growth and development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 59 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Svein Åge Kjøs Johnsen ◽  
◽  
Maren Østvold Lindheim ◽  
Åshild Lappegard ◽  
◽  
...  

Background and aim: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how we can use nature cabins and their natural surroundings therapeutically. Method: Published research of relevance for this therapeutic practice is discussed in relation to and informed by experiences from practice, collected through conversations with therapists using the Outdoor care retreat at Rikshospitalet in Norway. Results: The literature review demonstrates how therapy in nature cabins can influence cognitive and emotional processes. All physical environments carry symbolic meanings; therefore, no therapy setting is neutral, and the setting will affect the client and therapist. Place attachment may contribute to create a safe foundation for exploration and self-development. The experiences from practice demonstrate how nature and natural objects are rich in potential for the creative application of symbols in therapy and opens for different stories on growth and development. Conclusions and implications: The evidence-based approach of this article supplies a therapeutic rationale to use cabins in natural surroundings more strategically for positive therapeutic outcomes. Keywords: nature, architecture, therapy settings, hospital environments


2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Li Zhao ◽  
Shengdong Mu ◽  
Weixiang Wang ◽  
Haibin Gu

AbstractResource utilization of chrome shavings (CS) has attracted a lot of attention from scientists and technologists in leather industry. Especially, the collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS are expected to find potential application values in agricultural field. However, there is no biotoxicity analysis of collagen hydrolysates from CS. Herein, the collagen hydrolysates with different molecular weights were produced from CS by three hydrolysis dechroming methods including alkaline hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis and alkaline-enzymatic synergistic hydrolysis, and the optimal hydrolysis process of CS was designed and conducted. To evaluate their toxicity, the three collagen hydrolysates were formulated into a nutrient solution for zebrafish development. The obtained results indicated that the hydrolysates with low concentrations (less than 0.6 mg/mL) were safe and could promote the development for zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the three collagen hydrolysates were utilized as organic nitrogen sources and formulated into amino acid water-soluble fertilizers (AAWSF) including alkaline type fertilizer (OH), enzymatic type fertilizer (M) and alkaline-enzymatic type fertilizer (OH–M) for the early soilless seeding cultivation of wheat, soybean and rapeseed. It is worth mentioning that the chromium contents in the prepared AAWSF were less than 10 mg/kg, which is far less than the limit value in the standard (China, 50 mg/kg). The growth and development of seedlings (germination rate, plant height, fresh weight of leaves, soluble sugar content and chlorophyll content) were investigated. The corresponding results showed that the growth of seedlings watered with AAWSF was better compared with the other treatments, and the OH–M fertilizer had the best promoting effect on the seedlings growth and development, followed by the M and OH fertilizers. The safe toxicity assessment of the collagen hydrolysates will expand their application scope, and the use of collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS for seedlings growth also provides an effective and reasonable way to deal with the chromium-containing leather solid waste, which is an effective way to realize its resource utilization. Graphical Abstract


Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Author(s):  
Yijie Li ◽  
Song Chen ◽  
Yuhang Liu ◽  
Haijiao Huang

Research Highlights: This study identified the cell cycle genes in birch that likely play important roles during the plant’s growth and development. This analysis provides a basis for understanding the regulatory mechanism of various cell cycles in Betula pendula Roth. Background and Objectives: The cell cycle factors not only influence cell cycles progression together, but also regulate accretion, division, and differentiation of cells, and then regulate growth and development of the plant. In this study, we identified the putative cell cycle genes in the B. pendula genome, based on the annotated cell cycle genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. It can be used as a basis for further functional research. Materials and Methods: RNA-seq technology was used to determine the transcription abundance of all cell cycle genes in xylem, roots, leaves, and floral tissues. Results: We identified 59 cell cycle gene models in the genome of B. pendula, with 17 highly expression genes among them. These genes were BpCDKA.1, BpCDKB1.1, BpCDKB2.1, BpCKS1.2, BpCYCB1.1, BpCYCB1.2, BpCYCB2.1, BpCYCD3.1, BpCYCD3.5, BpDEL1, BpDpa2, BpE2Fa, BpE2Fb, BpKRP1, BpKRP2, BpRb1, and BpWEE1. Conclusions: By combining phylogenetic analysis and tissue-specific expression data, we identified 17 core cell cycle genes in the Betulapendula genome.


Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Author(s):  
Kellie J. Walters ◽  
Roberto G. Lopez

Altering the growing temperature during controlled-environment production not only influences crop growth and development, but can also influence volatile organic compound (VOC) production and, subsequently, sensory attributes of culinary herbs. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the influence of mean daily temperature (MDT) and daily light integral (DLI) on key basil phenylpropanoid and terpenoid concentrations, (2) determine if differences in sensory characteristics due to MDT and DLI influence consumer preference, and (3) identify the sweet basil attributes consumers prefer. Thus, 2-week-old sweet basil ‘Nufar’ seedlings were transplanted into deep-flow hydroponic systems in greenhouses with target MDTs of 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35 °C and DLIs of 7, 9, or 12 mol·m−2·d−1. After three weeks, the two most recently mature leaves were harvested for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and consumer sensory analysis. Panel evaluations were conducted through a sliding door with samples served individually while panelists answered Likert scale and open-ended quality attribute and sensory questions. The DLI did not influence VOC concentrations. Increasing MDT from 23 to 36 °C during production increased 1,8 cineole, eugenol, and methyl chavicol concentrations linearly and did not affect linalool concentration. The increases in phenylpropanoid (eugenol and methyl chavicol) were greater than increases in terpenoid (1,8 cineole) concentrations. However, these increases did not impact overall consumer or flavor preference. The MDT during basil production influenced appearance, texture, and color preference of panelists. Taken together, MDT during production influenced both VOC concentrations and textural and visual attribute preference of basil but did not influence overall consumer preference. Therefore, changing the MDT during production can be used to alter plant growth and development without significantly affecting consumer preference.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Emily Robb ◽  
Erin McCammick ◽  
Duncan Wells ◽  
Paul McVeigh ◽  
Erica Gardiner ◽  
...  

Fasciola spp. liver fluke have significant impacts in veterinary and human medicine. The absence of a vaccine and increasing anthelmintic resistance threaten sustainable control and underscore the need for novel flukicides. Functional genomic approaches underpinned by in vitro culture of juvenile Fasciola hepatica facilitate control target validation in the most pathogenic life stage. Comparative transcriptomics of in vitro and in vivo maintained 21 day old F. hepatica finds that 86% of genes are expressed at similar levels across maintenance treatments suggesting commonality in core biological functioning within these juveniles. Phenotypic comparisons revealed higher cell proliferation and growth rates in the in vivo juveniles compared to their in vitro counterparts. These phenotypic differences were consistent with the upregulation of neoblast-like stem cell and cell-cycle associated genes in in vivo maintained worms. The more rapid growth/development of in vivo juveniles was further evidenced by a switch in cathepsin protease expression profiles, dominated by cathepsin B in in vitro juveniles and then by cathepsin L in in vivo juveniles. Coincident with more rapid growth/development was the marked downregulation of both classical and peptidergic neuronal signalling components in in vivo maintained juveniles, supporting a role for the nervous system in regulating liver fluke growth and development. Differences in the miRNA complements of in vivo and in vitro juveniles identified 31 differentially expressed miRNAs, notably fhe-let-7a-5p , fhe-mir-124-3p and, miRNAs predicted to target Wnt-signalling, supporting a key role for miRNAs in driving the growth/developmental differences in the in vitro and in vivo maintained juvenile liver fluke. Widespread differences in the expression of neuronal genes in juvenile fluke grown in vitro and in vivo expose significant interplay between neuronal signalling and the rate of growth/development, encouraging consideration of neuronal targets in efforts to dysregulate growth/development for parasite control.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hong Wang ◽  
Yunting Zhang ◽  
Ayla Norris ◽  
Cai-Zhong Jiang

