crude protein
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Ayub ◽  
F. Rasool ◽  
N. Khan ◽  
S. N. Qaisrani ◽  
S. Parveen ◽  

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
B. Ahmad ◽  
A. Sharif

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Farid ◽  
N. Khan ◽  
M. Fatima ◽  
F. Rasool ◽  
H. Azmat ◽  

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 214
Daniela S. Poșta ◽  
Isidora Radulov ◽  
Ileana Cocan ◽  
Adina A. Berbecea ◽  
Ersilia Alexa ◽  

In this study, the nutritional potential of some hazelnut varieties from the spontaneous flora of Romania was analyzed as a means to increase the sustainability of the local production. The chemical composition from hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from spontaneous flora was determined in terms of mineral substances, protein, as well as essential and non-essential amino acids. The eight amino acids investigated had the following average values: Arg—0.68 g/100 g, Phe—0.415 g/100 g, Ser—0.277 g/100 g, Glu—0.188 g/100 g, Asp—0.133 g/100 g, Pro—0.038 g/100 g, and Lys—0.031 g/100 g. The average values of metal content were in the ranges: 88.39–146.98 µg·g−1 (Fe); 96.93–123.23 µg·g−1(Zn); 46.68–100.38 µg·g−1 (Cu); 26.00–87.78 µg·g−1 (Mn); 4.87–32.19 µg·g−1 (Ni); 1.87–2.84 µg·g−1 (Cr); and 1.29–1.86 µg·g−1 (Cd). Crude protein content values were in the range 16.33–22.31%. In order to harness this nutritional potential, the variety with superior quality indices was included, in the form of flour, in biscuit-type baked goods that were characterized from nutritional and sensory points of view. The results showed that the content of polyphenols increased with the addition of hazelnut flour, as did the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 222
Sara Jarma Arroyo ◽  
Terry Siebenmorgen ◽  
Han-Seok Seo

A process of removing thinner kernels of rough rice, i.e., thickness fraction process, has been suggested as a method for increasing milling yields in the rice industry. This study aimed at determining whether physicochemical properties, cooking qualities, and sensory characteristics of rice samples could be changed by the addition of a thickness fraction into the rice process stream. Each of four long-grain rice cultivar lots was assigned into two groups: unfractionated and thickness-fractionated. For the thickness-fractionated group, thin rice kernels (<1.9 mm) of rough rice were discarded from unfractionated rice samples. Unfractionated and thickness-fractionated rice samples were compared with respect to physicochemical properties, cooking qualities, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the removal of such thin kernels decreased the breakage and chalkiness rates and increased head rice yields. Fractionated rice samples exhibited lower amylose contents and crude protein contents but higher gelatinization temperatures than unfractionated rice samples. While the optimum cooking duration and width–expansion ratios of thickness-fractionated rice samples were higher than those of unfractionated ones, there was a negligible impact of the thickness fraction process on sensory characteristics of long-grain rice samples. In conclusion, the thickness fraction process affects physicochemical properties and cooking qualities more than the sensory characteristics of rice samples.

L. A. Godoi ◽  
B. C. Silva ◽  
G. A. P. Souza ◽  
B. C. Lage ◽  
D. Zanetti ◽  

Abstract This study aims to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) content of early-weaned calves; and the influence of flint maize processing methods on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities and performance of Nellore heifer calves. Fifteen early-weaned Nellore female calves (4 ± 0.5 months; 108 ± 13.1 kg) were used. In phase 1, animals were fed one of the following diets for 112 days: 130, 145 or 160 g CP/kg dry matter (DM). In phase 2, animals received one of the two diets for 84 days: 0.60 dry ground maize grain, 0.30 whole-plant maize silage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement or 0.90 snaplage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement. In phase 1, intake and digestibility of dietary components were not affected (P > 0.05) by increasing dietary CP content. Daily total urinary nitrogen (N) and urinary urea N increased (P < 0.05) in response to increasing dietary CP content. Animal performance was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary CP content. In phase 2, maize processing methods did not affect (P > 0.05) intake and digestibility of dietary components as well as animal performance, carcase characteristics and carcase composition. Therefore, based on the current experimental condition, we conclude that dietary CP concentrations of 130 g/kg DM can be indicated for early-weaned Nellore calves. However, more studies are recommended to validate this result and to evaluate concentrations below 130 g CP/kg DM for early-weaned Nellore calves. Moreover, snaplage could be used as an exclusive fibre and energy source for finishing cattle in feedlot.

