing lavender oil (1000 and 1500 ppm) and naturally obtained walnut tea (33% and 50%) were used. Sucrose (4%) was added to all vase solutions, including the control group solutions. The experiment was set up with 3 replications (three vases) for each treatment and one flower per replication. As a result of the experiment, it was observed that both walnut tea and lavender treatments did not cause a significant change in the vase life of the Terra Ozan cultivars. In the Basic cultivar, the vase life of the flowers in the solution containing lavender oil was longer than that in the solution containing walnut tea, but both treatments did not make a significant difference compared to the control. In Ulaş, both walnut tea and lavender oil applications caused significant increases in the vase life of the flowers. The applications made in the study caused significant changes in the water intake of the flower stems. The treatments that increase the water intake also increased the vase life.

Chemosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 133525
Jennifer Rowan ◽  
Katarzyna Kordas ◽  
Elena I. Queirolo ◽  
Marie Vahter ◽  
Nelly Mañay ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (12) ◽  
pp. 889-896
Dong-hwa Jang ◽  
Ka-Young Yang ◽  
Jong-bok Kim ◽  
Kyeong-seok Kwon ◽  
Taehwan Ha ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-121
Hyun-Kyung Kim ◽  
Byung-Won Kim ◽  
Hyeong-Seon Lee ◽  
Jang-Eun Cho ◽  
Chang-Oh Kweon ◽  

Cellulose ◽  
2021 ◽  
Laura Resch ◽  
Anna Karner ◽  
Wolfgang Sprengel ◽  
Roland Würschum ◽  
Robert Schennach

AbstractIn this study, for the first time, the experimental technique of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has been applied to monitor in situ the microstructural changes of cellulose-based materials, i.e. paper, during water intake. For three different cellulose samples, bleached fine paper without filler, Kraft paper without filler, and a viscose fiber sheet, the mean positron lifetime $$\Delta \tau _{\mathrm {mean}}$$ Δ τ mean showed a strong increase with time in humid atmosphere, but exhibiting different trends depending on the type of sample. For all the cellulose samples investigated, the mean positron lifetime $$\Delta \tau _{\mathrm {mean}}$$ Δ τ mean shows an initial strong increase simultaneously occurring (t<10 h) to the mass increase of the samples due to water intake. Interestingly, the variations of $$\Delta \tau _{\mathrm {mean}}$$ Δ τ mean of the viscose fiber sheet and the Kraft paper sample both show a second increase on longer timescales (t>60 h in humid atmosphere) during which the mass increase of these samples has already been saturated. The results of this study show that by the means of PALS, water transport in paper can be reliably followed over a long timespan and it is even possible to distinguish between different types of cellulose materials. The second stage increase of the mean positron lifetime after long times in humid atmosphere for the Kraft paper sample and the pure viscose sheets even suggest that not only water intake itself can be monitored but also further atomistic processes in the material are accessible.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 24-33
Rashad Abilov ◽  

Introduction: The rate of urbanization is currently high. Therefore, it is important to use various elements and devices for water intake and water supply. Purpose of the study: We aimed to consider and analyze the structural features of a water intake facility for mountain and submountain rivers. Methods: In the course of the study, we used the synergistic research principle and statistical analysis. We analyzed the types of water supply networks at mountain rivers and identified the features of water intakes at water sources of this type. Results: A description of water intake features under flood conditions in the Amur Region, exemplified by the Bureya River, was obtained. The mountain rivers have an uneven runoff, which fluctuates not only throughout the year but also throughout the day. The water supply of the mountain and submountain areas shapes the idea of hydrological control over the regime of the mountain rivers. This paper will help to study changes in the average water inflow over the years and thus facilitate an accurate and detailed description of the water inflow characteristics in the Bureya reservoir when planning the water-energy modes of the hydroelectric power plant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (36) ◽  
pp. 125-127
Fabiana Nabarro Ferraz ◽  
Valdir Antônio Gonçalves ◽  
Denise Lessa Aleixo ◽  
Angélica Sayuri Mizutani ◽  
Silvana Marques de Araújo

Background: Biotherapy is used against infectious diseases treatment and prophylaxis and has been investigated by many researchers [1,2]. Aim: Assess the effect of biotherapy 7x T. cruzi on several treatment schemes, upon experimental infection by T. cruzi. Methodology: A blind, controlled and randomized by drawing experiment was performed. Male Swiss mice, four weeks old were utilized. Groups evaluated: IC – Infection Control (treated with water – 9 animals); TBBA7x3days – Treated with biotherapy 7x 3 days before and 3 days after infection (5 animals); TBB7x3days – Treated with 7x biotherapy 3 days before infection (5 animals); TBBAI7x3days – Treated with 7x biotherapy 3 days before infection and after infection indefinitely (6 animals). Animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1400 blood trypomastigotes Y strain. Biotherapy: prepared according to Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira [3]. Treatment plan: offered ad libitum, in the water (10µL/mL). Parasitological parameters: parasitemia was assessed according Brener’s technique. [4]. Clinical parameters: body hair aspect, edema, movement, diarrhea, body weight, temperature, food and water intake. Ethics: Registration 030/2008 UEM Ethics Committee for Experiments in Animals. Statistical analysis: was performed using the tests Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney testes, significance 5%. Results: The best effect obtained was with the TBBA7x3days, both for clinical and parasitological parameters. It was expressed by lower parasitemia curve (p=0.04) and decrease of patent period tendency, of total parasitemia, of mortality and survival of the animals increase (Table 1). Evolution of parasitemia was distinct for the several treatment schemes. Survival of at least one mouse by treated groups is an extremely important data, since Y strain causes 100% mortality in Swiss mice. TBBAI7x3days group showed begger tendency in raising total parasitemia compared with IC. Although it might have occurred, this group presented 80% mortality rate compared with other groups. Animals from TBBA7x3days also showed better evolution of weight body, temperature, food (p=0.078-10%) and water intake, body hair aspect and edema development. Diarrhea and paralysis were only observed in IC group mice, highlighting the biotherapy use benefits. Conclusions: Best effect was obtained TBBA7x3days, both for clinical and parasitological parameters. It’s possible to speculate that in this regimen, biotherapy was able to modulate, more effectively, the host’s immune system, decreasing the number of parasites.

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