Crude Protein
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2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 697-709
J.M. Prestegaard-Wilson ◽  
V.L. Daley ◽  
T.A. Drape ◽  
M.D. Hanigan

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3355
Leticia Pérez-Ciria ◽  
Francisco Javier Miana-Mena ◽  
María Carmen López-Mendoza ◽  
Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez ◽  
Maria Angeles Latorre

Two experiments were carried out; one with female pigs and the other with male pigs destined for Teruel dry-cured ham production, to evaluate the effect of immunocastration (entire gilts-EG vs. immunocastrated gilts-IG and surgically castrated males vs. immunocastrated males-IM) and diet (control vs. high energy vs. low crude protein and amino acids) on meat quality and fat composition. Fifteen meat samples and eight fat samples of each treatment were analyzed in both experiments. In the case of males, six fat samples per treatment were analyzed to determine boar taint. Immunocastration is a good strategy in gilts intended for dry-cured ham production because improves meat composition; however, in males, immunocastration impairs the results of pork chemical composition compared with surgical castration. The IG presented a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio than EG, improving fat technological quality. Diets had little effect on pork or fat quality in gilts, but a high-energy level using oilseeds and a low-crude-protein and -amino-acids diet from 80 to 137 kg of body weight could be interesting in IM to maintain or increase fat consistency, respectively. Moreover, in general, immunocastration is effective in avoiding boar taint in males.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 159-178
Shahram Shirmohammadi ◽  
Akbar Taghizadeh ◽  
Ali Hosseinkhani ◽  
Hossein Janmohammadi ◽  

Ruminants are one of the largest anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Therefore, the hypothesis was to study the effects of reducing dietary crude protein (CP) level on environmental contaminators when rumen-protected amino acids and choline chloride were supplemented. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were used during the experiment. Test diets were: (1) CD = Control diet with16.2 g of crude protein/ Kg of DM); (2) LM = Low protein diet with 14.2 g of crude protein/ Kg of DM + methionine ; (3) LL = Low protein diet with 14.2 g of crude protein/ Kg of DM + lysine; (4) LML = Low protein diet with 14.2 g of crude protein/ Kg of DM + methionine + lysine; (5) LMLC = Low protein diet with 14.2 g of crude protein/ Kg of DM + methionine + lysine + choline. Dry matter and NDF intake were not different, but the control group received higher CP and ADF compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Fecal CP and ADF of control group were lower (P < 0.05), but no differences were observed for fecal dry matter (DM) and NDF. Milk yield and protein content were higher for LML and LMLC like control group (P < 0.05). Nitrogen intake, urinary N, urinary urea N and total excreta N decreased (P < 0.05) when animals fed low protein. There was no difference in ruminal pH and acetate to propionate ratio, whereas the ruminal ammonia-N decreased with the low protein (P < 0.05). The 120-h gas production test, showed no difference on the kinetics of digestion and in vitro methane emission. However, the inclusion of DMI in the calculations revealed that low protein can reduce (P < 0.05) methane emission. Overall, our findings indicated that low protein can be compensated for by adding rumen-protected amino acids, not only to maintain the animal performance, but also to decrease nitrogen excretion and methane emission.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260285
Shemil P. Macelline ◽  
Peter V. Chrystal ◽  
Shiva Greenhalgh ◽  
Mehdi Toghyani ◽  
Peter H. Selle ◽  

