small ruminants
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Ruhoollah ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
O. A. Al-Jabr ◽  
T. Khan ◽  
A. Khan ◽  

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.

Faustin Parfait Koutouan ◽  
Yapo Magloire Yapi ◽  
Souleymane Kande ◽  
Eboua Narcisse Wandan

Background: Internal parasitosis is the most important parasitism in small ruminants in tropical region. Synthetic anthelmintics are usually used for their control. Due to the emergence of resistance in worm population, the use of alternative methods such as plants bioactive molecules are developed. This study aimed at assessing anthelmintic activity of nine varieties of Cajanus cajan, a taniferous plant cultivated in West Africa. Methods: Leaves of the nine varieties of Cajanus cajan were dried, ground and hydroacetonic extracts were obtained by cold maceration at a concentration of 60 mg/ml. Live adult of Haemonchus contortus were obtained from sheep’s stomach and exposed, in triplicate, to the following solutions: hydroacetonic extracts (60 mg/ml), hydroacetonic extracts (60 mg/ml) associated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (50 mg/ml), Levamisole (20 mg/ml) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Worm death time was recorded for each treatment. Result: Worms exposed to Levamisole recorded the shortest death time about 9.73±1.77 min. The potent of the extracts induced worm death time of 64.83±4.73 min while the least efficient induced a death time of 156.50±23.20 min. Worms in the PBS solution were still alive after 24 hours of exposure. These results indicated that the four varieties of C. cajan used in this study have promising wormicidal. Besides that, the effect of tannins were not the only compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Mekonnen Haileselassie ◽  
Getachew Redae ◽  
Gebretsadik Berhe ◽  
Carol J. Henry ◽  
Michael T. Nickerson ◽  

Abstract Background Limited studies in Ethiopia showed that infants and young children are at high risk of inadequate intake of energy and nutrients. However, inclusive assessment of both nutrient intakes and their food sources are lacking. We aimed at assessing energy and nutrient intakes and their food sources during religious fasting and non-fasting periods among 6–23 months old children in Northern Ethiopia. Methods Data for this longitudinal study were collected following repeated multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall technique through face-to-face interviews with primary caregivers. Using a two-stage systematic random sampling method, a total of 570 and 551 children participated respectively in the lent fasting and non-fasting periods. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated and compared with WHO daily requirements. All foods that a child consumed on the day preceding the date of data collection were recorded and processed with database software. Chi-square and t- tests were used to analyze the data. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results The overall prevalence of child stunting was 41.4%. Almost all of children (99.6%) consumed grains, roots, and tubers. The inadequacy prevalence of energy, protein and eight selected micronutrients (calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C) intake were 96.2, 44.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Calcium and zinc were the highest (100%) deficits observed across all age groups. Although consumption of animal source foods (ASFs) was very low (dairy 10.1%, meat 2.3% and eggs 23.6%), there was significantly higher consumption of meat and eggs during the non-fasting compared to fasting period (p < 0.001). Conclusions Inadequate intake of energy and nutrients was common among 6–23 months old children. Cereals were found to be the main sources of many of the nutrients. The consumption of ASFs among 6–23-month-old children was low which was also affected by the religious fasting period. Hence, strengthening social and behavior change communication, supporting rural households to raise poultry and small ruminants is recommended.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262390
Faïza Belakehal ◽  
Stefanie A. Barth ◽  
Christian Menge ◽  
Hamdi T. Mossadak ◽  
Naïm Malek ◽  

