nutritive value
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 102-114
Chisowa DM ◽  
Mpofu, I DT ◽  
Daura MT ◽  
Syampaku EM

This study evaluated the effect of upgrading the quality of maize stover (MS) on milk nutritive value. The study involved feeding MS improved using urea (U), chopped groundnut stover (cGS), chopped soybean stover (cSS), mineralized groundnut stover solution (mGS) and mineralized soybean stover solution (mSS) to lactating dairy cows. The feeding trial involved twelve (12) dairy cows in their second parity. Effect of supplementation with MS improved with U, cGS, cSS, mGS and mSS on milk quality was evaluated following on-station feeding trials. The study involved 22 factorial experiments within a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). Milk samples were analysed for protein, lactose, fat and solid not fat (SNF). Mean milk protein levels ranged from 3.52mg/ml to 3,73mg/ml (s.e=0.03) for milk from cows fed on MS improved using cGS and mGS respectively. Protein and Lactose were observed to be the least variable (3.64g/ml ±0.12, and 5.24g ±0.24 respectively). Average milk fat content was highest (4.78%, se=0.52) in milk from cows fed on UET treated MS and lowest (3.43%, se=0.52) in milk from cows fed on gGS protein based MS. Within legume type milk fat was higher(4.75%±1.99) in milk from cows fed on MS blended with mGS than that in milk from cows fed on MS improved with cGS (3.43%±1.99). Similar result was observed in milk fat from cows fed on MS improved with the use of soybean. Lactose in milk from cows fed on UET treated MS was highest (5.51g, se=0.061) and lowest (5.10g, se=0.061) in milk from cows fed on MS blended with cGS. Milk from cows fed on MS improved with mGS was higher (9.61p/cwt, se=0.14) in SNF and lowest (8.88p/cwt, se=0.14) in milk from cows fed on MS with cGS. The milk density values ranged from 32.65sg, se=0.53 for milk from cows fed on UET treated MS to 30.42sg, se=0.053 for milk from cows fed on MS blended with cGS. Milk components were higher when cows were fed on MS improved using mineralized legume stover solutions.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Michail I. Gladyshev ◽  
Alexander A. Makhrov ◽  
Ilia V. Baydarov ◽  
Stanislava S. Safonova ◽  
Viktor M. Golod ◽  

Fatty acids (FA) of muscle tissue of Salvelinus species and its forms, S. alpinus, S. boganidae, S. drjagini, and S. fontinalis, from six Russian lakes and two aquacultures, were analyzed. Considerable variations in FA compositions and contents were found, including contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA), which are important indicators of fish nutritive value for humans. As found, contents of EPA+DHA (mg·g−1 wet weight) in muscle tissue of Salvelinus species and forms varied more than tenfold. These differences were supposed to be primarily determined by phylogenetic factors, rather than ecological factors, including food. Two species, S. boganidae and S. drjagini, had the highest EPA+DHA contents in their biomass and thereby could be recommended as promising species for aquaculture to obtain production with especially high nutritive value. Basing on revealed differences in FA composition of wild and farmed fish, levels of 15-17-BFA (branched fatty acids), 18:2NMI (non-methylene interrupted), 20:2NMI, 20:4n-3, and 22:4n-3 fatty acids were recommended for verifying trade label information of fish products on shelves, as the biomarkers to differentiate wild and farmed charr.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 658
Matthew F. Digman ◽  
Jerry H. Cherney ◽  
Debbie J. R. Cherney

Advanced manufacturing techniques have enabled low-cost, on-chip spectrometers. Little research exists, however, on their performance relative to the state of technology systems. The present study compares the utility of a benchtop FOSS NIRSystems 6500 (FOSS) to a handheld NeoSpectra-Scanner (NEO) to develop models that predict the composition of dried and ground grass, and alfalfa forages. Mixed-species prediction models were developed for several forage constituents, and performance was assessed using an independent dataset. Prediction models developed with spectra from the FOSS instrument had a standard error of prediction (SEP, % DM) of 1.4, 1.8, 3.3, 1.0, 0.42, and 1.3, for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), true in vitro digestibility (IVTD), neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and crude protein (CP), respectively. The R2P for these models ranged from 0.90 to 0.97. Models developed with the NEO resulted in an average increase in SEP of 0.14 and an average decrease in R2P of 0.002.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Leepica Kapoor ◽  
Andrew J. Simkin ◽  
C. George Priya Doss ◽  
Ramamoorthy Siva

