remote work
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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Denae Ford ◽  
Margaret-Anne Storey ◽  
Thomas Zimmermann ◽  
Christian Bird ◽  
Sonia Jaffe ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the world to its core and has provoked an overnight exodus of developers who normally worked in an office setting to working from home. The magnitude of this shift and the factors that have accompanied this new unplanned work setting go beyond what the software engineering community has previously understood to be remote work. To find out how developers and their productivity were affected, we distributed two surveys (with a combined total of 3,634 responses that answered all required questions) weeks apart to understand the presence and prevalence of the benefits, challenges, and opportunities to improve this special circumstance of remote work. From our thematic qualitative analysis and statistical quantitative analysis, we find that there is a dichotomy of developer experiences influenced by many different factors (that for some are a benefit, while for others a challenge). For example, a benefit for some was being close to family members but for others having family members share their working space and interrupting their focus, was a challenge. Our surveys led to powerful narratives from respondents and revealed the scale at which these experiences exist to provide insights as to how the future of (pandemic) remote work can evolve.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
P. Arunprasad ◽  
Chitra Dey ◽  
Fedwa Jebli ◽  
Arunmozhi Manimuthu ◽  
Zakaria El Hathat

PurposeRemote work (RW) literature is a megatrend in HRM literature, and the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of RW as a concept and an organisational practice. Given the large number of papers being published on remote work, there is a need for a critical review of the extant literature using bibliometric analysis. This paper examines the literature on remote working to identify the factors crucial for managing a remote workforce. This study uses the complex adaptive systems theory as a foundation to build a framework that organisations can use to manage their remote workforce, focusing on three outcomes: employee engagement, collaboration and organisational agility.Design/methodology/approachBibliometric analysis was conducted on the research published in Scopus journal in the area of remote work, followed by critical literature analysis.FindingsThe bibliometric analysis identified five clusters that reflect five organisational factors which the management can align to achieve the desired outcomes of engagement, collaboration and agility: technology orientation, leadership, HRM practices, external processes and organisational culture. The present findings have important implications for managing the remote workforce.Originality/valueThe five factors were mapped to propose a conceptual model on engaging individual employees, fostering team collaboration and building organisational agility while working remotely. We also propose an application model for using technology to achieve the outcomes of engagement, collaboration and agility in the organisation. Practitioners could use this framework to focus on the factors that can create a conducive environment to improve work efficiency in a remote workforce.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Colleen Carraher-Wolverton

Purpose As researchers are being called to examine the evolving technology research issues for COVID-19 and other pandemics, remote work has been accelerated and represents the future of work. Although it is known that one of the top forces shaping the future of work is changing employee expectations, the knowledge of remote work during a pandemic remains scant. Thus, this paper aims to determine the impact of remote worker’s expectations on their level of satisfaction and intention to continue to work remotely. Design/methodology/approach Using one of the prominent theories on expectations, Expectation Disconfirmation Theory (EDT), the authors conduct an online survey of 146 individuals who are currently working remotely. Findings By applying EDT, the findings demonstrate that an individual’s expectations regarding remote work impact their level of satisfaction with remote work and intention to continue to work remotely. Incorporating extant research, the findings extend the research stream to indicate that employees’ expectations about remote work significantly impact both their level of satisfaction and level of productivity. Originality/value The discussion elucidates the significance of understanding employee expectations regarding remote work in the evolving new normal. The findings from the study demonstrate the importance of an individual’s expectations regarding remote work on their level of satisfaction with remote work and intention to continue to work remotely. Thus, this study fills a gap in the literature by applying EDT to the remote work context.

Jun-ichi Yamamoto ◽  
Tomohiro Fukui ◽  
Kazutomo Nishii ◽  
Ichiro Kato ◽  
Quang Thahn Pham