Sugar metabolism not only determines fruit sweetness and quality but also acts as signaling molecules to substantially connect with other primary metabolic processes and, therefore, modulates plant growth and development, fruit ripening, and stress response. The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and plays a diverse array of biological functions in plants. Among the bZIP family members, the smallest bZIP subgroup, S1-bZIP, is a unique one, due to the conserved upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5′ leader region of their mRNA. The translated small peptides from these uORFs are suggested to mediate Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT), an important mechanism to maintain sucrose homeostasis in plants. Here, we review recent research on the evolution, sequence features, and biological functions of this bZIP subgroup. S1-bZIPs play important roles in fruit quality, abiotic and biotic stress responses, plant growth and development, and other metabolite biosynthesis by acting as signaling hubs through dimerization with the subgroup C-bZIPs and other cofactors like SnRK1 to coordinate the expression of downstream genes. Direction for further research and genetic engineering of S1-bZIPs in plants is suggested for the improvement of quality and safety traits of fruit.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Saglara Mandzhieva ◽  
Natalia Chernikova ◽  
Tamara Dudnikova ◽  
David Pinskii ◽  
Tatiana Bauer ◽  
...  

The growth and development of plants is one of the criteria for assessing the degree of soil pollution with heavy metals. Morphological and anatomical changes in test plants affected by pollutants, such as growth retardation, shoot bending, and decreased root length and mass, indicate the worsening of environmental conditions. The effect of various ratios of soil and sand polluted with copper (Cu) on morphobiometric parameters of spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum), Ratnik variety, was studied in a model vegetative experiment. Haplic calcic chernozem was used as a substrate with different ratios of soil/sand. It was determined that an addition of sand into the soil in the amounts of 25%, 50% and 75% of soil mass resulted in the alteration of the physical properties of the chernozem, which was reflected in the morphometric parameters of the plants. The most notable changes in the parameters were observed after pollution of soil-sand substrates with Cu(CH3COO)2 in the amounts of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg. The maximum growth and development retardation of the barley plants was found at the maximum content of sand and the maximum concentration of Cu. The pollutant reduced the root length and, to a lesser degree, the height of the aboveground components of the plant, which as a result, decreased the total plant biomass. Keywords: trace elements, soil, agricultural crops, particle size distribution


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ningning Fu ◽  
Jiaxing Li ◽  
Ming Wang ◽  
Lili Ren ◽  
Shixiang Zong ◽  
...  

A strict relationship exists between the Sirex noctilio and the Amylostereum areolatum, which is carried and spread by its partner. The growth and development of this symbiotic fungus is key to complete the life history of the Sirex woodwasp. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used to measure gene expression in samples of A. areolatum at different growth stages and explore the key genes and pathways involved in the growth and development of this symbiotic fungus. To obtain accurate RT-qPCR data, target genes need to be normalized by reference genes that are stably expressed under specific experimental conditions. In our study, the stability of 10 candidate reference genes in symbiotic fungal samples at different growth and development stages was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, delta Ct methods, and RefFinder. Meanwhile, laccase1 was used to validate the stability of the selected reference gene. Under the experimental conditions of this study, p450, CYP, and γ-TUB were identified as suitable reference genes. This work is the first to systematically evaluate the reference genes for RT-qPCR results normalization during the growth of this symbiotic fungus, which lays a foundation for further gene expression experiments and understanding the symbiotic relationship and mechanism between S. noctilio and A. areolatum.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 87-120
Author(s):  
Antonio Alcon Vila

The main objective of this article is to analyze Bolivian small and medium enterprises (SMEs), their evolution, and their contribution to the country's economy. The globalization of markets is currently a reality to which companies are exposed for their survival, growth and development. In developing countries such as the plurinational State of Bolivia, this reality becomes more relevant due to the socioeconomic characteristics of the country, where the main economic activity is dependent on the export of non-renewable natural resources (natural gas and minerals), and to a lesser extent the export of primary products. In this context, the article shows that SMEs struggle to consolidate their position in local markets, and have a low participation in global markets. The article reviews relevant secondary and primary literature, and concludes that SMEs require public and private support to contribute to the promotion of entrepreneurial culture, enter into global production chains, develop technological and innovation capabilities, and achieve growth in a sustainable manner and with high levels of competitiveness. The research method used is the review of relevant primary and secondary bibliographic sources of information about the origins, evolution and current situation of SMEs in Bolivia, and about possible alternatives for growth and development.


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