Abstract Background Fruits are vital food resources as they are loaded with bioactive compounds varying with different stages of ripening. As the fruit ripens, a dynamic color change is observed from green to yellow to red due to the biosynthesis of pigments like chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. Apart from making the fruit attractive and being a visual indicator of the ripening status, pigments add value to a ripened fruit by making them a source of nutraceuticals and industrial products. As the fruit matures, it undergoes biochemical changes which alter the pigment composition of fruits. Results The synthesis, degradation and retention pathways of fruit pigments are mediated by hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors. Manipulation of the underlying regulatory mechanisms during fruit ripening suggests ways to enhance the desired pigments in fruits by biotechnological interventions. Here we report, in-depth insight into the dynamics of a pigment change in ripening and the regulatory mechanisms in action. Conclusions This review emphasizes the role of pigments as an asset to a ripened fruit as they augment the nutritive value, antioxidant levels and the net carbon gain of fruits; pigments are a source for fruit biofortification have tremendous industrial value along with being a tool to predict the harvest. This report will be of great utility to the harvesters, traders, consumers, and natural product divisions to extract the leading nutraceutical and industrial potential of preferred pigments biosynthesized at different fruit ripening stages.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Zhi-Yuan Ma ◽  
Emilio Ungerfeld ◽  
Zhu Ouyang ◽  
Xiao-Ling Zhou ◽  
Xue-Feng Han ◽  

Sweet corn is a feed resource with a high content of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) available for ruminant production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation and nutritional quality of sweet corn silage. Sweet corn whole plant (WP) and sweet corn stover (CS) were ensiled in mini silos with or without inoculation of L. plantarum. Proximate composition and fermentation variables, and composition of the bacterial community, were evaluated before ensiling and at the end of the first, second, and third month after ensiling. There was fiber degradation in CS silage after three months of ensilage, but not in WP silage. Inoculation of WP silage, but not of CS silage, with L. plantarum, increased starch content. The relative abundance of genus Lactobacillus was increased by inoculation with L. plantarum by 14.2% and 82.2% in WP and CS silage, respectively. Inoculation with L. plantarum was not necessary to achieve adequate fermentation of either WP or CS silage, as the abundance of native lactic acid bacteria in both materials seemed suitable for adequate fermentation. That said, increased starch content in WP resulting from inoculation with L. plantarum can increase the nutritive value of WP for ruminants.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Clare Leddin ◽  
Khageswor Giri ◽  
Kevin Smith

Perennial ryegrass (PRG) is an important forage grown on dairy farms in temperate regions globally, including south-eastern Australia. A forage value index (FVI) providing information on the seasonal production of commercially available PRG cultivars is currently available. Despite the importance of the nutritive value of pasture in dairy farm systems, the nutritive characteristics of PRG cultivars are not currently included in the FVI as they are not routinely measured in cultivar evaluation trials. This study investigated differences between cultivar functional groups (diploid and tetraploid). It also examined differences between individual cultivars within seasons at four locations in south-eastern Australia and examined how trial location affects cultivar ranking. Samples were collected from existing cultivar evaluation trials over a 3-year period and analysed for nutritive characteristics. There were differences (p < 0.05) between diploids and tetraploids for metabolisable energy (ME) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in each season at each location with a few exceptions in summer and autumn. Crude protein (CP) differed between functional groups in some seasons at some sites. Spearman rank correlations within season were strong for ME between trial locations (r = 0.78–0.96), moderate to high for NDF (0.51–0.86) and variable for CP (−0.69–0.56). These findings provide guidance on methods for implementing nutritive value testing in cultivar evaluation trials and support the imminent inclusion of ME in the Australian FVI. The ranking of cultivars for ME was more consistent across trial sites compared to NDF and CP, suggesting the latter two traits, in particular CP, are more sensitive to environmental influences. Based on these results, we do not recommend the inclusion of CP as an individual trait in the Australian FVI. A significantly larger dataset and further research on the genotype by environment interactions would be needed to reconsider this. The addition of ME in the Australian FVI will lead to better cultivar choices by farmers and could lead to more targeted perennial ryegrass breeding programs.