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium (M.) bovis and M. caprae is a transmissible disease of livestock, notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). BTB particularly affects cattle and small ruminants and can be transmitted to humans thereby posing a significant threat to veterinary and public health worldwide. M. bovis is the principal cause of bTB in Algeria. In order to better understand the route of spreading and elaborate an eradication program, isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from Algerian cattle was performed. Sixty strains belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex were analyzed by spoligotyping, thereof 42 by 19-locus-MIRU-VNTR-typing. Spoligotyping revealed 16 distinguishable patterns (Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index [HGDI] of 0.8294), with types SB0120 (n = 20) and SB0121 (n = 13) being the most frequent patterns, representing 55% of the strains. Analyses based on 19-locus-MIRU-VNTR yielded 32 different profiles, five clusters and one orphan pattern, showing higher discriminatory power (HGDI = 0.9779) than spoligotyping. Seven VNTR-loci [VNTR 577 (alias ETR C), 2163b (QU11b), 2165 (ETR A), 2461 (ETR B), 3007 (MIRU 27), 2163a (QUB11a) and 3232 (QUB 3232)] were the most discriminative loci (HGDI ˃ 0.50). In conclusion, 19-locus-MIRU-VNTR yielded more information than spoligotyping concerning molecular differentiation of strains and better supports the elucidation of transmission routes of M. bovis between Algerian cattle herds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 751
Malizo Ntalo ◽  
Khuliso Emmanuel Ravhuhali ◽  
Bethwell Moyo ◽  
Onke Hawu ◽  
Ntokozo Happy Msiza

Among the possible impacts of plant invaders on South African biodiversity, water supplies, and rangeland production, Lantana camara is ranked the highest in terms of its environmental impact. Globally, L. camara is regarded as one of the most ecologically and economically destructive invasive alien plants. The spread of L. camara affects the environment and threatens livestock productivity due to its toxicity to animals (especial cattle and sheep) in most semi-arid areas of South Africa. Lantana camara is known to have high concentrations of nutrients that are beneficial to livestock, but most previous research has concentrated on its toxicity. To enrich our knowledge on its nutritive value, further research has to evaluate its dietary impact on the growth and health of different ruminant livestock species, particularly goats. This review evaluates L. camara as a potential browse species for goats in southern Africa, and its adverse effects on goats and other ruminant livestock are also presented. The review describes L. camara and its distribution globally, its poisonous effect to livestock, and potential use as an alternative forage to browsing animals such as goats, which have proved resistant to its harmful traits. The high crude protein content, low fibre and adequate macro-minerals for small ruminants makes L. camara a good ruminant protein supplement in semi-arid areas. In addition to other biological control strategies, the prospects of using goats as a biological management tool is discussed. The research will contribute to the understanding of the control measures of L. camara while improving the productivity of small stock, especially goats. This means that a balanced understanding of its nutritional value as a source of protein and its negative impact on the environment should be considered in developing mitigation strategies to arrest its spread. We, therefore, recommend the use of goats in the control of L. camara; however, further studies are needed to limit its toxic effects, and thus improve its value.

2022 ◽  
Waresi Tuersong ◽  
Caixian Zhou ◽  
Simin WU ◽  
Peixi Qin ◽  
Chunqun Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: Ivermectin (IVM) is one of the most important and widely used anthelmintics in veterinary medicine. However, its efficacy is increasingly compromised by widespread resistance, and the exact mechanism of IVM resistance remains unclear for most parasitic nematodes including Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking parasitic nematode of small ruminants.Methods: In this study, we isolated and assessed an IVM resistant strain from Zhaosu, Xinjiang, China. Subsequently, the comparative analyses on transcriptomics of IVM susceptible and resistant H. contortus adult worms were carried out using RNA sequencing and bioinformatics.Results: In total, 543 and 359 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in male and female adult worms of the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain, respectively. The DEGs encode molecules involved in receptor activities, transport, detoxification, lipid metabolism and cuticle collagen formation. In addition, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that transcriptional changes were dominant in genes associated with ligand-gated channel activity, oxidation-reduction process, lipid metabolic process, and structural constituent of cuticle. The results support previous proposal that the IVM resistant mechanism of H. contortus involved in both neuromuscular and non-neuromuscular pathways. Finally, the quantitative RT-PCR results confirmed that the transcriptional profiles of selected DEGs (male: 8 genes, female: 10 genes) were consistent with those obtained by the RNA-Seq.Conclusions: The findings from this work provided valuable information for further studies on the IVM resistance in H. contortus.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Katarzyna Dudek ◽  
Umit Sevimli ◽  
Sergio Migliore ◽  
Amirreza Jafarizadeh ◽  
Guido R. Loria ◽  