The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of dietary crude protein (CP), fishmeal and sorghum on nutrient utilisation, digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of starch and protein, amino acid concentrations in systemic plasma and their relevance to growth performance of broiler chickens using the Box-Behnken response surface design. The design consisted of three factors at three levels including dietary CP (190, 210, 230 g/kg), fishmeal (0, 50, 100 g/kg), and sorghum (0, 150, 300 g/kg). A total of 390 male, off-sex Ross 308 chicks were offered experimental diets from 14 to 35 days post-hatch. Growth performance, nutrient utilisation, starch and protein digestibilities and plasma free amino acids were determined. Dietary CP had a negative linear impact on weight gain where the transition from 230 to 190 g/kg CP increased weight gain by 9.43% (1835 versus 2008 g/bird, P = 0.006). Moreover, dietary CP linearly depressed feed intake (r = -0.486. P < 0.001). Fishmeal inclusions had negative linear impacts on weight gain (r = -0.751, P < 0.001) and feed intake (r = -0.495, P < 0.001). There was an interaction between dietary CP and fishmeal for FCR. However, growth performance was not influenced by dietary inclusions of sorghum. Total plasma amino acid concentrations were negatively related to weight gain (r = -0.519, P < 0.0001). The dietary transition from 0 to 100 g/kg fishmeal increased total amino acid concentrations in systemic plasma by 35% (771 versus 1037 μg/mL, P < 0.001). It may be deduced that optimal weight gain (2157 g/bird), optimal feed intake (3330 g/bird) and minimal FCR (1.544) were found in birds offered 190 g/kg CP diets without fishmeal inclusion, irrespective of sorghum inclusions. Both fishmeal and sorghum inclusions did not alter protein and starch digestion rate in broiler chickens; however, moderate reductions in dietary CP could advantage broiler growth performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (31) ◽  
pp. 62-67
Dimo Penkov ◽  
Svetlana Grigorova ◽  
Alexandar Peltekov ◽  

The including of 15 and 20% bread wastes in the combined fodders for layers of net utilization of energy and protein has been studied. Two new indexes of net utilization have been introduced: Clarc of energy distribution (CED) – the relation between consumed metabolizable energy and accumulated gross energy in the egg mélange and Clarc of protein transformation - the relation between consumed crude protein and accumulated crude protein in the egg mélange. The following results have been established: CED (fodder – egg mélange): Control group – 0.1820; 15% bread wastes – 0.1851; 20% bread wastes – 0.1887; CPT(fodder – egg mélange) - 0.2358; 0.2405 and 0.2460 respectively. The authors establish a tendency for hens that have consumed more bread wastes to show a higher effectiveness for the net protein transformation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 1410-1420
Galahitiya Ralalage Nipuni Nayanathara Waidyarathna ◽  
Sagarika Ekanayake ◽  
Anoma Chandrasekara

Sweet potatoes are one of the major tuberous roots consumed around the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition, glycaemic indices and glycaemic loads of selected Sri Lankan sweet potato varieties, in order to address the inadequacy of information and the controversial findings on glycaemic indices. Nutrient composition (moisture, ash, digestible carbohydrates, dietary fiber, crude protein and fat) of boiled sweet potatoes, GI and glycaemic loads (GL) of nine varieties were determined using standard methods. Digestible carbohydrate content ranged between 29-88% on dry weight. Ash, crude protein and crude fat contents of the varieties ranged between 3.1-5.0%, 3.0-5.9% and 2.6-5.3% on dry weight basis (DW) respectively. The total dietary fiber content was above 9.5% DW in the studied varieties. Moisture content of boiled sweet potato tubers were 72-81% on fresh weight basis and both the GIs (86-119) and GLs (>20) were high. However, the GL reduced to medium or low when considering an actual edible portion for all the varieties except for two varieties. Sweet potatoes are a good source of highly available carbohydrates which elicit high GIs.

F. N. Okpara ◽  
E. O. Nwaichi ◽  
J. O. Akaninwor

Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of Triclisia subcordata Oliv leaf were investigated using standard analytical methods. Results of the proximate analysis showed contents for moisture (79.28±2.32%), ash (1.91±0.21%), crude fibre (1.83±0.13%), lipid (1.81±0.16%), crude protein (8.32±1.20%) and carbohydrate (6.91±0.74%). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of all six metabolites studied but at different concentrations. Saponin and flavonoids > alkaloids > phenol, tannin and cyanogenic glycoside. Tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides and phenol gave 0.01±0.00%, 5.81±0.23%, 2.32±0.13%, 6.01±0.36%, 0.20±0.00% and 0.03±0.00%. Given observed high contents of moisture, flavonoids and saponins, moderate amounts of alkaloids and low contents of lipid, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins and phenols in Triclisia subcordata Oliv leaf, this study rationalises the medicinal use of the plant, and unveils its potential as a source of micronutrients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 91 (5) ◽  
pp. 513-521
Maghsoud Besharati ◽  
Valiollah Palangi ◽  
Akbar Taghizadeh ◽  
Adem Kaya ◽  