2022 ◽  
Alemu Tarekegn Tiruneh ◽  
Dessalegn Gelaye Amsalu ◽  
Kifetew Kesete Adane

Abstract Background Understanding the relationship between dry matter yield production and forage quality throughout the growing season will help to optimize the cutting intervals between harvests in different Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties. An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of harvest frequency on forage yield and quality of 2 improved cultivars (ILRI-6984 and var. DzF-552) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Western Dembia district over 20 months during 2017 and 2018. Four harvest frequencies (every 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) were compared in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial arrangement with four replications. To assess their production potential plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, fresh biomass yield (t ha−1) and dry matter yield (t ha−1) of the forge and its nutrient content were recorded. The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using the general linear model (GLM) procedure in Statistical Analysis System (SAS) (2003) version 9.1. Results The results revealed that highest forage dry matter yield was recorded for variety ILRI-6984 harvested every 40 days (26.8 t DM ha−1) and for var. DzF-552 when harvested every 60 days (24.1 t DM ha−1) (P<0.001). While crude protein concentration tended to decline as age at harvest increased, there was little consistency in the pattern. Crude protein yields were also inconsistent across treatments but ILRI-6984 harvested every 40 days produced the highest yields (6.5 t ha−1) (P<0.001). Conclusion These preliminary findings need to be confirmed under field conditions on a large scale along with longer-term studies to examine the longevity of the stands at these harvest frequencies. Irregular harvesting based on stage of maturity should be compared with fixed inter-harvest intervals.

Shyam Kumar Thapa ◽  
Joost de Jong ◽  
Anouschka Hof ◽  
Naresh Subedi ◽  
Laxmi Joshi ◽  

Indiscriminate fire is rampant throughout subtropical South and Southeast Asian grasslands. However, very little is known about the role of fire and pyric herbivory on the functioning of highly productive subtropical monsoon grasslands lying within Cwa-climatic region. We collected grass samples from 60 m x 60 m plots and determined vegetation physical and chemical properties at regular 30-day intervals from April to July 2020, starting from 30 days after fire to assess post-fire regrowth forage quality. We counted pellet groups for the same four months from 2 m x 2 m quadrats that were permanently marked with pegs along the diagonal of each 60 m x 60 m plot to estimate grazing intensity to the progression of post-fire regrowth. We observed strong and significant reductions in crude protein (mean value 9.1 to 4.1 [55% decrease]) and phosphorus (mean value 0.2 to 0.11 [45% decrease]) in forage collected during different time intervals i.e., from 30 days to 120 days after fire. Mesofaunal deer utilised the burned areas extensively for a short period, i.e., up to two months after fire when the burned areas contained short grasses with a higher level of crude protein and phosphorus. Grazing intensity of chital (Axis axis) to post-fire regrowth differed significantly over time since fire, with higher intensity of use at 30 days after fire. Grazing intensity of swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii) did not differ significantly until 90 days after fire, however, decreased significantly after 90 days since fire. Large-scale indiscriminate single event fires thus may not fulfil nutritional requirements of all species in mesofaunal deer community in these subtropical monsoon grasslands. We recommend for a spatio-temporal manipulation of fire to reinforce grazing feedback and to yield for the longest possible period a reasonably good food supply for the conservation of mesofaunal deer.

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