Mycoplasmas cause some of the most economically important diseases of sheep and goats, including diseases listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) such as contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious agalactia (CA). Other important mycoplasma diseases include chronic respiratory and arthritic syndrome (CRAS) and atypical pneumonia, both present on all continents where small ruminants are farmed. Unfortunately, owing to a lack of investment, most commercial vaccines for these diseases are of poor quality, being mostly composed of killed bacteriocins of dubious or unknown efficacy. Several Mediterranean laboratories produce autogenous vaccines, but these can only be used on farms where outbreaks have been officially declared, and consequently have limited impact on disease nationally. Effective live vaccines are available, but their use is often restricted because of safety concerns. With the necessary safeguards in place, we argue for their greater use. This review examines reported vaccines for mycoplasma diseases of small ruminants and attempts to identify new candidate antigens that may enable the development of improved products. Vaccines for CCPP are covered elsewhere.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Petra Bandelj ◽  
Polona Juntes ◽  
Gorazd Vengušt ◽  
Diana Žele Vengušt

This study describes two female wapitis (Cervus canadensis) with neurological signs associated with an Elaphostrongylus cervi (E. cervi) infection. The original host of the nematode parasite is the Eurasian red deer (Cervus elaphus), although other cervids and small ruminants may also be affected. The two wapitis imported from Canada were kept in an enclosure with the Slovenian red deer herd. After developing debilitating neurological signs, the wapitis were euthanized and examined for possible causes. A histopathological examination of the brain of the first wapiti revealed severe diffuse perivascular meningoencephalitis with chronic vasculitis, and some cross-sections of nematodes were found in the leptomeninges. A necropsy of the second wapiti revealed severe pachymeningitis and leptomeningitis, where several adult nematode parasites were found. E. cervi was confirmed by molecular methods. The prevalence of E. cervi in the European red deer population is high, but no study has been conducted to assess its prevalence in Slovenia. This was the first confirmation of E. cervi in Slovenia and the first infection with this parasite described in Europe in a wapiti. Elaphostrongylus cervi should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in Europe for all ruminants grazing on pastures frequented by red deer and showing neurological clinical signs.

2022 ◽  
Zahran Khaldi ◽  
Mounir Nafti ◽  
Mohamed Tabarek Jilani

Abstract Characteristics and quality aspects of milk from native ovine queue fine de l’Ouest (QFO) and the local goat population were investigated and compared with those of the local Maghrebi camel. A total of 378 individual milk samples were collected from lactating animals reared in the continental oasis region of Tunisia. Samples were analyzed for physical parameters (pH, density, and acidity), chemical composition (dry matter, fat, protein, lactose, casein, ash, and casein-protein ratio), mineral concentrations (Ca, P, Na, and K) and microbiological features (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliform count (TCC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), sulphite-reducing Clostridium (CSR), yeast and molds (Y/M), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella) according to standard methods. The results obtained for milk characteristics revealed noticeable disparities between the three species. The mean values of pH, density, and acidity in milk collected from sheep appeared higher than those in milk collected from goat species. Compared to the camel populations, sheep species produced milk with similar pH but higher density and acidity. Between camel and goat species, pH and acidity were higher in Negga, while the density was similar. For milk composition, the results showed a remarkable variation among all studied species and an obvious superiority of the ovine species over the caprine and camel populations in all the chemical contents being studied, except for the casein-protein ratio, which is in favor of goat species. The milk of QFO sheep, the richest in casein and protein, was expressed with significantly higher levels of calcium and phosphorus than goat and camel milk. Compared to small ruminants, milk from camels is the richest in Na and K. Additionally, more Ca is present in milk from camels than goats. Goat milk, the poorest type of milk in Ca and Na, contains on average more P than camel milk and more K than sheep's milk. The poor bacteriological quality was that of camel milk for all microbial counts. The microbial quality of goat milk was higher than that of ewe milk based on TMAB, TCC, and E. coli counts, while ovine milk was of better quality, referring to LAB, Y/M, and S. aureus values. No significant differences were found for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli between the examined species. The obtained results highlighted the complete absence of the two dangerous pathogens Salmonella and CSR in all investigated milk samples. The microbiological examination evidenced that the milk of small ruminant species complies with standard criteria required by Tunisian legislation on the hygiene of milk and dairy products. Regarding camel milk, the microbial analysis revealed poor quality that exceeds standard criteria.

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