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the beneficial effect of monensin, tannic acid and cinnamon essential oil addition on sesame meal degradability by the three-step in vitro method. The effect of experimental additives on the degradability of sesame meal in the rumen, after rumen and in the whole gastrointestinal tract was significant (P<0.05). The in vitro ruminal and intestinal digestibility of sesame meal crude protein with experimental additives was in the range of 76 to 84% and 49 to 60%, respectively. The intestinal degradability of crude protein increased with the addition of cinnamon essential oil (about 10%). Addition of monensin, tannic acid, and cinnamon essential oil significantly increased the degradability of Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) in the rumen, intestines and the whole gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that cinnamon essential oil (125 mg/L) increased the degradability of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ADF and NDF in the rumen, after rumen and the whole digestive tract compared to all treatments (P<0.05). The results showed that addition of tannic acid (100 mg/L) decreased the disappearance of crude protein in the rumen, while it increased crude protein’s disappearance in the after rumen (P<0.05).

Kelsey L Batson ◽  
Alison C Neujahr ◽  
Thomas Burkey ◽  
Samodha C Fernando ◽  
Mike D Tokach ◽  

Abstract Reduction in dietary crude protein and addition of fiber could mitigate the incidence and severity of post-weaning diarrhea, a common gastrointestinal condition in newly weaned pigs. Therefore, 360 weanling pigs, initially 5.0 ± 0.10 kg, were used to evaluate the effects of crude protein (CP) level and fiber source on growth performance and fecal microbial communities. At weaning, pigs were randomly assigned to pens and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of CP (21 or 18%) and fiber source (none, coarse wheat bran, oat hulls, or cellulose). There were 5 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Experimental diets were formulated in two dietary phases from d 0 to 10 and 10 to 24, with a common post-treatment diet fed from 24 to 45. The 21% CP diets contained 1.40% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys in phase 1 and 1.35% SID Lys in phase 2. By using a maximum SID Lys:digestible CP ratio of 6.35%, the 18% CP diets contained 1.25% SID Lys in both phases. Diets containing a fiber source were formulated to the level of insoluble fiber provided by 4% coarse wheat bran, resulting in the addition of 1.85% oat hulls and 1.55% cellulose. No fiber source × CP level interactions (P &gt; 0.05) were observed. Decreasing CP (and subsequently SID lysine) decreased (P = 0.05) ADG and G:F during the experimental period. From d 0 to 45, ADG decreased (P = 0.05) for pigs fed 18% CP diets compared to pigs fed 21% CP. No effect of fiber source was observed for growth performance. Fecal DM on d 17 increased (P &lt; 0.001) for pigs fed 18% CP diets compared to pigs fed 21% CP diets. Pigs fed diets with added cellulose had increased (P &lt; 0.05) fecal dry matter during the experimental period compared to pigs fed no fiber source or wheat bran. Bacterial community structure was investigated by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Analysis indicated a significant difference between CP content at d 24 (P = 0.023) using a Weighted UniFrac distance matrix. Further investigation identified five differential Amplicon Sequence Variants associated with CP content at d 24. In conclusion, reducing crude protein (and subsequently SID Lys) decreased growth performance but increased fecal dry matter content. The source of dietary fiber in nursery diets had no impact on growth performance; but pigs fed added cellulose had increased fecal DM compared with other treatments. Microbial analysis identified differential taxa associated with CP content.

2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (4) ◽  
pp. 434-440
T. K. Ojediran ◽  
E. O. Babatunde ◽  
S. O. Olokun ◽  
O. K. Adigun ◽  
B. B. Ajao ◽  

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