Employee engagement has become a critical issue in Japanese companies. One way to develop it is to improve the relationship among employees through gratitude expressions. In the post-COVID-19 remote work environment, digital devices are essential. This paper confirms that expressions of gratitude delivered via digital devices enhance the relationship between employees. We experimented in a small-town government office where participants (n = 88) were asked to (1) use the Thanks App, an app we developed to express gratitude, for two months and (2) respond to an engagement survey we developed before and after the experimental period. Through cross-analysis of the data from the app and questionnaire, we found that the “trust in colleagues” factor had a strong correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.001) with our new index computed by the app’s data. The results suggest that the use of the Thanks App may help visualize the trust relationship among teams. This study has a practical value in providing a new team management tool for visualizing team trust. In addition, it provides a new research method for emotional and social psychology using digital devices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Chi-Lan Yang ◽  
Naomi Yamashita ◽  
Hideaki Kuzuoka ◽  
Hao-Chuan Wang ◽  
Eureka Foong

Workers tend to make inferences about one another's commitment and dedication to work depending on what cues are available to them, affecting worker relationships and collaboration outcomes. In this work, we investigate how remote work affects workers' perceptions of their colleagues with different levels of social connectivity, commonly referred to as strong ties and weak ties. When working remotely, workers' perceptions of weak ties may suffer due to the lack of in-person interaction. On the other hand, workers' inferences about their strong ties may also be impacted by losing richer communication cues, even though they had more connections with their strong ties than weak ties. This study explores how remote workers make inferences about engagement levels of and willingness to collaborate with weak ties compared to strong ties. We used a mixed-methods approach involving survey data, experience sampling, and in-depth interviews with 20 workers from different companies in Taiwan. Results showed that workers depended on one-on-one synchronous tools to infer the engagement level of strong ties but used group-based communication tools to infer the engagement level of weak ties. Interestingly, the absence of cues in remote workplaces exacerbated prior impressions formed in the physical office. Furthermore, remote work led workers to develop polarized perceptions of their respective ties. We discuss how characteristics of computer-mediated communication tools and interaction types interplay to affect workers' perceptions of remote colleagues and identify design opportunities for helping remote workers maintain awareness of weak ties.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000276422110660
Hiroshi Ono

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted labor markets around the world. Workers and corporations scrambled to adjust their workstyles to a new normal, by avoiding the commute and working remotely from their homes or elsewhere. Japan is a country that stood out for its inability to adjust to the remote work environment. Comparative statistics show that Japan reported the lowest number of people engaged in remote work among the OECD countries, as well as the lowest percentage of corporations that offered remote work policies. In this article, I investigate why telework in Japan is difficult. The lack of telework in Japan may seem paradoxical, given the country’s reputation for being technologically advanced. I argue that it is not the technological infrastructure that is lacking in the Japanese workplace, but distinct features of work embedded in Japanese culture and its collectivist roots that prevent the effective implementation of telework. I rely on recently published data from various sources, and apply key sociological theories such as implicit contracts, gift exchange, dramaturgy, and impression management to substantiate my main arguments. The paper concludes by drawing on implications for the future of work in Japan.

Tatiane Paschoal ◽  
Priscila Maria da Silva ◽  
Gisela Demo ◽  
Natasha Fogaça ◽  
Mario Cesar Ferreira

This study tested the impacts of perceptions of quality of telework life and job crafting on public school teachers’ work well-being. The sample was composed of 184 teachers who answered a questionnaire with scales previously validated in Brazil. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed. Perceptions of quality of telework life and job crafting actions predicted work well-being and contributed to investigating gaps in the organizational and work literature. This study offers a diagnosis of teachers’ experiences during remote work and highlights the relations between those variables in a changing work context transformation, fostered by Covid-19 pandemia.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Zoltán Krajcsák ◽  
Anita Kozák

PurposeThe purpose of this article is to show how remote working affects employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).Design/methodology/approachThe authors conducted research on organizations in the financial sector, as this segment was able to easily adapt to the challenges of remote working and teleworking. They used the case study approach: they analyzed organizational documents and management communications related to crisis management back to March 2020, when the pandemic started in Hungary, and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and subordinates.FindingsThe results highlighted that the dominant organizational culture determines the effects of remote working on OCB. In organizations with a dominant market culture, OCB has changed the least because of the home office, with only a decline in the dimension of civic virtue. In organizations with a dominant clan culture, conscientiousness decreased, while the other three dimensions increased. The dominant hierarchy culture reacted the most unfavorably, excluding the dimension of courtesy, as all dimensions decreased.Originality/valueThe study shows how the pandemic and working in home office have changed the dimensions of OCB in different organizational cultures.

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