Abdullah A Alomar ◽  
Barry W Alto ◽  
Edward D Walker

Abstract Sugar is an essential source of nutrition for adult mosquitoes to acquire energy. Toxic sugar bait (TSB) provides a promising method for mosquito control by incorporating toxins into artificial sources of sugar (i.e., toxic baits) presented to wild populations. Spinosyns comprise a family of bacterial secondary metabolites with a unique mode of action against the insect nervous system, an appealing environmental safety profile, and potential for incorporation into sugar baits. This research evaluated acute and subacute effects of spinosad (spinosyns A and D) and spinetoram (spinosyns J and L) in sugar meals on survival, fecundity, and fertility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Acute toxicity of spinosyns doubled from 24 to 48 h of assessment, revealing a relatively slow and cumulative action of the formulated spinosyns. Median lethal concentrations at 48 h were lower for spinetoram than for spinosad, lower for Ae. albopictus than Ae. aegypti, and lower for males than females. When exposed to subacute LC50 concentrations of spinosad and spinetoram for 24 h, survival of males and females of both species was diminished compared with controls, fecundity of females was increased, but fertility as measured by hatch rate of eggs was decreased. The formulations may have increased the nutritive value of the sugar meals thereby boosting fecundity, while toxifying embryos, reducing fertility. The inclusion of subacute effects of spinosyns allows assessment of the broader consequences of TSB for adult mosquito control.

Ebahiem Mohammed Alhadi ◽  
Hamed Hajir ◽  
Salah Bukhari Salah Abulgabar ◽  
Abdalla Mohamed Suleiman Eshag ◽  
Hammad Dahia Salah Basar ◽  

The study was established to study the effects of supplementation with Sida alba leaves on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, live body weight changes of Sudanese Desert lambs. Fifteen Lambs of 4-6 months old and weighing 18±500 kg were divided into three similar groups each with five animals. Seven days were allowed for adaptation. The lambs were weighed weekly for 8 weeks. Daily feed intake was obtained by subtracting the remained amounts from quantities offered the day before. Feces were collected at the last ten days for determination of nutrients digestibility coefficients via total feces collection method. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Differences among means were detected using least significant difference test. The results indicated that group II that was on natural grazing supplemented with Sida alba leaves consumed significantly (p<0.01) greater amount of feed compared to group I that was on the natural grazing only and group III supplemented with a concentrate ration feed intake was 1316,730, 1381,500 and 1207.650 g for group I, II and III, respectively. No significant differences (P≥0.05) in digestibility coefficients of all nutrients between group II and III but group I had lowers coefficients than II and III. Total and daily body weight was higher in group II and III when compared with group I. The biomass production was estimated to be 84.910 g/shrub or 1.697 per hectare based on a square meter space for a plant. It was concluded Sida alba leaves could support lambs on low quality grazing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 43-47
Beyza Ciftci ◽  
Onur Okumus ◽  
Sati Uzun ◽  
Mahmut Kaplan

The aim of the current experiment was to determine the effect of harvesting stage on the potential nutritive value. Vicia cracca plant was harvested at three maturity stages (before flowering, flowering and seeding). Vicia cracca plants were dried at 70 °C and grinded in a hand-mill with 1 mm sieve for chemical analysis. Crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, condensed tannin, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) parameters were investigated as the chemical composition. Harvesting stage had a significant (p ≤ 0.01) effect on chemical composition. Dry matter, NDF and ADF contents were increased with advancing maturity whereas crude protein, crude oil, condensed tannin and crude ash contents were decreased. As a conclusion, the nutritive value of Vicia cracca plant decreased with increasing maturity. Vicia cracca hays harvested at three maturity stages were adequate in term of mineral content for ruminant. Therefore, the Vicia cracca plant can be harvested or grazed before flowering and flowering stages due to high crude protein, crude oil and low ADF and NDF.

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